Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (7) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Hylocichla mustelina

A medium-sized (8 inches) thrush, the Wood Thrush is most easily identified by its brown back, rusty-red head, and heavily spotted breast. Other field marks include pinkish legs, short tail, and thick, slightly curved bill. Male and female Wood Thrushes are similar to one another in all seasons. The Wood Thrush breeds across the eastern United States and southern Canada from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia south to northern Florida and west to North Dakota. In winter, this species migrates south to southern Mexico and Central America. Like many bird species wintering in the American tropics, the Wood Thrush crosses the Gulf of Mexico twice a year while on migration. Wood Thrushes primarily breed in deciduous forests with a tall canopy and open forest floor. In winter, this species inhabits humid tropical forests. Wood Thrushes mainly eat insects and other invertebrates during the breeding season, but may also eat fruits and berries during the winter. In appropriate habitat, it may be possible to see Wood Thrushes hopping along the forest floor while foraging for insect prey. More often, however, Wood Thrushes are identified by their song, an unmistakable series of flute-like notes repeated with numerous embellishments and alterations. Wood Thrushes are primarily active during the day, but, like many migratory songbirds, this species migrates at night.

Threat Status: Near Threatened

  • Evans, Melissa, Elizabeth Gow, R. R. Roth, M. S. Johnson and T. J. Underwood. 2011. Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/246
  • Hylocichla mustelina. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
  • Peterson, Roger Tory. Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1980. Print.
  • Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
  • eBird Range Map - Wood Thrush. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution

Supplier: DC Birds

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

Hylocichla mustelina is a widespread breeding visitor to the eastern USA and south-eastern Canada, wintering in southern Mexico and Central America, south to Panama.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The breeding range of wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) extends from southern Canada to northern Florida and from the Atlantic coast to the Missouri River and the eastern Great Plains. Wood thrushes spend winters in Mexico and Central America, mostly in the lowlands along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

  • Roth, R., M. Johnson, T. Underwood. 1996. Wood thrush (*Hylochicla mustelina*). Pp. 1-28 in A Poole, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 246. Philadelphia, PA: The Academy of Natural Sciences and Washington, D.C.: The American Ornithologists' Union.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDING: southeastern North Dakota and central Minnesota across the northern U.S. and adjacent southern Canada to Nova Scotia; south to eastern Texas, the Gulf Coast, and northern Florida; and west to eastern South Dakota, central Nebraska, central Kansas, and eastern Oklahoma. Casual breeder to southern Manitoba, southwestern North Dakota, and central South Dakota (AOU 1983). NON-BREEDING: southern Texas south through eastern Mexico and Middle America to Panama and northwestern Colombia (AOU 1983).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Geographic Range

The breeding range of wood thrushes (Hylocichla_mustelina) extends from southern Canada to northern Florida and from the Atlantic coast to the Missouri River and the eastern Great Plains. Wood thrushes spend winters in Mexico and Central America, mostly in the lowlands along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

  • Roth, R., M. Johnson, T. Underwood. 1996. Wood thrush (*Hylochicla mustelina*). Pp. 1-28 in A Poole, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 246. Philadelphia, PA: The Academy of Natural Sciences and Washington, D.C.: The American Ornithologists' Union.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

Breeds e North America; winters s Texas to Panama.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Wood thrushes are small songbirds, 19 to 21 cm long and weighing 40 to 50 g. They are warm cinnamon-brown on the crown and nape, with a slightly duller olive-brown on the back, wings and tail. The breast and belly are white with conspicuous large dark brown spots on the breast, sides and flanks. Wood thrushes have a dull white ring around their eye. Their bill is dark brown, and their legs are pinkish.

Male and female wood thrushes are similar in size and plumage. Juveniles look similar to adults, but have additional spots on their back, neck and wing coverts.

Wood thrushes can be easily confused with other similar-looking thrushes. They are distinguished by the rusty color on their head, and the white, rather than buffy, breast and belly.

