Depth range based on 19 specimens in 20 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 200
  Temperature range (°C): -1.178 - 5.196
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.756 - 22.800
  Salinity (PPS): 28.209 - 34.788
  Oxygen (ml/l): 7.302 - 8.703
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.211 - 1.246
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.514 - 21.227

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 200

Temperature range (°C): -1.178 - 5.196

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.756 - 22.800

Salinity (PPS): 28.209 - 34.788

Oxygen (ml/l): 7.302 - 8.703

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.211 - 1.246

Silicate (umol/l): 2.514 - 21.227
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.


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Known predators

Pinnularia (Pinnularia sp. (large)) is prey of:
Lumbriculidae blue
Aphrophila noevaezelandiae
Austrosimulium australense
Coloburiscus humeralis
Helicopsyche albescens
Hudsonema amabilis
Oligochaeta I
Oligochaeta II
Olinga feredayii
Philorheithrus agilis
Potamopyrgus antipodarum
Austroperla cyrene
Hudsonema aliena
Hydora nitida
Oligochaeta type weak-long-short
Pycnocentrodes evecta
Austroclima jollyae
Cricotopus II
Oxyethira albiceps
Paranephrops zealandicus
Potamopurgus antipodarum
Chironomid type Polyped
Nesameletus ornatus
Baraeoptera roria
Zephlebia spectabilis
Tanytarsini II
Austraclima jollyae
Tanytarsini I
Olinga feredayi

Based on studies in:
New Zealand: Otago, Akatore, Akatore catchment (River)
New Zealand: Otago, Blackrock, Lee catchment (River)
New Zealand: Otago, Broad, Lee catchment (River)
New Zealand: South Island, Canton Creek, Taieri River, Lee catchment (River)
New Zealand: Otago, Dempster's Stream, Taieri River, 3 O'Clock catchment (River)
New Zealand: Otago, Healy Stream, Taieri River, Kye Burn catchment (River)
New Zealand: Otago, Kye Burn (River)
New Zealand: Otago, Little Kye, Kye Burn catchment (River)
New Zealand: Otago, Stony, Sutton catchment (River)
New Zealand: Otago, Sutton Stream, Taieri River, Sutton catchment (River)
New Zealand: Otago, German, Kye Burn catchment (River)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Thompson, RM and Townsend CR. 2005. Energy availability, spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem size predict food-web structure in streams. OIKOS 108: 137-148.
  • Thompson, RM and Townsend, CR. 1999. The effect of seasonal variation on the community structure and food-web attributes of two streams: implications for food-web science. Oikos 87: 75-88.
  • Townsend, CR, Thompson, RM, McIntosh, AR, Kilroy, C, Edwards, ED, Scarsbrook, MR. 1998. Disturbance, resource supply and food-web architecture in streams. Ecology Letters 1:200-209.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:315
Specimens with Sequences:498
Specimens with Barcodes:0
Species With Barcodes:34
Public Records:17
Public Species:13
Public BINs:0
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)


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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)


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Pinnularia is a fresh water alga more specifically a type of Bacillariophyta (diatom).


Pinnularia is a predominantly fresh-water alga, usually found in ponds and moist soil. They can also be found in springs, estuaries, sediments, and oceans. Members of this genus are most commonly found in 40cm (1¼ ft) of water, at 5°C (40 °F).

External structure[edit]

Pinnularia are elongated elliptical unicellular organisms. Their cell walls are composed chiefly of pectic substances on a rigid silica framework. Their walls are composed of two halves called thecae (or less formally, valves.) These halves overlap like a petri dish and its cover. The margins of the two thecae are covered by a connecting band called a cingulum and all together are referred to as a frustule. the surface view is called valve view and band view is called girdle view. The outer larger valve is called Epitheca and the smaller inner valve is called hypotheca. The cell is covered by a mucilaginous layer.

Internal structure[edit]

The cytoplasm is arranged approximately in layers conforming to the shape of the cell's walls. A large central vacuole is present with the nucleus suspended in its centre by a transverse cytoplasmic bridge. Two chloroplasts are present along the sides of the cells, and contain chlorophyll a, c, beta-carotene and fucoxanthin pigments. One or two pyrenoids are usually present in each chloroplast, although like many heterokont algae Pinularia tend to store their energy as fat. The cytoplasm also contains chrysolaminarin and some volutin.


Pinnularia Teilung.jpg
For more details on this topic, see Diatom § Life-cycle.

Pinnularia like most diatoms, can reproduce by simple cell division. Nuclear division occurs by mitosis and cell divides into two parts. Each daughter receives one of the parent cell's thecae, which becomes that cell's epitheca. The cell then synthesizes a new hypotheca. Thus one daughter is the same size as the parent, and one is slightly smaller. With subsequent generations the average cell size of a Pinnularia population gradually becomes smaller. When a minimum average size is reached auxospore formation occurs and sexual reproduction restores the population's average cell size.


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