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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits deep reefs (Ref. 27370). Benthopelagic in or near crevices and caves (Ref. 58302).
  • Randall, J.E. 1998 Revision of the Indo-Pacific squirrelfishes (Beryciformes: Holocentridae: Holocentrinae) of the genus Sargocentron, with descriptions of four new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (27):105 p. (Ref. 27370)
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Distribution

Pacific Ocean: southern Japan to New Caledonia, Hawaii and Pitcairn.
  • Randall, J.E. and C. Heemstra 1985 A review of the squirrelfishes of the subfamily Holocentrinae from the western Indian Ocean and Red Sea. Ichthyol. Bull. J.L.B. Smith Inst. Ichthyol. (49):1-29. (Ref. 7459)
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Western and Central Pacific, antiequatorial: South China Sea, Ryukyu Islands and southern Japan, Hawaiian Islands; New Caledonia, Pitcairn Group.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14; Analspines: 4; Analsoft rays: 9 - 11
  • Randall, J.E. 1998 Revision of the Indo-Pacific squirrelfishes (Beryciformes: Holocentridae: Holocentrinae) of the genus Sargocentron, with descriptions of four new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (27):105 p. (Ref. 27370)
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Size

Maximum size: 230 mm SL
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Max. size

23.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 27370))
  • Randall, J.E. 1998 Revision of the Indo-Pacific squirrelfishes (Beryciformes: Holocentridae: Holocentrinae) of the genus Sargocentron, with descriptions of four new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (27):105 p. (Ref. 27370)
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Diagnostic Description

Body with alternate red and yellow stripes dorsally, and with red and silvery white on side; ventrally, the yellow stripes often as a series of close-set spots, one per scale; head red, an oblique silvery white streak below eye and a vertical one on edge of preopercle; spinous dorsal fin yellow with narrow red margin; white caudal fin with a submarginal red band in each lobe, converging and broadening basally. Five oblique rows of scales on cheek. Body depth 2.5-2.85 in SL; head length 2.6-2.95 in SL; snout length 3.4-3.9 in head length; interorbital width 5.3-6.0 in head length; slightly projecting lower jaw. Maxilla either extending slightly beyond a vertical at front edge of pupil or reaching below center of eye; upper jaw length 2.3-2.65 in head length; premaxillary groove extending to or slightly posterior to a vertical at anterior edge of orbit; anterior end of nasal bone rounded; medial margin of nasal bone without spinule; edge of nasal fossa with 1 to 7 spinules; upper edge of suborbital bones below anterior half of eye without a spine or serrae (below posterior half weakly serrated); preopercular spine about 2/3 times in orbit diameter, 4.3-5.3 in head length; 1st and 2nd dorsal spine subequal, usually the 3rd is the longest, 2.15-2.7 in head length; 3rd anal spine 1.55-1.75 in head length. Usually 10 anal soft rays (Ref. 27370).
  • Randall, J.E. 1998 Revision of the Indo-Pacific squirrelfishes (Beryciformes: Holocentridae: Holocentrinae) of the genus Sargocentron, with descriptions of four new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (27):105 p. (Ref. 27370)
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Type Information

Holotype for Holocentrus ensifer Jordan & Evermann
Catalog Number: USNM 50637
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan & B. Evermann
Locality: Honolulu, Hawaii, Oahu, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific
  • Holotype: Jordan, D. S. & Evermann, B. W. 1903. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission. 22 (for 1902): 176.
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Paratype for Holocentrus ensifer Jordan & Evermann
Catalog Number: USNM 126155
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan & B. Evermann
Year Collected: 1901
Locality: Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific
  • Paratype: Jordan, D. S. & Evermann, B. W. 1903. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission. 22 (for 1902): 176.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 0 - 64 m (Ref. 27370), usually 0 - 40 m (Ref. 37816)
  • Myers, R.F. 1999 Micronesian reef fishes: a comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia, 3rd revised and expanded edition. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 330 p. (Ref. 37816)
  • Randall, J.E. 1998 Revision of the Indo-Pacific squirrelfishes (Beryciformes: Holocentridae: Holocentrinae) of the genus Sargocentron, with descriptions of four new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (27):105 p. (Ref. 27370)
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 64 - 64
  Temperature range (°C): 23.741 - 23.741
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.019 - 0.019
  Salinity (PPS): 35.173 - 35.173
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.838 - 4.838
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.135 - 0.135
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.423 - 1.423
 
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Depth: 18 - 64m.
From 18 to 64 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits deep rocky reefs (Ref. 9137).
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
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