Range mass: 40 to 50 g.

Range length: 19 to 21 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Wood thrushes are small songbirds. They are 19 to 21 cm long and weigh 40 to 50 g. They are cinnamon-brown on the top of their head and back of their neck. Their back, wings and tail are olive-brown. Their breast and belly are white with big dark brown spots. They have a dull white ring around their eye, a brown bill, and pink legs.

Male and female wood thrushes look very similar. Young wood thrushes look similar to adults, but they have spots on their back, neck and wings as well.

Range mass: 40 to 50 g.

Range length: 19 to 21 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Length: 20 cm

Weight: 47 grams

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Smaller than American Robin (TURDUS MIGRATORIUS) and plumper than the other brown thrushes (Gray-cheeked Thrush [CATHARUS MINIMUS], Bicknell's Thrush [CATHARUS BICKNELLI], Swainson's Thrush [CATHARUS USTULATUS], Hermit Thrush [CATHARUS GUTTATUS], and Veery [CATHARUS FUSCESCENS]). Distinguished by the deepening redness about the head and the larger, more numerous round spots on the breast. Nest is similar to that of robin but is smaller and invariably has leaves in foundation and rootlets instead of grass in lining. Eggs are smaller and generally more pointed at one end than are robin eggs; also slightly paler than robin eggs (Harrison 1975).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species breeds in the interior and edge of a variety of deciduous and mixed forest communities, preferring those with a moderate shrub/subcanopy layer and fairly open forest floor, shade, moist soil and decaying leaf litter (del Hoyo et al. 2005). On passage, the species frequents secondary growth and forest edge. In its non-breeding range, it occupies the interior understorey of humid to semi-humid broad-leaved evergreen and semi-deciduous forest and mixed palm forest, also occurring in secondary growth, low-stature forest, thickets and plantations. It feeds mainly on soil-dwelling invertebrates, and takes fruit from late summer to early spring. It breeds from early May to late August, with pairs typically raising two broods. It is predominantly monogamous, with rare instances of polygyny. Pairs bonds usually last for a single season. It is a long-distance nocturnal migrant, leaving its breeding areas in mid-August to mid-September and crossing the Gulf of Mexico on a broad front from Texas to Florida, and making landfall from Veracruz, Mexico to Costa Rica (del Hoyo et al. 2005).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The breeding range of wood thrushes is composed of deciduous and mixed forests. They prefer late-successional, upland mesic forests with a moderately-dense shrub layer. Other important elements of wood thrush breeding habitat include trees taller than 16 m, a fairly open forest floor, moist soil, and leaf litter. Bertin (1977) found that wood thrushes favor areas with running water, moist ground and high understory cover. Substrate moisture is more important than canopy cover or access to running water. Wood thrushes can breed in habitat patches as small as 1 acre, but those that breed in larger tracts of forest experience lower predation and lower nest parasitism, leading to higher reproductive success.

Wood thrushes winter primarily in the interior understory of tropical primary forests. However, they may also occur along forest edges and in second growth.

Range elevation: 1325 (high) m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

  • Bertin, R. 1977. Breeding habitats of the wood thrush and veery. The Condor, 79: 303-311.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: BREEDING: deciduous or mixed forests with a dense tree canopy and a fairly well-developed deciduous understory, especially where moist (Bertin 1977, Roth 1987, Roth et al. 1996). Bottomlands and other rich hardwood forests are prime habitats. Also frequents pine forests with a deciduous understory and well-wooded residential areas (Hamel et al. 1982). Thickets and early successional woodland generally do not provide suitable habitat (Bertin 1977). Bertin (1977) found wood thrushes to require one or more trees at least 12 m tall, possibly for song perches, whereas Morse (1971) reported nesting in stands of young white pine with a canopy under 9 m in height. Nests usually are placed in a crotch or are saddled on a branch of a shrub, sapling, or large tree,

