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Overview

Brief Summary

Magnoliaceae -- Magnolia family

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), also called  evergreen magnolia, bull-bay, big-laurel, or large-flower  magnolia, has large fragrant white flowers and evergreen leaves  that make it one of the most splendid of forest trees and a very  popular ornamental that has been planted around the world. This  moderately fast-growing medium-sized tree grows best on rich,  moist, well-drained soils of the bottoms and low uplands of the  Coastal Plains of Southeastern United States. It grows with other  hardwoods and is marketed as magnolia lumber along with other  magnolia species to make furniture, pallets, and veneer. Wildlife  eat the seeds, and florists prize the leathery foliage.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Kenneth W. Outcalt

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There are about 225 species in the magnolia family. This is one of the oldest families of flowering plants. It appeared before bees did, so almost all species are pollinated by beetles. The southern magnolia has leathery leaves and large, white flowers that smell lemony. This tree is planted in gardens. It is also used to make furniture.

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Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Temperate America"
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Sindhudurg Karnataka: Coorg Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Nilgiri"
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The range of southern magnolia extends from North Carolina along the
Atlantic Coast to central Florida, westward through the southern half of
Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, and across Louisiana into eastern
Texas [2,24]. It is cultivated in Hawaii [32].
  • 32. St. John, Harold. 1973. List and summary of the flowering plants in the Hawaiian islands. Hong Kong: Cathay Press Limited. 519 p. [25354]
  • 2. Bray, William L. 1901. The ecological relations of the vegetation of western Texas. Botanical Gazette. 32: 99-123. [4447]
  • 24. Adams, David L. 1972. Natural regeneration following four treatments of slash on clearcut areas of lodgepole pine--a case history. Stn. Note No. 19. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station. 2 p. [12257]

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Occurrence in North America

AL FL GA HI LA MS NC SC TX

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The range of southern magnolia extends from eastern North  Carolina, south along the Atlantic Coast to the Peace River in  central Florida, then westward through roughly the southern half  of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, and across Louisiana into  southeast Texas. It is most prevalent in Louisiana, Mississippi,  and Texas (12,14).

   
  -The native range of southern magnolia.


  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Kenneth W. Outcalt

Source: Silvics of North America

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Distribution: A native of Southern United States, widely introduced and cultivated in Europe and temperate countries.
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Nepal.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees , evergreen, single-trunked, to 37 m. Bark gray, rough, thick, furrowed in thick plates. Pith diaphragmed. Twigs and foliar buds densely red- or white-hairy. Leaves distinctly alternate, not in terminal whorl-like clusters; stipules 2, free, 4.5-13 × 1.5-3.5 cm, abaxially densely brown-silky, sometimes deeply notched. Leaf blade narrowly to broadly elliptic or oblanceolate, (7.5-)13-20(-26) × (4.5-)6-10(-12.5) cm, thick-leathery, base narrowly cuneate, apex abruptly tapered and acute to short-acuminate, rarely obtuse; surfaces abaxially glabrous to densely red-brown felted, adaxially bright green, lustrous, glabrous. Flowers strongly lemony fragrant, 15-30(-45) cm across; spathaceous bracts 2, leathery, outer bract abaxially brown to grayish pilose, deeply notched, smaller, inner bract adaxially densely brown to grayish pilose, shallowly notched, larger; tepals creamy white; stamens (179-)213-383(-405), 16-29 mm; filaments purple; pistils (45-)55-81(-89). Follicetums cylindric to somewhat obovoid, 7-10 × 3.5-5 cm; follicles beaked, sparsely to densely silky-villous. Seeds lenticular to narrowly ellipsoid, (9-)12-14 mm, adaxially slightly grooved, aril red. 2 n =114.
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Description

More info for the term: perfect

Southern magnolia is a fast-growing, medium-sized, native evergreen tree
that grows 60 to 90 feet (18-27 m) tall [9,12]. The large, white
flowers are perfect and fragrant. The seeds are drupelike with a soft,
fleshy outer seed coat and an inner stony portion. Southern magnolia
develops a deep taproot. As trees grow the root structure changes.
Trees of sapling stage and beyond have a rather extensive root system.
Older trees develop a fluted base with the ridges corresponding to the
attachment of major lateral roots [5,12].
  • 9. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 5. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • 12. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]

