The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Baskin, J.N., Zaret, T.M., and Mago-Leccia, F. (1980). Feeding of Reportedly Parasitic Catfishes (Trichomycteridae and Cetopsidae) in the Rio Portuguesa Basin, Venezuela. Biotropica. 12, 182-186.
  • Begossi, A., R.A.M. Silvano, B.D. do Amaral and O.T. Oyakawa0 Uses of fish and game by inhabitants of an extractive reserve (upper Juru
  • Borin, L.A. and Martins-Santos, I.C. (1999). Karyotype characterization of three species of the genus Trichomycterus (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from Iguaçu river basin. Genetica. 106, 215-221.
  • Breault, J.L. (1991). Candirú: Amazonian parasitic catfish. J. Wilderness Medicine. 2, 304-312.
  • Burgess, W.E.0 An atlas of freshwater and marine catfishes. A preliminary survey of the Siluriformes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey (USA). 784 p. (Ref. 6868)
  • Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences0 Chinese aquatic germplasm resources database. (Ref. 58108)
  • Eigenmann, C.H. (1917). Descriptions of Sixteen New Species of Pygidiidae. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 56, 690-703.
  • Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.)0 Catalog of fishes. Special Publication, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 3 vols. 2905 p. (Ref. 26282)
  • Fernandez, L. and Schaeffer, S.A. (2009). Relationships among the Neotropical Candirus (Trichomycteridae, Siluriformes) and the evolution of parasitism based on analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences. Mol. Phylogenetics and Evo. 52, 416-423.
  • Ferraris, C.J. (2007) Checklist of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes), and catalogue of siluriform primary types. Zootaxa. 1418, 427.
  • Froese R. & Pauly D. (eds) (2013). FishBase (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Gudger, E.W. (1930). On the alleged penetration of the human urethra by an Amazonian catfish called candirú with a review of the allied habits of the other members of the family pygidiidae. Part I. Am J Surg. 8, 170-188.
  • Piper, R. (2007). Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals. Westport: Greenwood Press.
  • Sazima, I.0 Sazima's fish photos. Scanned photos sent by email. (Ref. 51738)
  • Shafland, P.L. (1986). A review of Florida's efforts to regulate, assess and manage exotic fishes. Fisheries. 11, 20-25.
  • Spotte, S., Petry, P., and Zuanon, J.A. (2000). Experiments on the feeding behavior of the hematophagous candiru, Vandellia cf. plazaii. Environmental Bio. of Fishes. 60, 459-464.
  • Torres, A.G. and Pascualita, S. (2010). Vandellia Sanguinea Eigenmann, 1917. FishBase. 21 Apr. 2010. .
  • Varjo, M., L. Koli and H. Dahlstr
  • Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao and C.F. Lai (eds.)0 Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan. 1028 p. (Ref. 31517)
  • Zuanon, J.A. and Sazima, I. (2003). Vampire catfishes seek the aorta not the jugular: candirus of the genus Vandellia (Trichomycteridae) feed on major gill arteries of host fishes. J. Ichthyology and Aquatic Bio. 8, 31-36.
  • Zuanon, J.A. and Sazima, I. (2005). Free meals on long-distance cruisers: the vampire fish rides giant catfishes in the Amazon. Biota Neotropica. 5, 1-6.
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  • de Pínna, M.C.C. and W. Wosiacki. 2003. Trichomycteridae (pencil or parasitic catfishes). p. 270-290. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.


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