Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found in clear coastal and inner reefs (Ref. 48636); in lagoons and channel reefs (Ref. 2334). Feed mainly on algae (Ref. 26993). Females usually in small groups and maybe mixed with other species when feeding; males solitary nearby (Ref. 48636).
  • Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene 1990 Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found from western Indonesia, to the Philippines, extending eastwards to Vanuatu, including the Great Barrier Reef. It is absent from Christmas and Cocos-Keeling. It was recorded from Aceh, Indonesia (S. Pardede pers comm. 2009). It was recorded from Vietnam (Dung 2007, R.F. Myers pers comm. 2010).
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Western Central Pacific: Moluccas north to the Marshall Islands, south to Rowley Shoals (?), the Great Barrier Reef, and Vanuatu.
  • Randall, J.E. and J.H. Choat 1980 Two new parrotfishes of the genus Scarus from the Central and South Pacific, with further examples of sexual dichromatism. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 70:383-419. (Ref. 2689)
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Western Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9
  • Randall, J.E. and J.H. Choat 1980 Two new parrotfishes of the genus Scarus from the Central and South Pacific, with further examples of sexual dichromatism. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 70:383-419. (Ref. 2689)
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Size

Maximum size: 490 mm NG
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Max. size

49.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710))
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Diagnostic Description

Scales large. 4 medial predorsal scales; 2 scale rows on cheek. Caudal fin truncate in both phases. Lips do not cover dental plates. Adults with 1-2 canines posteriorly on side of upper dental plate. The initial phase is reddish-brown with a diffuse yellowish patch in the center of the caudal peduncle and markings on the lips similar to those of the terminal male (Ref. 1602). Males identified by white patch on cheek and females strongly barred (Ref. 48636).
  • Randall, J.E. and J.H. Choat 1980 Two new parrotfishes of the genus Scarus from the Central and South Pacific, with further examples of sexual dichromatism. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 70:383-419. (Ref. 2689)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is a moderately sized non-schooling species, characteristic of outer reef flats and slopes. It tends to inhabit sheltered to moderately exposed reef environments but rare on exposed ocean reef fronts. It is not recorded from exposed reefs in the Coral Sea. Large terminal phase males are usually between 30-40 cm (TL).

Generation length justification: 14(longevity) -2(age of maturity) = 7/2 = 3.5 or 4 years

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 3 - 35 m (Ref. 90102)
  • Allen, G.R. and M.V. Erdmann 2012 Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth, Australia: Universitiy of Hawai'i Press, Volumes I-III. Tropical Reef Research. (Ref. 90102)
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Depth range based on 4 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 3 - 20
  Temperature range (°C): 28.642 - 28.988
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.292 - 0.376
  Salinity (PPS): 34.003 - 34.646
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.454 - 4.577
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.057 - 0.199
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.340 - 1.376

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 3 - 20

Temperature range (°C): 28.642 - 28.988

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.292 - 0.376

Salinity (PPS): 34.003 - 34.646

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.454 - 4.577

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.057 - 0.199

Silicate (umol/l): 1.340 - 1.376
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Occurs inshore (Ref. 75154). Feeds by scraping algae from the substrate (Ref. 26993).
  • Bellwood, D.R. and J.H. Choat 1990 A functional analysis of grazing in parrotfishes (family Scaridae): the ecological implications. Environ. Biol. Fish. 28:189-214. (Ref. 26993)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chlorurus bleekeri

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Russell, B., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.

Reviewer/s
McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is heavily fished in about 70% of its range with significant population reductions recorded from some locations, such as in the central Philippines. However, it is a widespread species and is still common and not heavily fished at some sites over the eastern parts of its range and in Australia. It occurs in a number of remote areas and in marine reserves. Although there are numerous marine reserves in the Coral Triangle Region at the present time, most reserves are not very well managed. However, in well-managed reserves parrotfishes tend to recover comparatively quickly and therefore increased management in protected areas and potentially fishery protection might offset the overexploitation of this species. It is therefore listed as Least Concern. However, we recommend further monitoring of harvest levels and species catch data.


History
  • 2010
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
This species is not abundant over most of its range. It achieves greatest abundance in the central Philippines with 2-4 individuals per 500 m2 (Stockwell et al. 2009). It is considered to be the most abundant parrotfish in the Solomon Islands (Green et al. 2006). In the Solomons, it makes up approximately 10% of the catch. Since 2005, the percentage represented in the catch is increasing. The percentage of the smaller parrotfish is also increasing (Sabetian 2009).

In Karimunjawa National Park, Java Sea, underwater visual census (UVC) show that this species has displayed a 10-fold decrease in numbers from 2005-2006. In 2007, there was a 2-fold increase in Karimunjawa and Aceh (S. Pardede pers comm. 2009). It is common in Raja Ampat (Allen 2003).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Overfishing, destructive fishing practices and habitat degradation are the the major threats to this species in the Coral Triangle Region. In the Philippines, local fishing can reduce numbers of parrotfishes by 50-60% over a period of approximately 20-30 years (Stockwell et al. 2009).

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial; price category: high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Burgess, W.E., H.R. Axelrod and R.E. Hunziker III 1990 Dr. Burgess's atlas of marine aquarium fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 768 p.
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Wikipedia

Chlorurus bleekeri

Chlorurus bleekeri, known commonly as Bleeker's parrotfish , is a species of marine fish in the family Scaridae.

Bleeker's parrotfish is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the central Indo-Pacific region.[2] It feeds on filamentous algae. It is a medium-sized fish and can reach a maximum size of 49 cm length.[3] Males are more colorful than females.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Russell, B., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Chlorurus bleekeri. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 September 2013.
  2. ^ http://eol.org/pages/1156910/details#distribution
  3. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/summary/4976
  4. ^ http://www.whatsthatfish.com/fish/bleekers-parrotfish/1913
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