Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits cold streams and rivers in montane and piedmont landscapes with temperature usually not rising above 15° C during summer (Ref. 59043). Occurs over sandy and gravelly bottoms of running or standing clean and cold waters in the upper courses of Alpine rivers and glacial lakes (Ref. 12291). Feeds on a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, shifting to fish diet when adult. Spawns in gravel of rivers and streams with swift water (0.4-0.5 m/s) at moderate depth (0.6-0.8 m). Lives up to at least 10 years. Threatened due to hybridization with introduced Salmo trutta and Salmo cenerinus, pollution, overfishing and river regulation. Only a few pure populations remain and stocking of pure strains has improved the situation. Conservation status is under least concern category, but might return to a threatened category if conservation measures end (Ref. 59043).
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Distribution

Range Description

It is restricted to southern Switzerland, northern Italy and Adriatic basin of Slovenia. It has been introduced in several countries in Europe. There are seven pure subpopulations in Slovenia and three known pure subpopulations in Italy (more research needed as there may be more).
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Europe: Adriatic basin from Po (only northern tributaries) to Soca and Rizana drainages (Italy, Slovenia). Introduced in Tevere drainage in Italy. Molecular data suggest that populations identified as Salmo marmoratus from Neretva drainage (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia) and most likely those from Lake Skadar basin and Drin to Shkumbin drainages (Montenegro, Albania, Kosovoa, Macedonia) represent another species, as yet unidentified. Records from Croatia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Albania may be other subspecies of Adriatic trout and not of this marble trout (Lucijan Rejec, lrejec@ribiska-druzina-tolmin.si, pers.comm. 07/09).
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Southern Europe: Adriatic basin; introduced elsewhere.
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

120 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043)); max. published weight: 50.0 kg (Ref. 59043); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 59043)
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Diagnostic Description

Distinguished from all congeners in Adriatic basin by having the following unique characters: body silvery to olive-green with irregular brown lines forming a marbled pattern; and no parr marks in individuals larger than 6 cm SL. Differs further by the combination of the following characters: red spots confined to lateral line, absent in some individuals and populations; opercle with brownish blotches or lines; head length 22-25% SL; eye diameter 1.7-2.2 times in interorbital distance, 3.1-4.3 times in postorbital length (at 25-35 cm SL) (Ref. 59043).
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The remaining population of Marble trout are found in headwaters of mountainous streams.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; anadromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Migration

Anadromous. Fish that ascend rivers to spawn, as salmon and hilsa do. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Trophic Strategy

Feeds on fish and benthic invertebrates (Ref. 26100).
  • Bianco, P.G. 1995 Mediterranean endemic freshwater fishes of Italy. Biol. Conserv. 72:159-170. (Ref. 12291)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Does not undertake spawning migrations or undertake migrations only at very short distances. Individuals foraging in lakes move to lake tributaries to spawn. Males begin occupying spawning grounds about one week before females. Eggs hatch in about 45 days. Alevins commence feeding 59-63 days after spawning at 10° C (Ref. 59043).
  • Crivelli, A.J. 1996 The freshwater fish endemic to the Mediterranean region. An action plan for their conservation. Tour du Valat Publication, 171 p. (Ref. 26100)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2006

Assessor/s
Crivelli, A.J.

Reviewer/s
Freyhof, J. & Darwall, W. (Mediterranean Workshop, Dec. 2004)

Contributor/s

Justification
In Slovenia there is estimated to be around 10,000 individuals of the pure species at seven locations with a combined area of occupancy (AOO) of <20 km². The subpopulations in Italy need more research, as more subpopulations are likely to be found in addition to the three already identified. The stocking of foreign trout continues and may reduce population numbers of genetically pure marble trout. However, the populations in Slovenia, and to a lesser extent in Italy, are safe and have no major widespread threats (Crivelli, A. pers comm).

