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Overview

Brief Summary

During low tide, you can find this remarkable sponge on jetties and under stones. It usually looks like a thick bready crust with 'volcano' chimneys. Those are the excreting pores. The breadcrumb sponge has a strange smell, similar to exploded gunpowder. In reality, it is a material produced by the sponge itself to keep others from munching on it. Breadcrumb sponge reproduces both sexually and asexually. It releases eggs and sperm into the water, which fuse into larvae and eventually establish themselves as new sponges. Asexually, the sponge pinches off a piece of itself which attaches elsewhere and continues growing as a new sponge. A natural way of cloning.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

 The morphology of Halichondria panicea can be highly variable (see General biology). Most commonly found on the open coast, it can form a low crust with 'volcano' like exhalent openings (osculae). In wave sheltered areas, the species may grow to a massive form up to 20 cm thick, and in tidal rapids or sounds may be several metres across. Vethaak et al. (1982) recorded a specimen that measured ca 60 cm across and 25 cm high in the Oostershelde, although most specimens are rarely this big. Colonies are sometimes composed of connecting (anastomose) lobes or digits. On the shore and in shallow depths, it may be green due to the presence of algal symbionts in the tissue. In the shade and deeper water or in winter it is cream-yellow in colour. Halichondria panicea smells strongly of seaweed.Halichondria panicea occurs on kelp stipes where it may dominate in tidal rapids and on other algae such as Halidrys siliquosa (sea oak). In low or variable salinity (for instance, in the western Baltic), it may be found encrusting predominantly on red algae such as Phyllophora sp. and Phycodrys sp. (Barthel, 1988). Halichondria panicea was found growing on tunicates (especially the invasive Leathery sea squirt Styela clava) and molluscs in the Oosterschelde (Vethaak et al., 1982).
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Description

The form of this sponge can be very polymorphic, varying from thin sheets, massive forms and cushions to branching-repent forms. Prone to give off stout branching processes which develop into oscular chimneys. The colour is also variable, green in well-lit sites owing to the presence of algae and cream-yellow in more shaded sites. The surface of the sponge is usually smooth, often with a slightly glassy appearance. This species can be difficult to identify in the field, however it does have a characteristic smell when fresh, once recognised this is a reliable character to use for field identification.
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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A common species on all coasts of the British Isles.
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Physical Description

