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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits clear lagoon and seaward reefs, from the intertidal to at least 45 m (Ref. 9710). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Protogynous (Ref. 55080).
  • Randall, J.E. 1985 Guide to Hawaiian reef fishes. Harrowood Books, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA. 74 p. (Ref. 3921)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is known only from the Hawaiian Islands, Northwest Hawaiian Island chain and Johnston Atoll.
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Eastern Central Pacific: Hawaiian Islands. Have recently been reported from Johnston and Midway islands (Ref. 28618, 28620). Forms a hybrid with Chlorurus sordidus documented with having intermediate color pattern, cheek scale count, and DNA analysis (Ref. 57558).
  • Randall, J.E. 1985 Guide to Hawaiian reef fishes. Harrowood Books, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA. 74 p. (Ref. 3921)
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Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 609 mm ---
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Max. size

60.9 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3921)); max. published weight: 7,000 g (Ref. 9710)
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
  • Randall, J.E. 1985 Guide to Hawaiian reef fishes. Harrowood Books, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA. 74 p. (Ref. 3921)
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Type Information

Cotype for Chlorurus perspicillatus
Catalog Number: USNM 125661
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan & B. Evermann
Year Collected: 1901
Locality: Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific
  • Cotype:
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Type for Chlorurus perspicillatus
Catalog Number: USNM 50649
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): D. Jordan & B. Evermann
Locality: Honolulu, Hawaii, Oahu, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific
  • Type:
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Type for Chlorurus perspicillatus
Catalog Number: USNM 87417
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): E. Jordan
Year Collected: 1924
Locality: Honolulu Mkt., Oahu, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This excavating species is found solitary or in small schools. It inhabits reef fronts to 71 m depth. The major period of ovarian development is from March to June; sexual maturity occurs at 20 cm (Hawaii Cooperative Fisheries Research Unit Final Report 2009).

This species forms a hybrid with Chlorurus spilurus (Randall 2005).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 71 m (Ref. 58302)
  • Mundy, B.C. 2005 Checklist of the fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Bishop Museum Bulletins in Zoology. Bishop Mus. Bull. Zool. (6):1-704. (Ref. 58302)
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 3.66 - 4.575
  Temperature range (°C): 24.549 - 24.610
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.066 - 0.067
  Salinity (PPS): 35.292 - 35.294
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.825 - 4.835
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 0.097
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.414 - 1.498

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 3.66 - 4.575

Temperature range (°C): 24.549 - 24.610

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.066 - 0.067

Salinity (PPS): 35.292 - 35.294

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.825 - 4.835

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 0.097

Silicate (umol/l): 1.414 - 1.498
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Size at sex change: 44.1 - 49.8 cm TL (Ref. 55080).
  • DeMartini, E.E., A.M. Friedlander and S.R. Holzwarth 2005 Size at sex change in protogynous labroids, prey body size distributions, and apex predator densities at NW Hawaiian atolls. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 207:259-271. (Ref. 55080)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Lazuardi, M.E., Myers, R., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.

Reviewer/s
McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
Although this species is heavily fished in about 30% of its range, it is now protected by the establishment of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument where resident fish species are fully protected. Moreover much of the habitat is remote and protected from illegal fishing.

Although an endemic, the range size is large compared with most other endemic parrotfishes. It may be argued that an endemic species that is heavily fished over 30% (the main Hawaiian Islands) of its range should be classified as Near Threatened. However, partly in response to problems with the increasing Hawaiian Island reef fishery, the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument was established. This marine monument now covers 60% of the geographic range of this species. This monument plus the presence of the species at the isolated Johnston Atoll confirms that adequate management protection is now in place. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.

History
  • 2010
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
This species is moderately common over the Northwest Hawaiian Island chain.

Biomass was lower in the main Hawaiian chain where it is exposed to heavy recreational and commercial fishing by a factor of 14. In the main Hawaiian Islands biomass was recorded at 0.01 tonnes per hectare, Northwest Hawaiian Islands Marine Park at 0.14 tonnes per hectare (Friedlander and DeMartini 2002).

As a large parrotfish it achieves high abundances in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Park ranging from 100 to 215 individuals per hectare in Pearl and Hermes, Kure and Midway reefs (DeMartiniet al. 2005). Abundance estimates in the French Frigate Shoals recorded 71 indivuduals per hectare (DeMartiniet al. 2002).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is heavily fished within the main Hawaiian Island group, representing about 30% of its range.

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is protected in over ~70% of its geographical range by the newly established Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. It is also protected in Johnston Atoll where there is limited access and no commercial fishing and in marine reserves within the main Hawaiian Islands.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
  • Miyasaka, A. 1993 A database on scientific and common names of fishes exported from Hawaii. The information was derived from the above mentioned database. A printout of the names is also available from the State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, 1151 Punchbowl Street, Honolulu, Hawaii. (Ref. 5358)
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