History
  • 1996
    Data Deficient
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
  • 1996
    Data Deficient
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Population

Population
Rare. The population declined in the early 1900s.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Hybridization with foreign trout stocked for angling. Water extraction and pollution.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Listed in the Annex II of the European Union Habitats Directive.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
  • Crivelli, A.J. 1996 The freshwater fish endemic to the Mediterranean region. An action plan for their conservation. Tour du Valat Publication, 171 p. (Ref. 26100)
  • Bianco, P.G. 1995 Mediterranean endemic freshwater fishes of Italy. Biol. Conserv. 72:159-170. (Ref. 12291)
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Wikipedia

Salmo marmoratus

Marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) is a species of freshwater fish in the Salmonidae family. It is characterized by distinctive marbled color pattern and high growth capacity. The marble trout is found in only three basins and two rivers of the Adriatic basin, namely the Po with only northern/left tributaries and the Adige, Brenta, Piave, Tagliamento and Livenza basins in Italy, the Soča basin in Slovenia, the Neretva river in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, and the Morača river in Montenegro. While once present in the Drin river basin in Albania fish is almost certainly extinct there.[1][2]

Marmorated trout[edit]

Adding to the confusion of salmonid taxonomy, there are other trout with marble patterns beside Salmo marmoratus. One is trout from the river Otra, Norway. A certain percentage of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from that river have a marble pattern. In all other aspects, these trout are identical to the non-marble brown trout from the same river. This is an example of intrapopulational polymorphism.[3][4]

Appearance, Biology and Ecology[edit]

The marble trout has a long, cylindrical body, slightly compressed laterally, with a large head (22-25% of the body length) which is why it is also known as "Glavatica" ("glava" - head) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The most obvious characteristic of marble trout is of course the marble pattern. The intensity of colour varies considerably upon the surroundings. Some marble trout have red spots that merge with the rest of the pigment, always only along the lateral line.[5]

Its average size is 30–70 cm. The largest specimen in Slovenia was a 117 cm and 24 kg female (found dead),[6] largest living specimen caught was 120 cm and 22.5 kg.[7] There are reports of individuals weighing up to 30 kg.[5] The largest specimens were found in Bosnia and Herzegovina, inhabiting the Neretva river from below town of Konjic downstream to town of Čapljina, mostly in canyon section from town of Jablanica to city of Mostar, and later after construction of Jablanica dam on the Neretva river in Jablaničko Lake.[8] Trout become sexually mature at the age 3+ (males) and 4+ (females), they spawn during November and December.

Marble trout is piscivorous, feed mainly on smaller fish and benthic invertebrates.

Its natural habitat is rivers with a summer temperature of 15°C. Hybridization with foreign trout stocked for angling. Water extraction and pollution. In Bosnia and Herzegovina main threats are habitat loss (habitat destruction) due to constructed of five large dams on the Neretva river and plans for construction of several new dams on the upper course of the Neretva, water pollution, overfishing (sportfishing, food, including poaching) and hybridisation with introduced species of trout.

All eight remaining genetically pure marble trout populations were found in remote streams of the River Soča basin.[9] From these populations the Tolmin Angler's Society launched a reintroduction programme.


References[edit]

  1. ^ "Marble trout (Salmo marmoratus)". Balkan Trout Restoration Group. Retrieved 2009-03-10. 
  2. ^ S. MUHAMEDAGIĆ; H. M. GJOEN; M. VEGRA (2008). "Salmonids of the Neretva river basin - p" (pdf). EIFAC FAO Fisheries and Aqauculture Report No. 871. (European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (EIFAC)): 224–233. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  3. ^ Skaala O, Solberg G (1997). Biochemical genetic variability and the taxonomic position of the marmorated trout in River Otra, Norway. 
  4. ^ Crivelli, A.J. (2006). "Salmo marmoratus". 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2007-08-05. 
  5. ^ a b Povž M, Jesenšek D, Berrebi P, Crivelli AJ (1996). The marble trout. 
  6. ^ Pintar L (1991). "Najtežja soška postrv je končala pod peskom". Ribič 50 (1–2): 16. 
  7. ^ http://ribiska-druzina-tolmin.si/forum/viewtopic.php?p=1324&sid=e40b1d014fb87ba739958c7fb19e99df#1324
  8. ^ Mateš, Antun (2004). The Enchanted Angler. Zagreb: J&B d.o.o. ISBN 953-99019-3-6. 
  9. ^ Fumagalli L, Snoj A, Jesenšek D, Balloux F, Jug T, Duron O, Brossier F, Crivelli AJ, Berrebi P (2002). "Extreme genetic differentiation among the remnant populations of marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) in Slovenia". Mol. Ecol. 11 (12): 2711–2716. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294X.2002.01648.x. PMID 12453253. 
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