Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Lives in lakes at 100-200 m depth. Feeds predominantly on zooplankton. Also preys on other benthic invertebrates during summer. Spawns close to underwater springs at 50-300 m depths (Ref. 59043). Threatened due to habitat destruction, pollution and overfishing (Ref. 26100) and possibly due to the introduction of exotic Coregonus and Salmonidae (Ref. 59043).
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Distribution

Range Description

It is restricted to Garda lake in northern Italy. It has been introduced into numerous lakes in Italy and other countries.
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Europe: Lake Garda, Italy. Introduced in several lakes of northern Italy, Germany and New Zealand but all introductions failed.
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Lake Garda, Italy; introduced elsewhere in Italy, Germany and New Zealand.
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

50.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043)); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 59043)
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Diagnostic Description

Distinguished from congeners in Italy by its unique almost absence of dark spots on head. Differs further by the combination of the following characters: adults lacking parr-marks; and outside spawning season silvery, with few, very small dark spots on body; during spawning season, some males show a dark marbled color pattern (Ref. 59043).
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is a lacustrine species. It has two spawning seasons: one in winter and one in summer.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; freshwater; depth range 100 - 200 m (Ref. 59043)
  • Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof 2007 Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
A2bde

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2006

Assessor/s
Crivelli, A.J.

Reviewer/s
Freyhof, J. & Elvira, B. (Mediterranean Workshop, Dec. 2004)

Contributor/s

Justification
S. carpio is restricted to Garda lake in northern Italy and its population has been reduced by more than 80% in the past ten years due to introduced species, overfishing and other unknown reasons. The decline in this species is based upon fisheries catch data.

History
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
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Population

Population
Decreasing.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Overfishing, destruction of habitat and water pollution (past threats). Introduced species (Coregonus spp).
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Critically Endangered (CR) (A2bde)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
  • Crivelli, A.J. 1996 The freshwater fish endemic to the Mediterranean region. An action plan for their conservation. Tour du Valat Publication, 171 p. (Ref. 26100)
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Wikipedia

Salmo carpio

Salmo carpio, also known as the carpione (carpione del Garda[1][2] or Lake Garda carpione[3]) is a salmonid fish endemic to Lake Garda in Italy. It has been introduced to a number of other lakes in Italy and elsewhere but unsuccessfully in all cases.[1] The population in Lake Garda has been strongly declining, and is considered critically endangered.[2][3] The main threats are due to overfishing, pollution and possibly competition from introduced species such as Coregonus and Salmonidae.[4]

Biology[edit]

Adult lake trout outside the mating season are silvery with very few black spots on the body and almost none on the head. During the mating season some males develop a dark mottled body coloration. Garda lake trout reach a length of up to 50 cm (20 in). They live primarily in depths of 100 to 200 m (328 to 656 ft). They feed on zooplankton and bottom-dwelling crustaceans in summer. Males and females reach sexual maturity at two or three years. The mating takes place every one to two years. The spawning takes place either winter or summer at a depth of 50 to 300 metres (160 to 980 ft) in the vicinity of underwater springs. The maximum age for this fish is five years.[5]

Status[edit]

The numbers of this fish in Lake Garda seem to be dwindling rapidly and had reduced by 80% in the ten years up to 2006. It is suspected that this may be because of pollution of the lake, over fishing and degradation of the lake habitat, and also the fish may face competition from introduced fish species such as Coregonus spp.. The IUCN has assessed this fish as being "Critically Endangered".[2] A captive breeding project has been inaugurated and initial results show good production of eggs, fry and juveniles and low mortality rates. It is hoped to retain broodstock and later reintroduce fish into the lake. [6]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Stefano Porcellotti, Pesci d'Italia, Ittiofauna delle acque dolci Edizioni PLAN 2005; pagg. 16-17
  • Zerunian S. Condannati all'estinzione Biodiversità, biologia, minacce e strategie di conservazione dei Pesci d'acqua dolce indigeni in Italia, Edagricole 2002; pagg. 61-62

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2006). "Salmo carpio" in FishBase. April 2006 version.
  2. ^ a b c Crivelli, A.J. 2006. Salmo carpio In: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Downloaded on 2 April 2010
  3. ^ a b S. Melotto, G. Alessio (2006) Biology of carpione, Salmo carpio L., an endemic species of Lake Garda (Italy) Journal of Fish Biology 37, 687-698.
  4. ^ Fishing World Records - Salmo carpio Carpione
  5. ^ FishBase - Salmo carpio Linnaeus, 1758
  6. ^ Rearing of Carpione Salmo carpio, an endemic salmonid in Lake Garda (Italy) - Fernando Lunelli, Filippo Faccenda, Filippo Motta, Cristina Cappelletti and Francesca Ciutti.
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