The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2015). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Sep 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • L. 1759. In: Syst. Nat. ed. 10 , 2: 1082
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 1082. 1759. (Syst. Nat. (ed. 10))
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
    1. Allen, Thomas J., and Jack 1. Cromer. 1977. White-tailed  deer in West Virginia. West Virginia Department of Natural  Resources Wildlife Resources Division, Bulletin 7.  Charleston. 66 p.
    3. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication 1175.  Washington, DC. 642 p.
    5. Betts, H. S. 1945. Magnolia. USDA Forest Service, American  Woods. Washington, DC. 6 p.
    7. Coker, William C., and Henry R. Totten. 1937. Trees of the  Southeastern States. University of North Carolina Press,  Chapel Hill. 417 p.
    9. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    11. Hardin, J. W. 1972. Studies of the southeastern  United States flora. III. Magnoliaceae and Illiciaceae.  Journal of Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 88(l):30-32. 
    13. Heit, C. E. 1975. Propagation from seed. Collecting,  testing, and growing magnolia species. American Nurseryman  142(6):10-11, 79-85.
    15. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    17. Knierim, Phillip G., Kenneth L. Carvell, and John D. Gill.  1971. Browse in thinned oak and cove hardwood stands.  Journal of Wildlife Management 35:163-168.
    19. Lewey, Helen J. 1975. Trees of the North Central  States-their distribution and uses. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report NC-12. North Central Forest  Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 11 p.
    21. Martin, Alexander D., Herbert S. Zim, and Arnold L. Nelson.  1951. American wildlife and plants. A guide to wildlife food  habits. Dover Publications, New York. 500 p.
    23. McDaniel, Joseph C. 1963. Securing seed production in Magnolia  acuminata and M. cordata. In Proceedings,  Thirteenth Annual Meeting of International Plant Propagators  Society, Eastern Region. 327 p.
    25. McDaniel, Joseph C. 1968. Magnolia hybrids and selections.  In Proceedings, Sixth Central States Forest Tree  Improvement Conference. p. 6-12. North Central Forest  Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN.
    27. McDaniel, Joseph C. 1974. Magnolia breeding possibilities.  Plants and Gardens 30(l):74-77.
    29. McDaniel, Joseph C. 1975. Magnolias you can count on.  Illinois Research 17(13):12-13.
    31. McDaniel, Joseph C. 1976. The big leaf clan, magnolia  species in the United States. American Horticulture  55(6):18-21.
    33. Mitchell, Richard S., and Ernest 0. Beal. 1979. Magnoliaceae  through Ceratophyllaceae of New York State. New York State  Museum Bulletin 435. Albany. 62 p.
    35. Olson, David F., Jr., R. L. Barns, and Leroy Jones. 1974.  Magnolia L. In Seeds of woody plants in the  United States. p. 527-530. C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450.  Washington, DC.
    37. Specht, Carl H. 1977. United States patents. Magnolia tree.  Plant patents. Plant 4, 145. U.S. Patent Office, Washington,  DC. I p.
    39. Spongberg, Stephen A. 1976a. Magnoliaceae hardy in temperate  North America. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum  57(3):250-312.
    41. Spongberg, Stephen A. 1976b. Some old and new interspecific  magnolia hybrids. Arnoldia 36(4):129-145.
    43. Thien, L. B. 1974. Floral biology of magnolia. American  Journal of Botany 61(10):1037-1045.
    45. Treseder, Neil G. 1978. Magnolias. Faber and Faber, London.  246 p.
    47. Trimble, George R., Jr. 1975. Summaries of some silvical  characteristics of several Appalachian hardwood trees. USDA  Forest Service, General Technical Report NE-16. Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 5 p.
    49. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1941. Climate and man. U.S .  Department of Agriculture, Yearbook of Agriculture 1941.  Washington, DC. 1248 p.
    51. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1973. Growing magnolias.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Home and Garden Bulletin 132  (rev.). Washington, DC. 7 p.
    53. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1974. Wood  handbook: Wood as an engineering material. U.S. Department  of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 72 (rev.). Washington,  DC. 433 p. (var. paging.)
    55. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.  1975. Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classification  for making and interpreting soil surveys. Soil Survey Staff,  coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook  436. Washington, DC. 754 p.
    57. U.S. Department of Commerce, Environmental Science Service  Administration. 1968. Climatic atlas of the United States.  Washington, DC.
        80 p.
    59. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the  United States: their erosion control and wildlife values.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous  Publication 303. Washington, DC. 362 p.


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