larva of Perilitus coccinellae is endoparasitoid of adult of Harmonia quadripunctata
Animal / parasitoid / endoparasitoid
larva of Phalacrotophora berolinensis is endoparasitoid of pupa (newly formed) of Harmonia quadripunctata
Harmonia quadripunctata can reach a length of 5.5–6 millimetres (0.22–0.24 in). The colouration is very variable. Usually they are colored bright red or yellow and have eight black dots on the elytra, with basal and lateral pale stripes. Some individuals with greatly expanded dark patches appear almost completely black. Multiple spots on the body (also 16–18) are common, while the drawings on the pronotum are less variable.
On the pronotum they usually have 11 black spots on a light background, with four larger black spots in the middle. This species is quite similar to H. axyridis, but in H. quadripunctata the small distinct humps before elytral apex and the M-like black painting on the pronotum, common in the reddish coloured specimen, are absent.
The four-spot ladybird is a predator of various species of aphids such as Lachnus pinicola. The period of activity extend from March to October. These beetles over-winter in communities under the bark of various deciduous and coniferous trees such as pines and poplars.
Distribution and habitat
Harmonia quadripunctata is widespread from northern to southern Europe. In the British Isles the four-spot ladybird is found only sporadically. The species is also present in the Eastern Palaearctic ecozone and in the Near East. These ladybirds live in pine forests from the lowlands to the hills.
- Harmonia quadripunctata var. sordida Weise, 1879
- Harmonia quadripunctata var. nebulosa Weise, 1879
- Harmonia quadripunctata var. abieticola Weise, 1885
- Harmonia quadripunctata var. pinastri Weise, 1879
- Harmonia quadripunctata var. rustica Weise, 1879
- Harmonia quadripunctata var. multimaculata Heyden
- Harmonia quadripunctata var. sedecimpunctata (Fabricius, 1781)
Variability of Harmonia quadripunctata
Harmonia quadripunctata – reddish form
Harmonia quadripunctata – yellowish form
Larva of Harmonia quadripunctata
Pupa of Harmonia quadripunctata
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