Type Information

Syntype for Halichondria coralloides Bowerbank, 1882
Catalog Number: USNM 5122
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Collector(s): W. Robertson
Locality: Firth Of Forth, Scotland, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1882. Ray Society. 4: 104-105, pl.7, f.1-3.
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Syntype for Halichondria coralloides Bowerbank, 1882
Catalog Number: USNM 5123
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Collector(s): W. Robertson
Locality: Firth Of Forth, Scotland, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1882. Ray Society. 4: 104-105, pl.7, f.1-3.
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Holotype for Halichondria incerta Bowerbank, 1874
Catalog Number: USNM 5106
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Collector(s): A. Norman
Locality: Channel Islands, Guernsey Island, Saints Bay, England, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Holotype: Bowerbank. 1874. Ray Society. 3: 314-315, pl.89, f.3-4.
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Syntype for Hymeniacidon membrana Bowerbank, 1866
Catalog Number: USNM 5059
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Locality: Shetland Islands, Lerwick, Scotland, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1866. Ray Society. 2: 165-166, pl.32, f.11-12.
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Syntype for Isodictya crassa Bowerbank, 1882
Catalog Number: USNM 5183
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Locality: Westport Bay, County Mayo, Ireland, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1882. Ray Society. 4: 126-128, pl.8, f.4-6.
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Syntype for Hymeniacidon fallaciosus Bowerbank, 1866
Catalog Number: USNM 5067
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Year Collected: 1874
Locality: Westport Bay, County Mayo, Ireland, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1866. Ray Society. 2: 160-161, pl.31, f.4-5.
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Syntype for Halichondria edusa Bowerbank, 1874
Catalog Number: USNM 5263
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Locality: Channel Islands, Jersey Island, England, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1874. Ray Society. 3: 201-202, pl.73, f.6-9.
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Syntype for Halichondria edusa Bowerbank, 1874
Catalog Number: USNM 5113
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Locality: Channel Islands, Jersey Island, England, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1874. Ray Society. 3: 201-202, pl.73, f.6-9.
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Syntype for Isodictya crassa Bowerbank, 1882
Catalog Number: USNM 5182
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Locality: Westport Bay, Inishglora Island, County Mayo, Ireland, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1882. Ray Society. 4: 126-128, pl.8, f.4-6.
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Syntype for Halichondria ambigua Bowerbank, 1874
Catalog Number: USNM 5114
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Collector(s): Dodds
Locality: Channel Islands, Jersey Island, England, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1874. Ray Society. 3: 213-215, pl.74, f.14-15.
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Syntype for Isodictya perplexa Bowerbank, 1882
Catalog Number: USNM 5175
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Locality: Westport Bay, County Mayo, Ireland, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
Depth (m): 9 to 11
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1882. Ray Society. 4: 123-125, pl.9, f.4-6.
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Syntype for Isodictya perplexa Bowerbank, 1882
Catalog Number: USNM 5176
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Locality: Westport Bay, County Mayo, Ireland, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
Depth (m): 9 to 9
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1882. Ray Society. 4: 123-125, pl.9, f.4-6.
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Syntype for Hymeniacidon fallaciosus Bowerbank, 1866
Catalog Number: USNM 5066
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Year Collected: 1864
Locality: Dunstanborough, 3 Mile Off Of, County Northumberland, England, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1866. Ray Society. 2: 160-161, pl.31, f.4-5.
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Syntype for Hymeniacidon fallaciosus Bowerbank, 1866
Catalog Number: USNM 5068
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Year Collected: 1864
Locality: Dunstanborough, County Northumberland, England, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1866. Ray Society. 2: 160-161, pl.31, f.4-5.
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Syntype for Hymeniacidon tegeticula Bowerbank, 1874
Catalog Number: USNM 5069
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Locality: Channel Islands, Jersey Island, England, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1874. Ray Society. 3: 216-217, pl.74, f.16-17.
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Syntype for Microciona tumulosa Bowerbank, 1882
Catalog Number: USNM 5046
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Year Collected: 1894
Locality: Westport Bay, County Mayo, Ireland, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1882. Ray Society. 4: 50-52, pl.12, f.1-4.; Bowerbank. 1882. Ray Society. 4: 50-52, pl.2,f.1-4.
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Holotype for Hymeniacidon reticulatus Bowerbank, 1866
Catalog Number: USNM 5115
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Locality: Channel Islands, Jersey Island, England, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Holotype: Bowerbank. 1866. Ray Society. 2: 159-160, pl.31, f.1-3.
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Holotype for Hymeniacidon fragilis Bowerbank, 1866
Catalog Number: USNM 5064
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Collector(s): Bowerbank
Locality: English Channel, Dart River, Mouth Of River, County Devon, England, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
Depth (m): 97 to 97
  • Holotype: Bowerbank. 1866. Ray Society. 2: 159-160, pl.30, f.10-12.
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Syntype for Hymeniacidon membrana Bowerbank, 1866
Catalog Number: USNM 5060
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Locality: Shetland Islands, Lerwick, Scotland, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1866. Ray Society. 2: 165-166, pl.32, f.11-12.
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Syntype for Hymeniacidon firmus Bowerbank, 1874
Catalog Number: USNM 5062
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Locality: Channel Islands, Jersey Island, England, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
Depth (m): 97 to 97
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1874. Ray Society. 3: 186-187, pl.72, f.1-2.
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Syntype for Hymeniacidon tegeticula Bowerbank, 1874
Catalog Number: USNM 5070
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Locality: Channel Islands, Jersey Island, England, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1874. Ray Society. 3: 216-217, pl.74, f.16-17.
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Syntype for Halichondria ambigua Bowerbank, 1874
Catalog Number: USNM 5116
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Collector(s): Dodds
Locality: Channel Islands, Jersey Island, England, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1874. Ray Society. 3: 213-215, pl.74, f.14-15.
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Syntype for Hymeniacidon firmus Bowerbank, 1874
Catalog Number: USNM 5061
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Locality: Channel Islands, Jersey Island, England, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1874. Ray Society. 3: 186-187, pl.72, f.1-2.
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Syntype for Halichondria ambigua Bowerbank, 1874
Catalog Number: USNM 5117
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Year Collected: 1874
Locality: Along West Coast, Ireland, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1874. Ray Society. 3: 213-215, pl.74, f.14-15.
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Syntype for Microciona tumulosa Bowerbank, 1882
Catalog Number: USNM 5045
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Locality: Westport Bay, County Mayo, Ireland, United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1882. Ray Society. 4: 50-52, pl.12, f.1-4.; Bowerbank. 1882. Ray Society. 4: 50-52, pl.2,f.1-4.
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 442 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 141 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -3 - 430
  Temperature range (°C): -1.235 - 24.323
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.584 - 33.136
  Salinity (PPS): 25.879 - 36.186
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.196 - 8.193
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.051 - 2.465
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 105.806