NON-BREEDING: In migration and winter, habitats include forest and woodland of various types from humid lowland to arid or humid montane forest, also scrub and thickets; primarily undisturbed to moderately disturbed wet primary forest; may wander into riparian forest and various stages of second growth (Rappole et al. 1989, Winker et al. 1990). Were recorded exclusively in forest in Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica (Hagan and Johnston 1992). Winker et al. (1990) studied within-forest preferences of birds wintering in southern Veracruz and found that areas with gaps were preferred in this lowland rainforest; areas with heavy ground cover were also favored.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wood thrushes live in deciduous and mixed forests. They prefer older forests with shrubs in the understory. They also like to have trees taller than 16 m, moist soil and leaf litter on the ground. Wood thrushes also like areas where there is running water. They can breed in small patches of forest, but large areas of forest keep them safer and allow them to raise more chicks.

Wood thrushes spend the winter in the understory of old tropical forests. However, they may also be found along the edges of forests, and in younger forests.

Range elevation: 1325 (high) m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

  • Bertin, R. 1977. Breeding habitats of the wood thrush and veery. The Condor, 79: 303-311.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Arrives in wintering areas in Middle America in October (Rappole et al. 1989); males first arrive in the southern U.S. in March-April (Terres 1980). Migrates through Costa Rica late September to mid-November and March-April (Stiles and Skutch 1989).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Wood thrushes are omnivorous; they feed preferentially on soil invertebrates and larvae, but will eat fruits in late summer, fall, and late winter. Occasionally they feed on arboreal insects, snails, and small salamanders. During the post-breeding and pre-migration time, wood thrushes switch from insects to fruits with high lipid levels. During the summer, low fruit consumption and lipid reserves require the birds to feed continuously on insects in order to meet their daily metabolic needs.

Wood thrushes feed primarily on the forest floor. They can be observed hopping around in leaf litter and on semi-bare ground under the forest canopy, gleaning insects and probing the soil. They use their bill to turn over leaves to reveal prey. Fruits are swallowed whole.

Animal Foods: amphibians; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; mollusks; terrestrial worms

Plant Foods: fruit

Primary Diet: omnivore

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: Eats insects and other invertebrates (e.g., snails), and small fruits; forages mainly on or near ground, sometimes in tree foliage (Terres 1980).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Food Habits

Wood thrushes are omnivorous. They prefer soil invertebrates and larvae, but they will eat fruits in late summer, fall, and winter. Occasionally they feed on arboreal Insecta, Stylommatophora, and small Caudata. In late summer, wood thrushes begin eating fruits with a lot of fat in them. This helps them to store up energy for their fall migration

Wood thrushes feed mostly on the forest floor. They can be seen hopping around in leaf litter and on the ground under the forest canopy, gleaning insects and probing the soil with their bills. They use their bill to turn over leaves in search of prey.

Animal Foods: amphibians; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; mollusks; terrestrial worms

Plant Foods: fruit

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Wood thrushes affect the populations of the insects and other animals they eat. They may help to disperse the seeds of the fruits they eat. They also provide food for their predators.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eggs and chicks are vulnerable to predation by chipmunks, raccoons, blue jays, American crows, black rat snakes, brown-headed cowbirds, common grackles, southern flying squirrels, gray squirrels, least weasels, white-footed mice, domestic cats, great horned owls and sharp-shinned hawks. Adults are probably taken primarily by hawks and owls.

When predators are nearby, adult wood thrushes become alert and responsive to sounds. When their nests or young are threatened, adults respond with agitated calls and chases, escalating into dives and strikes.

