There are two distinct populations of the Green Jay. The first is found north of the Rio Grande river in southern Texas to north central Honduras. The second population stretches from Colombia and Venezuela south through eastern Ecuador and Peru to Bolivia.
Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )
occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: RESIDENT: from Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, and southern Texas south to Honduras, also in South America (mountains and foothills of northern Venezuela east to Sucre) and Andes of western Venezuela, Colombia, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, and northwestern Bolivia (La Paz and Cochabamba); Perija Mountains on Venezuela-Colombia border (Ridgely and Tudor 1989).
The Green Jay is a long-tailed bird with a short crest. It is similar in size to a Blue Jay. Its wings, however, are shorter and more rounded. The Texas Green Jay has stiff, short deep blue nasal and frontal plumes. Its forehead, crown, and nape are white to bluish white. The feathers of the mantle, back, rump, and uppertail-coverts are deep green and sometimes tinged with blue. The breast and remaining underparts are yellow to yellow-green. Individuals from South America are a little larger and with longer nasal and frontal plumes that form a bushy crest.
Length: 27 cm
Weight: 100 grams
Habitat and Ecology
The Texas Green Jay prefers open woodland, dense secondary growth, and bushy thickets dominated by mesquite. This jay is also found in citrus groves. Middle American populations prefer humid forests, rain forests, lowlands, plantations, and mountains. In South America the Green Jay is found in humid montane forest and forest borders, clearings, and secondary woodland.
Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest
Comments: Humid forest, forest edge, dense second growth, evergreen dry subtropical forest, clearings, plantations, pine-oak association, and less commonly, open situations with scattered trees. Visits towns, ranches, and open country in winter. Tolerates good deal of habitat disturbance (Ridgely and Tudor 1989). BREEDING: Nests in well-hidden site in thicker shrubs and trees, often low, usually at 1.5-4.5 m.
Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Green jays are omnivorous. Their basic diet consists of arthropods, vertebrates, seeds, and fruit. The bird forages in family flocks by examining new surroundings after hopping or short flights. When foraging, the bird moves from the lower portion of a tree in a spiral fashion up to the branches. The jay ocassionally hovers to inspect slender branches and clumps of moss. When foraging on the ground as an individual, it turns over dry leaves and twigs by sweeping its bill from side to side.
Comments: Eats insects and spiders, seeds, grains, and fruits (Terres 1980).
Yearlings provide significant amount of territorial defense of their parents' nesting territory. In Texas, group size 6-9 (mostly family members); territory size 14-19 ha (Gayou 1986). Groups of 3-9 on permanent territories in Colombia (Hilty and Brown 1986).
Life History and Behavior
Status: wild: 139 months.
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
The Green Jay practices monogamy, and pairs may form at any time during the year through the replacentment of an absent breeder. During the breeding season, a breeding pair rarely parts. Nests are usually in dense thickets, and trees and bushy shrubs are common nesting sites. Both the male and the female participate equally in choosing the nest site and building the nest. In Colombia, other members of a flock have occassionally been seen to participate in constructing the nest. The nest is cupped and its thin walls enable the eggs inside to be seen from below. Green Jay nests are constructed of thorny twigs and sticks and lined with roots, stems, moss, or dry leaves. Average clutch size is four grayish-white oval eggs. Incubation is performed only by the female and lasts 17 days. In Texas populations, the female is fed by the male at least six times a day. In South American populations, the female is fed by her mate; however, during the last three days of incubation she is fed by other flock members. After the chicks have hatched, the male continues to bring food to the nest for five days, then both parents share equally in bringing food to the chicks. Once the chicksd leave the nest, the female continues to feed them for three weeks. In Columbian flocks, all members cooperate in bringing food to the young and continue feeding the chicks for at least 20 days after they leave the nest.
Average eggs per season: 4.
Eggs laid April-May in north (Texas). Clutch size 3-5 (commonly 4). Incubation 15-17 days, by female. Young tended by both parents, leave nest at 19 days; stay in family flock for 1 year, until young of following year fledge (Gayou 1986). Each flock has a breeding pair and helpers (Hilty and Brown 1986).
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Cyanocorax yncas
There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank. Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species. See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cyanocorax yncas
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
The Green Jay holds no special status, but populations are limited by the amount of breeding habitat available. The bird is also vulnerable to traps set for other animals. The effects of trapping can be can be reduced by closing the traps at dusk or checking them at frequent intervals.
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
29.5–34.3 cm (11.7–13.6 in). The crown can appear mostly white, with blue limited to the frontal crest and nape. A black bib forms a thick band up to the sides of the head as well as a stripe through the eye line and one above it. The breast and underparts typically are bright yellow. The upper parts are rich green. It has large nasal bristles that form a distinct tuft in some subspecies, but are less developed in others. The color of the iris is bright yellow.
Green Jays usually build a nest in a tree or in a thorny bush or thicket, and the female lays three to five eggs. Only the female incubates, but both parents take care of the young. In Colombia, Inca Jays are recorded as retaining offspring for several years, and those young help the parents raise more chicks. In Venezuela, they have been observed being victims of nest parasitism by Giant Cowbirds.
Their basic diet consists of arthropods, vertebrates, seeds, and fruit.
As with most of the typical jays, this species has a very extensive voice repertoire. The bird's most common call makes a rassh-rassh-rassh sound, but many other unusual notes also occur. One of the most distinctive calls sounds like an alarm bell.
Distribution and habitat
- BirdLife International (2012). "Cyanocorax yncas". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Ridgely, R. S.; & Greenfield, P. J. (2001). The Birds of Ecuador – Field Guide. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8721-8
- Hilty, S. L. (2003). Birds of Venezuela. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02131-7
- Green Jay, Life History, All About Birds – Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Allaboutbirds.org. Retrieved on 2013-03-30.
Names and Taxonomy
Comments: Distinctive Middle American group sometimes has been treated as a species, C. LUXUOSUS, separate from South American C. YNCUS. Sometimes treated in genus XANTHOURA.