- Bruce, R.W. and J.E. Randall 1984 Scaridae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. (Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51). volume 3. [var. pag.] FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3488)
- Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
Habitat and Ecology
- Allen, G.R. and M.V. Erdmann 2012 Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth, Australia: Universitiy of Hawai'i Press, Volumes I-III. Tropical Reef Research. (Ref. 90102)
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.
Depth range (m): 1 - 1
Temperature range (°C): 28.006 - 28.006
Nitrate (umol/L): 0.402 - 0.402
Salinity (PPS): 34.563 - 34.563
Oxygen (ml/l): 4.503 - 4.503
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.220 - 0.220
Silicate (umol/l): 4.752 - 4.752
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 2010Least Concern
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
- Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Russell, B., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Chlorurus enneacanthus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 September 2013.
- "Facts about Parrotfish (Chlorurus enneacanthus) - Encyclopedia of Life". Eol.org. 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2013-11-12.
- "Chlorurus enneacanthus, captain parrotfish : fisheries". Fishbase.org. 2012-07-03. Retrieved 2013-11-12.
- Media related to Chlorurus enneacanthus at Wikimedia Commons
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