Known Predators:

  • eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)
  • raccoons (Procyon lotor)
  • blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata)
  • American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
  • black rat snakes (Pantherophis obsoletus)
  • brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater)
  • common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula)
  • southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans)
  • eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis)
  • least weasels (Mustela nivalis)
  • white-footed mice
  • domestic cats
  • great horned owls
  • sharp-shinned hawks

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecosystem Roles

Wood thrushes affect the populations of the insects and other animals they eat. They may help to disperse the seeds of the fruits they eat. They also provide food for their predators.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Predation

Eggs and chicks are vulnerable to predation by Tamias striatus, Procyon lotor, Cyanocitta cristata, Corvus brachyrhynchos, Elaphe obsoleta, Molothrus ater, Quiscalus quiscula, Blaucomys volans, Sciurus carolinensis, Mustela rixosa, Peromyscus leucopus, Felis silvestris, Bubo virginianus and Accipiter striatus. Adults are probably taken primarily by Falconiformes and Strigiformes.

When predators are nearby, adult wood thrushes become alert and responsive to sounds. When their nests or young are threatened, adults respond with agitated calls and chases, escalating into dives and strikes.

Known Predators:

  • eastern chipmunks (Tamias_striatus)
  • raccoons (Procyon_lotor)
  • blue jays (Cyanocitta_cristata)
  • American crows (Corvus_brachyrhynchos)
  • black rat snakes (Elaphe_obsoleta)
  • brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus_ater)
  • common grackles (Quiscalus_quiscula)
  • southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys_volans)
  • eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus_carolinensis)
  • least weasels (Mustela_nivalis)
  • Peromyscus leucopus
  • Felis silvestris
  • Bubo virginianus
  • Accipiter striatus

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Known prey organisms

Hylocichla mustelina (wood thrush) preys on:
Diptera
Auchenorrhyncha
Sternorrhyncha
Lepidoptera
Coleoptera
Hymenoptera

Based on studies in:
USA: Illinois (Forest)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • A. C. Twomey, The bird population of an elm-maple forest with special reference to aspection, territorialism, and coactions, Ecol. Monogr. 15(2):175-205, from p. 202 (1945).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Comments: Many occurrences.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Abundance

10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Certainly far more than 10,000 individuals.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

POPULATION DENSITY: Published information on densities from breeding bird censuses in the southeastern U.S. between 1947 and 1979 were summarized by Hamel et al (1982): mean (standard error) density is listed as 14.2 (1.0) pairs per 40 ha with a density range of 1-41 pairs per 40 ha. In bottomland hardwood forests along the Roanoke River in eastern North Carolina, R. Sallabanks (unpubl. data) found thrushes to be most abundant in wide patches of levee forest where an average 1.14 singing males were detected per unlimited radius 10-min point count. Holmes and Sherry (1988) reported a mean (standard error) abundance in Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, of 4.64 (2.83) adult birds per 10 ha over the period 1969-1986 over which time the population showed a highly significant decline at Hubbard Brook (a similar pattern to that reflected for the state of New Hampshire population by BBS data). Whitcomb et al.(1981) found 125 males per sq km in an area in Maryland.

TERRITORIES: Freemark and Merriam (1986) listed the territory size as less than 2 ha. In wintering areas in southern Veracruz, some individuals were territorial and highly sedentary, often remained within 150 m of capture point for entire winter; other birds wandered (Rappole et al. 1989, Winker et al. 1990). Some birds return to same wintering areas in successive years (Rappole et al. 1989).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Wood thrushes communicate using song and physical displays. Male wood thrushes sing a very unique song that ends in a trill. They are able to sing two notes at once, giving their songs an ethereal, flute-like quality. Female wood-thrushes are not known to sing. Wood thrushes also use calls, such as "bup, bup" or "tut, tut" to signal agitation.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Communication and Perception

Wood thrushes communicate using song and body signals. Male wood thrushes sing a very unique song that sounds like a flute and ends in a trill. Female wood-thrushes do not sing. Wood thrushes also use calls, such as "bup, bup" or "tut, tut" to signal that they are agitated.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

The oldest known wood thrush lived to be at least 8 years and 11 months old. Annual adult survival rates are estimated to be 70% for males and 75% for females.

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
8.9 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
107 months.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Lifespan/Longevity

The oldest known wood thrush lived to be at least 8 years and 11 months old. Most wood thrushes do not live to be that old.