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -3 - 430

Temperature range (°C): -1.235 - 24.323

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.584 - 33.136

Salinity (PPS): 25.879 - 36.186

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.196 - 8.193

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.051 - 2.465

Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 105.806
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 Halichondria panicea is found in damp habitats on the shore including rock pools, under boulders and overhangs. Underwater, it is particularly abundant in wave exposed or tideswept situations often dominating kelp stipes or Halidrys siliquosa (sea oak). In low or variable salinity, it is likely to colonize foliose red algae.
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An opportunistic species found in a wide range of habitats from the mid-shore to the lower-circalittoral and under a wide variety of physical conditions.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Halichondria panicea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Halichondria panicea

Halichondria panicea, commonly known as the breadcrumb sponge, is a species of marine demosponge belonging to the family Halichondriidae. This is an abundant sponge of coastal areas of the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea ranging from the intertidal zone to a recorded depth of over 550 m. It is very tolerant of a wide range of coastal habitats, including strong currents, high salinity and exposure to powerful wave action. Its only requirement is a rocky substrate which can include small cobbles.

Morphology[edit]

Close-up view.

Halichondria panicea occurs in a very wide range of forms and can be difficult to identify. Some forms have a granular surface which gives rise to the common name but sometimes the surface is smooth, even glassy. The surface is often marked with pores (osculae) which can extend into tubular "chimneys" in wave-sheltered habitats. The overall form is determined largely by the habitat: wave-exposed forms usually form thin widespread sheets but wave-sheltered forms often form massive encrustations up to 20 cm thick. This diversity has led to its being described as a new species 56 times (see below).[2][3]

The colour is also variable. The "natural" colour is cream or grey: this is usually found in specimens from relatively deep water. However at shallower depths, the sponge is usually green due to symbiotic algae which live close to the surface of the sponge. At intermediate depths the sponge tends to be green in summer, cream or grey in winter. It smells like "exploded gunpowder".[3]

Biology[edit]

Halichondria panicea is a suspension feeder feeding mainly on phytoplankton. For such a common species, relatively little is known about its reproduction: It appears to be a hermaphrodite and oogenesis has been reported as occurring in a very narrow timeband within a single population although exceptions have been observed.

