The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • "Magnolia grandiflora". Encyclopedia of Life, available from:
  • 1. Baker, James B.; Langdon, O. Gordon. 1990. Pinus taeda L. loblolly pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 497-512. [13410]
  • 10. Garren, Kenneth H. 1943. Effects of fire on vegetation of the southeastern United States. Botanical Review. 9: 617-654. [9517]
  • 12. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 13. Glitzenstein, Jeff S.; Harcombe, Paul A.; Streng, Donna R. 1986. Disturbance, succession, and maintenance of species diversity in an east Texas forest. Ecological Monographs. 56(3): 243-258. [9670]
  • 14. Gumeringer, Karen. 1989. Magnolia (Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae). Forest World. 5(3): 44-45. [11080]
  • 15. Hare, Robert C. 1961. Heat effects on living plants. Occ. Pap. 183. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,Southern Forest Experiment Station. 32 p. [6708]
  • 16. Hare, Robert C. 1965. Contribution of bark to fire resistance of southern trees. Journal of Forestry. 63(4): 248-251. [9915]
  • 18. Kurz, Herman. 1944. Secondary forest succession in the Tallahassee Red Hills. Proceedings, Florida Academy of Science. 7(1): 59-100. [10799]
  • 19. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 2. Bray, William L. 1901. The ecological relations of the vegetation of western Texas. Botanical Gazette. 32: 99-123. [4447]
  • 21. Metzger, F. T. 1990. Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch eastern hophornbeam. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 490-496. [13970]
  • 22. Myers, Ronald; White, Deborah L. 1987. Landscape history and changes in sandhill vegetation in north-central and south-central Florida. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 114(1): 21-32. [9782]
  • 23. Olson, David F.; Barnes, R. L.; Jones, Leroy. 1974. Magnolia L. Magnolia. In: Schopmeyer, C. S, ed. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 527-530. [7701]
  • 24. Adams, David L. 1972. Natural regeneration following four treatments of slash on clearcut areas of lodgepole pine--a case history. Stn. Note No. 19. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station. 2 p. [12257]
  • 27. Simpfendorfer, K. J. 1989. Trees, farms and fires. Land and Forests Bulletin No. 30. Victoria, Australia: Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands, Lands and Forests Division. 55 p. [10649]
  • 28. Tubbs, Carl H.; Houston, David R. 1990. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. American beech. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 325-332. [13964]
  • 29. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 3. Daubenmire, Rexford. 1990. The Magnolia grandiflora-Quercus virginiana forest of Florida. American Midland Naturalist. 123: 331-347. [10871]
  • 30. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 32. St. John, Harold. 1973. List and summary of the flowering plants in the Hawaiian islands. Hong Kong: Cathay Press Limited. 519 p. [25354]
  • 5. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • 6. Engstrom, R. Todd; Crawford, Robert L.; Baker, W. Wilson. 1984. Breeding bird populations in relation to changing forest structure following fire exclusion: a 15-year study. Wilson Bulletin. 96(3): 437-450. [9873]
  • 8. Feldman, Thomas D. 1987. Fire control and ecological succession in McCarty Woods, Hernando County , Florida. Florida Geographer. 21: 15-19. [8689]
  • 9. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • Breedlove, D.E. 1986. Flora de Chiapas. Listados Floríst. México 4: i–v, 1–246.
  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. External link.
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Flora of China Editorial Committee. 1988-2013. Flora of China (Checklist & Addendum). Unpaginated. In C. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong (eds.) Fl. China. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Dicot. 1–944. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2013). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Oct 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Hernández-Cerda, M.E. 1980. Magnoliaceae. INIREB. (14). Xalapa, Veracruz, México.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & C. Ulloa Ulloa. 1994. Seed plants of the high Andes of Ecuador–A checklist. AAU Rep. 34: 1–443.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez. (eds.) 1999. Cat. Vasc. Pl. Ecuador, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Miss. Bot. Gard. 75: i–viii, 1–1181. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • L. 1759. In: Syst. Nat. ed. 10 , 2: 1082
  • Linares, J. L. 2003 [2005]. Listado comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la república de El Salvador. Ceiba 44(2): 105–268.
