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 Growth form massive-lobate, surface finely conulose, single oscules scattered or at the apex of lobes, pre-oscular cavities well evident. Colour in vivo from light grey to black. Ectosomal skeleton as apices of primary fibres joining secondary fibres to form the conical reticulum which supports the conules. Choanosomal skeleton: network dense with irregular polygonal meshes of secondaries joining to form ascending primaries. Primary fibres (50–100 µm in diameter) typically twisted with ornamentations as parallel ridges along the main fibre axis mainly developed and evident towards the surface, cored with sand grains and spicules. Secondaries (20–35 µm in diameter) with ornamentations as parallel ridges along the main fibre axis, twisted and characterised by concentric layers of compact spongin surrounding the compact axial core without inclusions. 

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© Renata Manconi, Barbara Cadeddu, Fabio Ledda, Roberto Pronzato

Source: ZooKeys

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