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BiologyOccurs in inshore habitats, estuaries and brackish- and fresh-water lagoons and lakes; large to medium sized rivers and streams; on sand or mud bottom. It is one of the most abundant fish in lowland rivers. This species lives up to 5 years; spawns for the first time at 2 years; spawning season in April to July, locally until September, when temperature is above 13°C; females may repeat spawning during a season. Males with body completely black with yellow fin margins during the spawning season; these excavate nests under any kind of hard substrate and guard eggs until hatching; with adhesive eggs deposited on stones, shells and aquatic plants. Feeds on a variety of invertebrates, especially molluscs (Ref.59043).