Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Growth form massive-lobate, surface finely conulose, single oscules scattered or at the apex of lobes, pre-oscular cavities well evident. Colour in vivo from light grey to black. Ectosomal skeleton as apices of primary fibres joining secondary fibres to form the conical reticulum which supports the conules. Choanosomal skeleton: network dense with irregular polygonal meshes of secondaries joining to form ascending primaries. Primary fibres (50–100 µm in diameter) typically twisted with ornamentations as parallel ridges along the main fibre axis mainly developed and evident towards the surface, cored with sand grains and spicules. Secondaries (20–35 µm in diameter) with ornamentations as parallel ridges along the main fibre axis, twisted and characterised by concentric layers of compact spongin surrounding the compact axial core without inclusions. 
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© Renata Manconi, Barbara Cadeddu, Fabio Ledda, Roberto Pronzato

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'Cup shaped body with a black or dark skin. The oscules are situated on the floor of the cup. Groups of pores on the outer surface lead by short fine canals into spaces just below the skin;' (British Museum (Natural History) 1902)

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© Wolf, Elizabeth

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Distribution

Usually found in intertidal zones at water's edge.

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 12 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 10 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 5 - 37
  Temperature range (°C): 16.315 - 23.797
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.211 - 0.534
  Salinity (PPS): 35.982 - 38.201
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.807 - 5.541
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.096 - 0.131
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 1.379

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 5 - 37

Temperature range (°C): 16.315 - 23.797

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.211 - 0.534

Salinity (PPS): 35.982 - 38.201

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.807 - 5.541

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.096 - 0.131

Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 1.379
 
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Wikipedia

Spongia officinalis

Spongia officinalis, better known as bath sponge, is a commercially used sponge. It is found throughout the Mediterranean Sea.[2][3][4][5]

It is a hermaphroditic animal and can reproduce asexually by means of budding or through sexual reproduction. When alive, its color is dark grey; upon drying it becomes either yellow or brown. Young larvae swim freely until they attach themselves to the sea floor or other adequate ground. After that, they start growing slowly, as it may take as much as 40 years to grow the size of a baseball.[6]

Harvesting has led to a decrease in population.

Distribution[edit]

Mediterranean Sea, Caribbean Sea and West Indies.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Linnaeus, C. 1759: Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus II. Editio decima, reformata. - pp. [1-4], 825-1384. Holmiæ. (L. Salvii).
  2. ^ Laubenfels, M.W. de. 1953: A guide to the sponges of Eastern North America. University of Miami Press. 32p.
  3. ^ a b Díaz, Humberto, Bevilacqua, Marina & Bone, David (1985). Esponjas del Parque Nacional Morrocoy. Fondo Editorial Acta Científica Venezolana. Caracas. 64p.
  4. ^ Cook, S.D.C., & Bergquist, P.R. 2002: Family Spongiidae Gray, 1867. Pp. 1051-1060. In Hooper, J. N. A. & Van Soest, R. W. M. (ed.) Systema Porifera. A guide to the classification of sponges. 1 (Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers: New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow).
  5. ^ Rützler, K., R. W. M. van Soest. & C. Piantoni. 2009: Sponges (Porifera) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 285–313 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas.
  6. ^ Esponjas (Esponjas de baño). Pp: 111. 1980: En; Diccionario Monográfico del Reino Animal. Biblograf, S.A. España. ISBN 94-71533-385-5
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