Other names[edit]

When the World Register of Marine Species was created, it was discovered that no less than 56 latin names had been assigned to this species over the years, because of confusion caused by the many different forms it might take.[4][3][2]

  1. Halichondria panicea Pallas, 1766
  2. Halina panicea Pallas, 1766
  3. Spongia panicea Pallas, 1766
  4. Spongia tomentosa Linnaeus, 1767
  5. Spongia cristata Ellis & Solander, 1786
  6. Spongia tubulosa Ellis & Solander, 1786
  7. Spongia urens Ellis & Solander, 1786
  8. Halichondria papillaris Linnaeus, 1791
  9. Alcyonium manusdiaboli sensu Esper, 1794
  10. Spongia compacta Sowerby, 1806
  11. Alcyonium medullare Lamarck, 1815
  12. Halichondria albescens Rafinesque, 1818
  13. Seriatula seriata Grant, 1826
  14. Spongia seriata Grant, 1826
  15. Halichondria sevosa Johnston, 1842
  16. Halichondria reticulata Lieberkühn, 1859
  17. Halichondria coccinea Bowerbank, 1861
  18. Hymeniacidon coccinea Bowerbank, 1861
  19. Halichondria brettii Bowerbank, 1866
  20. Hymeniacidon brettii Bowerbank, 1866
  21. Hymeniacidon fallaciosus Bowerbank, 1866
  22. Halichondria caduca Bowerbank, 1866
  23. Halichondria glabra Bowerbank, 1866
  24. Halichondria incerta Bowerbank, 1866
  25. Halichondria lactea Bowerbank, 1866
  26. Halichondria membrana Bowerbank, 1866
  27. Hymeniacidon fragilis Bowerbank, 1866
  28. Hymeniacidon lactea Bowerbank, 1866
  29. Hymeniacidon membrana Bowerbank, 1866
  30. Hymeniacidon thomasii Bowerbank, 1866
  31. Hymeniacidon parfitti Parfitt, 1868
  32. Hymeniacidon reticulatus Bowerbank, 1866
  33. Pellina bibula Schmidt, 1870
  34. Spuma borealis var. convoluta Miklucho-Maclay, 1870
  35. Spuma borealis var. tuberosa Miklucho-Maclay, 1870
  36. Spuma borealis var. velamentosa Miklucho-Maclay, 1870
  37. Halichondria ambigua Bowerbank, 1874
  38. Halichondria edusa Bowerbank, 1874
  39. Halichondria firmus Bowerbank, 1874
  40. Halichondria pannosus Verrill, 1874
  41. Hymeniacidon firmus Bowerbank, 1874
  42. Hymeniacidon solida Bowerbank, 1874
  43. Hymeniacidon tegeticula Bowerbank, 1874
  44. Amorphina appendiculata Schmidt, 1875
  45. Halichondria paciscens Schmidt, 1875
  46. Amorphina paciscens Schmidt, 1875
  47. Halichondria coralloides Bowerbank, 1882
  48. Isodictya crassa Bowerbank, 1882
  49. Isodictya perplexa Bowerbank, 1882
  50. Microciona tumulosa Bowerbank, 1882
  51. Amorphina grisea Fristedt, 1887
  52. Halichondria grisea Fristedt, 1887
  53. Menanetia minchini Topsent, 1896
  54. Halichondriella corticata Burton, 1931
  55. Trachyopsilla glaberrima Burton, 1931
  56. Halichondria topsenti de Laubenfels, 1936

References[edit]

  1. ^ van Soest, R. (2014). R. W. M. Van Soest, N. Boury-Esnault, J. N. A. Hooper, K. Rützler, N. J. de Voogd, B. Alvarez de Glasby, E. Hajdu, A. B. Pisera, R. Manconi, C. Schoenberg, D. Janussen, K. R. Tabachnick, M. Klautau, B. Picton, M. Kelly & J. Vacelet, ed. "Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766)". World Porifera database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  2. ^ a b Leahy, Stephen (25 June 2008). "BIODIVERSITY: O Sponge, Your Names Are Many". IPS News. 
  3. ^ a b c "Register clears out 'fishy' names". BBC News. 25 June 2008. 
  4. ^ Cressey, Daniel (27 Jun 2008). "Ocean census reveals the beast with 56 names". News Blog. Nature. 
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