Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits lakes and large rivers. Spawns on gravel bottom. In Lake Skadar basin, overwinters in deep parts of lake and moves to main tributaries in summer (Ref. 59043). Threatened due to habitat destruction and pollution (Ref. 26100).
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Distribution

Range Description

This fish is known from the Adriatic basin, from Krka to Aoos drainages (Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia); possibly present in Alfios (Peloponnese, Greece).
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Southern Europe: Adriatic basin.
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Europe: Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia (Adriatic basin from Krka to Aoos drainages); possibly present in Peloponnese, Greece (Alfios).
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

62.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043))
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Diagnostic Description

Distinguished from all its congeners in Balkan Peninsula by having the following combination of characters: preanal length 77-80% SL; predorsal length 47-50% SL; interorbital distance 20-25% HL; head and body with small dark dots, especially in upper part; and dark red spots of different sizes, on whole flank, circled by bright pale rim (Ref. 59043).
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Habitat
The species occurs in lakes and large rivers. It spawns on gravel bottom.

Biology
A resident in lacustrine ecotypes, in the Lake Skadar basin the species overwinters in deep parts of lake, moving to main tributaries in summer.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Freyhof, J.

Reviewer/s
Kottelat, M. & Smith, K.

Contributor/s
Kottelat, M.

Justification
Very little information exists for this species. It is suspected that it hybridises with introduced trout species, but more information is needed to know the impacts of this. Illegal fishing is also a potential threat as the species is a large fish and most likely targeted. The taxonomy of the species also needs clarification before a full extinction risk assessment can be made.

For the European Union 27 region, this species is also assessed as Data Deficient (DD), with the same rationale as above.

History
  • 2008
    Data Deficient
    (IUCN 2008)
  • 2008
    Data Deficient
  • 1996
    Data Deficient
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
  • 1996
    Data Deficient
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Population

Population
No information is available on population size or trends.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Hybridisation with introduced trouts and illegal fishing are potential threats.
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Data deficient (DD)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
No information available. More information is needed for this species, in particular on its threats, and it is in need of taxonomic clarification.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
  • Crivelli, A.J. 1996 The freshwater fish endemic to the Mediterranean region. An action plan for their conservation. Tour du Valat Publication, 171 p. (Ref. 26100)
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Wikipedia

Salmo dentex

Salmo dentex is a variety of trout, a freshwater fish in the Salmonidae family, found in the western Balkans.[1][2][3] Until recently the identity, biological distinctness and species status of the dentex trout were not properly clarified,[4] but genetic data now suggest it is not a monophyletic unit that could be distinguished from other salmonids as a separate species.[5]

Salmo dentex has been reported to inhabit the Neretva river and Hutovo Blato wetlands in Bosnia and Herzegovina,[6] and is also found in Albania and Montenegro in Lake Skadar and its tributaries.[7] It is reported that S. dentex is extinct from Croatian rivers, Cetina and Krka,[8] but has recently bee reported by anglers from the Cetina river in Croatia. Some reports indicate its presence in the rivers of Livanjsko field in Bosnia and Herzegovina[9] and in river Alfeios in Greece.[10]

The status of S. dentex, locally known as the zubatak, long remained unclear due to lack of samples for detailed analyses, hybridisation with other trout lineages and diverse and multiple designations of the same trout in different areas. One of the inhabited areas, the Hutovo Blato wetlands, is situated North West of the Neretva river estuary in southern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This is an atypical type of wetland, characterized by several shallow lakes and channels filled with clear and cold water (around 13°C whole year) creating conditions suitable also for salmonids.[4]

Recently the genetic structure of S. dentex and its relations to other co-existing salmonids in the Neretva and Skadar river systems have been sudied using mitochondrial DNA, microsatellite[5] and 21 other nuclear DNA loci.[11] Genetic analyses showed that the Neretva S. dentex ("zubatak") and the co-existing marble trout (S. marmoratus) formed a genetically unified cluster, while Skadar S. dentex ("strun") was "genetically distinct from S. marmoratus in the same river system and indistinct from local brown trout (S. trutta)". Thus the Neretva and Skadar S. dentex are not closely related but rather "S. dentex [is] a particular life history form of S. marmoratus in the Neretva basin and of S. trutta in the Skadar basin". "These results clearly demonstrate that S. dentex does not represent a monophyletic lineage and should not be considered a distinct species."[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Salmo dentex In: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Downloaded on 21 May 2010
  2. ^ J. J., Heckel (1851). "Bericht einer ichthyologischen Reise. II. Beiträge zu den Gattungen Salmo, Fario, Salar, Coregonus, Chondrostoma und Telestes". Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien. pp. 347–390. 
  3. ^ Glamuzina, Branko; V. Bartulović (2006). "Some characteristics of the Endemic Dentex Trout, Salmo dentex (Heckel, 1851) from the Neretva River, Bosnia–Herzegovina" (PDF). Ribarstvo 64 (2): 59–64. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  4. ^ a b "Salmo dentex - Yet another Balkan salmonid". Balkan Trout Restoration Group. Retrieved 2009-03-10. 
  5. ^ a b c Snoj, A.; Glamuzina, B.; Razpet, A.; Zablocki, J.; Bogut, I.; Lerceteau-Köhler, E.; Pojskić, N.; Sušnik, S. (2010). "Resolving taxonomic uncertainties using molecular systematics: Salmo dentex and the Balkan trout community". Hydrobiologia, 651. pp. 199–212. 
  6. ^ V., Čurčić (1938). "Neretva i njezine pastrve (Salmonidae)". Štamparija Risto V. Savić, Sarajevo. p. 89. 
  7. ^ V., Sorić (1990). "Salmonids in the Ohrid–Drim–Skadar system. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemoslovacaei". pp. 54, 305–319. 
  8. ^ M., Mrakovčić; Mišetić S.; Povž M. (1995). "Status of freshwater fish in Croatian Adriatic river systems. Biological Conservation". pp. 72, 179–185. 
  9. ^ T., Vuković; Ivanović B. (1971). "Freshwater fish of Yugoslavia". Zemaljski muzej BiH, Sarajevo. p. 268. 
  10. ^ B., Delling (2003). "Species diversity and phylogeny of Salmo with emphasis on Southern Trouts (Teleostei, Salmonidae)". Doctoral dissertation (University of Stockholm). 
  11. ^ Pustovrh, G.; Sušnik Bajec, S.; Snoj, A. (2011). "Evolutionary relationship between marble trout of the northern and southern Adriatic basin". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 59: 761–766. 
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