- Myers, R.F. 1991 Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
- Kuiter, R.H. and T. Tonozuka 2001 Pictorial guide to Indonesian reef fishes. Part 2. Fusiliers - Dragonets, Caesionidae - Callionymidae. Zoonetics, Australia. 304-622 p. (Ref. 48636)
Catalog Number: USNM 62950
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Gilbert, J. Snyder, M. Sindo, H. Heath, C. Burke, H. Torrey & A. Clark
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Naha, Okinawa, Japan., Okinawa, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Pacific
- Type: Snyder, J. O. 1909. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 36 (1688): 602.
Habitat and Ecology
Generation length justification: 14 (longevity) - 2 (age of maturity) = 7/2 = 3.5 or 4 years
- Allen, G.R. and M.V. Erdmann 2012 Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth, Australia: Universitiy of Hawai'i Press, Volumes I-III. Tropical Reef Research. (Ref. 90102)
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Although there are numerous marine reserves in the Coral Triangle Region at the present time, most reserves are not very well managed. However, in well-managed reserves parrotfishes tend to recover comparatively quickly and therefore increased management in protected areas and potentially fishery protection might offset the overexploitation of this species. More research is needed on this species' habitat specific behaviour, population biology, and population status.
- 2010Near Threatened
There was a slight decrease observed in Karimunjawa, Indonesia from 2005–2007. In Karimunjawa this species was observed to be common but not abundant (S. Pardede pers comm. 2009).
Fishing pressure has increased and will undoubtedly continue to increase throughout its range. Based on estimates in the central Philippines (Stockwell et al. 2009), it is estimated that over the next 15 years, population declines will approach 30%.
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).