  • Lozano-Contreras, G. 1983. Magnoliaceae. 1: 1–119. In Fl. Colombia. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá.
  • Magnolia grandiflora "Charles Dickens"
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Molina Rosito, A. 1975. Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 19(1): 1–118.
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali (eds). 1980-2005. Fl. Pakistan Univ. of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1946. Magnoliaceae. In Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (Eds), Flora of Guatemala - Part IV. Fieldiana, Bot. 24(4): 266–269.
  • Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 1082. 1759. (Syst. Nat. (ed. 10))
  • Thien, L.B. 1974. Floral Biology of Magnolia. American Journal of Botany. 61 (10) : 1037-1045.
  • Vazquez-G., J. A. 1994. Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) in Mexico and Central America. Brittonia 46(1): 1–23.
  • Vázquez, J.A. 1994. Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) in México and Central America. Brittonia. 1 (46) : 1-23.
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
    1. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175  Washington, DC. 642 p.
    3. Bennett, F. A. 1965. Southern magnolia (Magnolia  grandiflora L.). In Silvics of forest trees of  the United States. p. 274-276. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271.  Washington, DC.
    5. Blaisdell, R. S., J. Wooten, and R. K. Godfrey. 1973. The  role of magnolia and beech in forest processes in the  Tallahassee, Florida, Thomasville, Georgia area.  Proceedings, Thirteenth Annual Tall Timbers Fire Ecology  Conference. p. 363-397.
    7. Clark, A. M., F. S. El-Feraly, and W. S. Li. 1981.  Antimicrobial activity of phenolic constituents of Magnolia  grandiflora L. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences  70(8):951-952.
    9. Davis, T. L. 1981. Chemistry of Magnolia grandiflora  L. Diss. (Ph.D.) University of Florida, Gainesville. 117  p.
    11. Delcourt, H. R., and P. A. Delcourt. 1977. Presettlement  magnolia-beech climax of the Gulf Coastal Plain:  quantitative evidence from the Apalachicola River bluffs,  north-central Florida. Ecology 58(5):1085-1093.
    13. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    15. Glitzenstein, J. S., P. A. Harcombe, and D. R. Streng. 1986.  Disturbance succession and maintenance of species  diversity in an east Texas USA forest. Ecological Monographs  56(3):243-258.
    17. Halls, L. K. 1977. Southern magnolia/Magnolia  grandiflora L. In Southern fruit-producing woody  plants used by wildlife. p. 196-197. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report SO-16. Southern Forest Experiment  Station, New Orleans, LA.
    19. Hare, R. C. 1965. Contribution of bark to fire resistance of  southern trees. Journal of Forestry 63(4):248-251.
    21. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    23. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375  p.
    25. McDaniel, J. C. 1968. Magnolia hybrids and selections. In  Proceedings, Sixth Central States Forest Tree  Improvement Conference. p. 6-14.
    27. Maisenhelder, L. C. 1970. Magnolia. USDA Forest Service,  American Woods FS-245. Washington, DC. 7 p.
    29. Monk, C. D. 1965. Southern mixed hardwood forest of  north-central Florida. Ecological Monographs 35(4):335-354. 
    31. Quarterman, E., and C. Keever. 1962. Southern mixed hardwood  forest: climax in the Southeastern Coastal Plain, U.S.A.  Ecological Monographs 32(2):167-185.
    33. Rehder, Alfred. 1960. Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs.  2d ed. p. 249-250. Macmillan, New York.
    35. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1985.  Insects of eastern forests. A. T. Drooz (ed.). U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication  1426. Washington, DC. 608 p.
    37. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1974. Seeds  of woody plants in the United States. C. S. Schopmeyer,  tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture  Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 883 p.
    39. White, D. A. 1987. An American beech-dominated  original growth forest in southeast Louisiana USA. Bulletin  of Torrey Botanical Club 114(2):127-133.
  • “Magnolia grandiflora.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Available from:
  • “Magnoliaceae.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Available from:


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