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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits coastal rocky and coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Feeds on algae from hard substratum (Ref. 9710). Forms small groups (Ref. 90102).
  • Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino 1984 The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found from the Ryukyu Islands in the north, southwards to Sulawesi and Halmahera, Indonesia. It was recently recorded from Manus Island and East Timor. Records from the Indian Ocean and North West Australia may be C. cyanescens and C. rhakoura respectively.
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Indo-West Pacific: Sri Lanka to the Philippines, north to the Ryukyu Islands.
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Indo-West Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9
  • Shao, K.T. and L.-W. Chen 1989 Fishes of the family Scaridae from Taiwan. Bull. Inst. Zool. Academia Sinica 28(1):15-39. (Ref. 43542)
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Size

Maximum size: 420 mm NG
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Max. size

42.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710))
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Diagnostic Description

Head with a hump, right above eye and vertically abrupt to snout. Median predorsal scales 3. Cheek with 3 scale rows (upper and middle rows 5, lower 1 or 2).
  • Shao, K.T. and L.-W. Chen 1989 Fishes of the family Scaridae from Taiwan. Bull. Inst. Zool. Academia Sinica 28(1):15-39. (Ref. 43542)
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Type Information

Type for Chlorurus oedema
Catalog Number: USNM 62951
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): C. Gilbert, J. Snyder, M. Sindo, H. Heath, C. Burke, H. Torrey & A. Clark
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Naha, Okinawa, Japan., Okinawa, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Pacific
Vessel: Albatross
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 90102)
  • Allen, G.R. and M.V. Erdmann 2012 Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth, Australia: Universitiy of Hawai'i Press, Volumes I-III. Tropical Reef Research. (Ref. 90102)
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is a small Chlorurus not exceeding 45 cm (TL). It is found solitary or in small groups on reef fronts (Bellwood 2001). It is found in a variety of reef habitats and can occupy inshore reef areas (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth: 0 - 35m.
Recorded at 35 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs inshore (Ref. 75154). Inhabits coastal rocky and coral reefs. Feeds on algae from hard substratum.
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.

Reviewer/s
McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is relatively rare and is therefore not heavily exploited. It is found in marine protected areas in parts of its range. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.

History
  • 2010
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species. It is a relatively rare species over its entire range (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.
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