Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found on shallow fringing reefs. Usually in areas with dead coral and rubble (Ref. 9710). Feeds on benthic algae. Also caught with nets and other kinds of artisanal gear. Mainly sold fresh.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in the Indian Ocean from East Africa (Kenya to Mozambique) and islands of southwestern Indian Ocean to East Andaman Sea (G. Allen pers comm. 2009). It was recorded from Halmahera (Green and Muljadi 2009), however this record needs to be verified.
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Western Indian Ocean: known so far from Mozambique, Mauritius, Chagos Archipelago, and Maldives. Recently recorded from Reunion (Ref. 53568). Probably more widespread.
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Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique, Seychelles and Mascarenes east to Maldives and Chagos Archipelago.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 500 mm NG
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Max. size

50.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710))
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is a reef front and reef crest excavating species that occurs to 30 m depth. It has been observed to 60 cm (TL) in Christmas Island.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
  Temperature range (°C): 28.006 - 28.006
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.402 - 0.402
  Salinity (PPS): 34.563 - 34.563
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.503 - 4.503
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.220 - 0.220
  Silicate (umol/l): 4.752 - 4.752
 
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Trophic Strategy

Found on shallow fringing reefs. Usually in areas with dead coral and rubble (Ref. 9710). Feeds on benthic algae.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Russell, B., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.

Reviewer/s
McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widely distributed and is not specifically targeted in the Indian Ocean. It is abundant at remote reef systems including Cocos-Keeling and occurs in a number of marine protected areas throughout its range. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.

History
  • 2010
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
Abundance estimates of this species at Cocos Keeling recorded ~5-10 individuals per 300 m2 (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009) but it is rare at other sites. It has also been observed in Chagos, Maldives and Mauritius but always rare (Randall and Bruce 1983).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
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Wikipedia

Chlorurus enneacanthus

Chlorurus enneacanthus, known commonly as the captain parrotfish, is a species of marine fish in the family Scaridae.

The captain parrotfish is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the Indian Ocean region.[2]

The captain parrotfish is a medium size fish and can reach a maximum size of 50 cm length.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Russell, B., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Chlorurus enneacanthus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 September 2013.
  2. ^ "Facts about Parrotfish (Chlorurus enneacanthus) - Encyclopedia of Life". Eol.org. 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2013-11-12. 
  3. ^ "Chlorurus enneacanthus, captain parrotfish : fisheries". Fishbase.org. 2012-07-03. Retrieved 2013-11-12. 
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