Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: four-eye (English), four-eyes (English), cuatro-ojos (Espanol)
 
Anableps dowei Gill, 1861

Northern four-eye,     Pacific four-eyes

Elongate, body rounded at front, compressed at rear; head wide, depressed, pointed at front in side view, with upper profile horizontal; eyes elevated on top of head and divided longitudinally, producing two pupils in each eye; mouth at top front, upper jaw longer; teeth simple; nostrils tubular; gill membranes joined under throat (but not fused) to throat; pelvic fins on belly well behind tips of pectorals; dorsal fin (7-10 rays), short, well behind anal fin, at rear of body on base of tail; fertilization is internal, male sex organ is a scaly tube formed by first three anal fin rays; scales small, 50-96 in lateral series.

Upper 3/4 of body and upper ½ of head dark brown, lower parts whitish; a creamy yellow stripe along the midside from the eye to the base of the tail fin; tail, dorsal and pectoral fins dark brown, anal and pelvic fins pale brown.

Size: reaches 34 cm.

Habitat: lives at the surface layer.

Habitat freshwater, and, sometimes (as in the Gulf of Fonseca, El Salvador), in saline mangrove areas at the mouths of rivers.

Depth: 0-5 m.

Southern Mexico (Oaxaca) to Nicaragua.   
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Biology

Occurs in fresh water to full salinity coastal lagoons. Used in eye research.
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Distribution

Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 5 (S)
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, Mexican + Panamic provinces endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos)
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Central America: Pacific drainages, from southern Mexico to Nicaragua.
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Mexico to Nicaragua: El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Nicaragua.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 34.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 220 mm TL
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Max. size

22.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2059)); 34 cm TL (female)
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Type Information

Holotype for Anableps dowei
Catalog Number: USNM 6048
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Radiograph
Collector(s): J. Dow
Locality: San Salvador, San Salvador Department, El Salvador, North America
  • Holotype: Gill, T. N. 1861. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 13: 4.
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 13 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.18 - 1
  Temperature range (°C): 28.348 - 29.261
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.769 - 1.614
  Salinity (PPS): 33.475 - 33.936
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.584 - 4.637
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.202 - 0.325
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.365 - 2.947

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.18 - 1

Temperature range (°C): 28.348 - 29.261

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.769 - 1.614

Salinity (PPS): 33.475 - 33.936

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.584 - 4.637

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.202 - 0.325

Silicate (umol/l): 2.365 - 2.947
 
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Salinity: Marine, Brackish, Freshwater

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Surface, Near Surface, Bottom

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Estuary, Mangrove, Freshwater

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Environment

demersal; freshwater; brackish; marine
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Depth range based on 13 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.18 - 1
  Temperature range (°C): 28.348 - 29.261
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.769 - 1.614
  Salinity (PPS): 33.475 - 33.936
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.584 - 4.637
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.202 - 0.325
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.365 - 2.947

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.18 - 1

Temperature range (°C): 28.348 - 29.261

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.769 - 1.614

Salinity (PPS): 33.475 - 33.936

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.584 - 4.637

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.202 - 0.325

Silicate (umol/l): 2.365 - 2.947
 
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore, Herbivore, Detritivore

Diet: benthic microalgae, detritus, bony fishes, Insects
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Live birth, No pelagic larva, No pelagic phase
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
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