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
8.9 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
107 months.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 8.9 years (wild)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Wood thrushes are monogamous. Breeding pairs form in mid-April and early-May, and usually last for the duration of the breeding season (through several nesting attempts or two complete broods). Most wood thrushes find a new mate each year. Mate guarding and extra-pair copulation have not been documented in this species.

Mating System: monogamous

Male wood thrushes begin to sing at dawn and dusk a few days after their arrival at breeding grounds. Some males arrive on the breeding grounds several days before the earliest females to establish territories, while other males arrive at the same time as the females. Behaviors such as circular flights led by the female interspersed with perching together are characteristic of wood thrush pair formation and/or pre-copulatory behaviors.

The female typically chooses the nest site and constructs the nest. The nest is located in a tree or shrub, and is constructed of dead grasses, stems or leaves, and lined with mud. The female lays 2 to 4 eggs (usually 4 for first clutch, 3 for later clutches) at a rate of one per day. The eggs are incubated for 11 to 14 days (average 13 days) by the female only. The chicks are altricial at hatching; they are mostly naked with closed eyes. The female broods the chicks during the first four days after hatching. Both parents feed the nestlings and remove fecal sacs from the nest. The chicks fledge from the nest 12 to 15 days after hatching. The parents continue to feed them until they become independent and leave the parents' territory at 21 to 31 days old. These chicks will be able to begin breeding the next summer.

The majority of females lay their first eggs in mid-May, with older females laying sooner. Most pairs attempt to rear a second brood usually no later than late July, with the last young fledging around mid-August.

Breeding interval: Wood thrushes breed once per year. They may raise one or two broods per breading season.

Breeding season: Wood thrushes breed between April and August.

Range eggs per season: 2 to 8.

Range time to hatching: 11 to 14 days.

Average time to hatching: 13 days.

Range fledging age: 12 to 15 days.

Range time to independence: 21 to 31 days.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 to 1 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 to 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

Average eggs per season: 3.

The female usually chooses the nest site and builds the nest. The female also incubates the eggs and broods the chicks for the first four days after hatching. Both parents feed the chicks and remove fecal sacs from the nest.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Male); pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female)

  • Roth, R., M. Johnson, T. Underwood. 1996. Wood thrush (*Hylochicla mustelina*). Pp. 1-28 in A Poole, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 246. Philadelphia, PA: The Academy of Natural Sciences and Washington, D.C.: The American Ornithologists' Union.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Nesting occurs in late spring and early summer. In Delaware, nesting peaks occurred in the last week of May and in the second week of July (Longcore and Jones 1969). Nest site selection and building is by the female alone; complete in about five days. No evidence birds ever use nest a second time. Clutch size is 2-5 (usually 3-4). Individual females typically produce two broods per year. Incubation, by female, lasts 12-14 days. Male usually guards nest when female absent. Young are tended by both parents, leave nest at 12-13 days. Pair remains together for second nesting (Harrison 1975). There is some evidence of occasional polygyny (Johnson et al. 1991).

In Delaware, of 142 "nesting attempts," 38% were successful and 58% of nests were destroyed by predators. The greatest nest success was associated with late season nests, spicebush and black gum vegetation, and with lower nest height (below 8.5 ft); 33% of eggs hatched, and 65% of hatched birds survived to leave the nest (Longcore and Jones 1969). In Maryland, Whitcomb et al. (1981) reported that thrushes produced two broods per year and had a reproductive success of 7.60. In Pennsylvania, nesting failure was caused by predation more than 95% of the time (Hoover 1992); 78% of nest depredation was attributed to small mammal/snake/avian nest predators and 22% to large mammal nest predators. Much work on reproductive success in wood thrushes has also been done by Hoover (1992) in relation to forest fragmentation.

