Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description of Chlamydomonas

Cells mostly radially symmetrical, sometimes slightly curved, dorsiventrally flattened, sometimes surrounded by a gelatinous sheath, anterior papilla; 2 equal flagella; chloroplast single, variable in shape; nucleus more or less central; contractile vacuoles present; palmelloid stages, aplanospores and akinetes known; sexual reproduction usually isogamous, sometimes anisogamous or oogamous; zygote with smooth or sculptured thick cell wall, often accumulating secondary carotenoids; zygote germination involves meiosis and formation of four or eight meiospores; worldwide distribution; occur in freshwater and soil, more rarely in brackish and marine waters or snow, many species.
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biopedia

Source: BioPedia

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 17 specimens in 8 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.75 - 50
  Temperature range (°C): -1.859 - -1.813
  Nitrate (umol/L): 4.540 - 5.061
  Salinity (PPS): 32.391 - 32.556
  Oxygen (ml/l): 8.344 - 8.373
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.020 - 1.100
  Silicate (umol/l): 11.508 - 12.475

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.75 - 50

Temperature range (°C): -1.859 - -1.813

Nitrate (umol/L): 4.540 - 5.061

Salinity (PPS): 32.391 - 32.556

Oxygen (ml/l): 8.344 - 8.373

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.020 - 1.100

Silicate (umol/l): 11.508 - 12.475
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Phlyctochytrium proliferum parasitises Chlamydomonas

Foodplant / parasite
Scherffeliomyces appendiculatus parasitises Chlamydomonas

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Known predators

Chlamydomonas is prey of:
Copepoda
Metopograpsis messor
Oxyurichthyes lonchotus

Based on studies in:
USA: Hawaii (Swamp)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • G. E. Walsh, An ecological study of a Hawaiian mangrove swamp. In: Estuaries, G. H. Lauff, Ed. (AAAS Publication 83, Washington, DC, 1967), pp. 420-431, from p. 429.
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© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Classification

Often classified in the family Chlamydomonadaceae, ordo Volvocales.
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:49
Specimens with Sequences:49
Specimens with Barcodes:45
Species:33
Species With Barcodes:33
Public Records:49
Public Species:33
Public BINs:0
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Chlamydomonas

Chlamydomonas is a genus of green algae consisting of unicellular flagellates, found in stagnant water and on damp soil, in freshwater, seawater, and even in snow as "snow algae". Chlamydomonas is used as a model organism for molecular biology, especially studies of flagellar motility and chloroplast dynamics, biogeneses, and genetics. One of the many striking features of Chlamydomonas is that it contains ion channels, (channelrhodopsins), that are directly activated by light. Some regulatory systems of Chlamydomonas are more complex than their homologs in Gymnosperms, with evolutionarily related regulatory proteins being larger and containing additional domains.[1]

Drawings of Chlamydomonas caudata Wille.[2]
Cross section of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algae cell, a 3D representation
Light micrograph of Chlamydomonas without flagella

Species[edit]

It is generally found in habitat rich in ammonium salt. Chlamydomonas possesses red eye spots for photosensitivity and reproduces by both asexual and sexual means.

Chlamydomonas's asexual reproduction goes through Zoospores, Palmella stage, Aplanospores and Hypnospores; sexual reproduction through isogamy, anisogamy or oogamy.

Nutrition[edit]

Most species are obligate phototrophs but C. reinhardtii and C. dysosmos are facultative heterotrophs that can grow in the dark in the presence of acetate as a carbon source.

Morphology[edit]

  • Motile unicellular algae.
  • Generally oval in shape.
  • Cell wall is made up of glycoprotein and non cellulosic polysaccharides instead of cellulose.
  • Two anteriorly inserted whiplash flagella. Flagella originates from a basal granule located in the anterior papillate or non-papillate region of the cytoplasm. Flagellum shows typical 9+2 arrangement of the component fibrils.
  • Contractile vacuoles found at near the bases of flagella.
  • Prominent cup or bowl shaped chloroplast is present. The chloroplast contains bands composed of a variable number of the photosynthetic thylakoids which are not organised into grana-like structures.
  • The nucleus is enclosed in a cup-shaped chloroplast, which has a single large pyrenoid where starch is formed from photosynthetic products. Pyrenoid with starch sheath is present in the posterior end of the chloroplast.
  • Eye spot present in the anterior portion of the chloroplast. It consists of two or three, more or less parallel rows of linearly arranged fat droplets.

References[edit]

  1. ^ A Falciatore, L Merendino, F Barneche, M Ceol, R Meskauskiene, K Apel, JD Rochaix (2005). The FLP proteins act as regulators of chlorophyll synthesis in response to light and plastid signals in Chlamydomonas. The red eye spot in chlamydomonas is sensitive to light and hence determines movement. Genes & Dev, 19:176-187 [1]
  2. ^ Hazen, Tracy E. 1922. The phylogeny of the genus Brachiomonas. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 49(4):75-92, with two plates.
  3. ^ Aoyama, H., Kuroiwa, T and Nakamura,S. 2009. The dynamic behaviour of mitochrandia in living zygotes during maturation and meiosis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Eur. J. Phycol. 44: 497 - 507
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