Long-term population dynamics in a 15-ha woodlot were studied in Delaware by Roth and Johnson (1993). A sustained episode of reduced production per female and of an increased percentage of adults failing to produce any young coincided with a 4% annual decline in abundance between 1978 and 1987. When failure rate later dropped, return rate and abundance subsequently increased. Roth and Johnson (1993) concluded that a period of elevated, predation-caused failure prompted greater emigration by an ever-younger, less-site-faithful population.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wood thrushes are monogamous (one male mates with one female). Breeding pairs form in mid-April and early-May. They usually stay together for most of the summer, and often raise two broods together. Most wood thrushes find a new mate each year.

Mating System: monogamous

Male wood thrushes begin arriving in the spring a few days before the females. A few days after arriving, they set up territories and begin to sing to attract a mate. Once breeding pairs have formed, they begin searching for a nest site.

The female usually chooses the nest site and builds the nest. The nest is located in a tree or shrub, and is built of dead grasses, stems or leaves, and lined with mud. The female lays 2 to 4 eggs, and incubates them for about 13 days. When the chicks hatch, they are naked and helpless. The female broods the chicks for the first four days or so to keep them warm and protect them. Both parents feed the nestlings and remove their fecal sacs from the nest. The chicks leave the nest (called fledging) when they are 12 to 15 days old. The parents continue to feed them until they are about 21 to 31 days old.

Most breeding pairs try to raise two broods in one season. The first eggs are laid in mid-May, and the second clutch of eggs are laid in July. Wood thrushes begin breeding when they are about one year old.

Breeding interval: Wood thrushes breed once per year. They may raise one or two broods per breading season.

Breeding season: Wood thrushes breed between April and August.

Range eggs per season: 2 to 8.

Range time to hatching: 11 to 14 days.

Average time to hatching: 13 days.

Range fledging age: 12 to 15 days.

Range time to independence: 21 to 31 days.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 to 1 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 to 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)

Average eggs per season: 3.

The female usually chooses the nest site and builds the nest. The female also incubates the eggs and broods the chicks for the first four days after hatching. Both parents feed the chicks and remove fecal sacs from the nest.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Male); pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female)

  • Roth, R., M. Johnson, T. Underwood. 1996. Wood thrush (*Hylochicla mustelina*). Pp. 1-28 in A Poole, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 246. Philadelphia, PA: The Academy of Natural Sciences and Washington, D.C.: The American Ornithologists' Union.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Hylocichla mustelina

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNACTGCCCTGAGCCTCCTAATCCGAGCAGAACTAGGCCAGCCAGGCGCCTTACTAGGAGACGACCAAATTTACAATGTAGTNGTTACTGCCCATGCATTCGTAATAATTTTCTTCATAGTTATACCAATCATAATCGGGGGGTTTGGAAACTGATTAGTCCCCCTGATAATTGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCCCGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTTTGACTTCTCCCCCCATCTTTTCTCCTCCTCCTAGCTTCATCCACAGTAGAAGCAGGAGCAGGGACAGGCTGAACCGTTTATCCTCCCCTAGCCGGCAACTTAGCACATGCAGGGGCTTCAGTAGACCTAGCTATCTTCTCCCTACACCTAGCTGGTATCTCCTCAATCCTAGGGGCTATCAACTTTATCACCACAGCAATCAACATAAAACCACCTGCCCTCTCACAATACCAAACCCCTCTATTCGTTTGATCTGTACTAATCACCGCAGTACTACTTCTCCTATCCCTCCCCGTACTTGCTGCAGGAATTACCATGCTCCTTACCGACCGCAACCTAAACACCACCTTCTTCGACCCAGCAGGAGGAGGAGACCCAGTACTATACCAACACCTCTTCTGATTTTTCGGCCACCCCGAAGTGTACATCCTCATCCTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hylocichla mustelina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S.

Contributor/s
Cheskey, T.

Justification
This species has been uplisted to Near Threatened on the basis of evidence that it has undergone a moderately rapid population decline over the past three generations.

History
  • 2012
    Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5