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Description

An evergreen tree, 14-30 m tall; branchlets hoary tomentose, tomentum dwindling with age. Leaves 12-25 cm long, 6-10 cm broad, elliptic-oblong, ovate to obovate, entire, bright green above, usually rusty tomentose beneath, rarely glabrous; apex acute, obtuse or acuminate; base cuneate; stipules forming a long conical sheath covering the bud. Flowers solitary, terminal, 15-25 cm in diameter, fragrant; pedicel stout, l.5-3 cm long; bracts rusty tomentose. Perianth 9-15, concave, the outer broader and longer, oval to ovate, 6-9 cm long, 3-5.5 cm broad, oblanceolate, acuminate. Stamens l.25-2 cm long; filaments bright purple; anthers adnate, yellow, introrse. Carpels l-2 ovuled; fruiting carpels ovate to obovate, 1.5-3 cm long, rusty brown tomen¬tose, dehiscing by dorsal suture. Seeds l-l.25 cm long, obovoid or triangular-obovoid, bright red.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
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Synonym

Magnolia ferruginea Z.Collins ex Rafinesque; M. foetida (Linnaeus) Sargent; M. lacunosa Rafinesque; M. virginiana Linnaeus var. foetida Linnaeus
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat characteristics

Southern magnolia grows best on rich, loamy, moist soils along streams
and near swamps in the Coastal Plain [1,21]. It grows also on mesic
upland sites where fire is rare. Although primarily a bottomland
species, southern magnolia cannot withstand prolonged inundation;
consequently, it is found mostly on alluvium and outwash sites [24]. No
part of its range is higher than 500 feet (150 m) in elevation and most
of it is less than 200 feet (60 m). Coastal areas within its range are
less than 100 feet (30 m) above sea level. In the northern parts of its
range in Georgia and Mississippi, it is found at elevations of 300 to
400 feet (90-120 m) [5,12,24]. In additon to those listed under under
Distribution and Occurrence, common overstory associates include
American beech (Fagus grandifolia), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua),
yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), live oak (Quercus virginiana),
southern red oak (Q. falcata), white oak (Q. alba), mockernut hickory
(Carya tomentosa), and pignut hickory (C. glabra). Some common
understory associates include flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), swamp
dogwood (C. stricta), strawberry-bush (Euonymus americanus), southern
bayberry (Myrica cerifera), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus
quinquefolia), greenbrier (Smilax spp.), and grape (Vitis spp.) [21,28].
  • 5. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • 12. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 1. Baker, James B.; Langdon, O. Gordon. 1990. Pinus taeda L. loblolly pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 497-512. [13410]
  • 21. Metzger, F. T. 1990. Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch eastern hophornbeam. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 490-496. [13970]
  • 24. Adams, David L. 1972. Natural regeneration following four treatments of slash on clearcut areas of lodgepole pine--a case history. Stn. Note No. 19. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station. 2 p. [12257]
  • 28. Tubbs, Carl H.; Houston, David R. 1990. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. American beech. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 325-332. [13964]

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Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the terms: hardwood, swamp

69 Sand pine
70 Longleaf pine
71 Longleaf pine - scrub oak
72 Southern scrub oak
73 Southern redcedar
74 Cabbage palmetto
75 Shortleaf pine
76 Shortleaf pine oak
80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine
81 Loblolly pine
82 Loblolly pine - hardwood
83 Longleaf pine - slash pine
84 Slash pine
85 Slash pine - hardwood
87 Sweetgum - yellow-poplar
88 Willow oak - water oak - diamondleaf oak
89 Live oak
91 Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak
92 Sweetgum - willow oak
96 Overcup oak - water hickory
97 Atlantic white-cedar
98 Pond pine
100 Pond cypress
101 Baldcypress
102 Baldcypress - tupelo
103 Water tupelo - swamp tupelo
104 Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay
111 South Florida slash pine

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Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine
FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine
FRES14 Oak - pine
FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress

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Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

K089 Black Belt
K090 Live oak - sea oats
K091 Cypress savanna
K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest
K112 Southern mixed forest
K113 Southern floodplain forest
K114 Pocosin
K115 Sand pine scrub

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Climate

Southern magnolia grows in warm temperate to semitropical climates  (2). The frost-free period is at least 210 days and is more than  240 days for much of the range. Average January temperatures  along the coast are 9° to 12° C (49° to 54°  F) in South Carolina and Georgia and 11° to 21° C (52°  to 70° F) in Florida. Coastal temperatures average 27°  C (80° F) during July. Temperatures below -9° C (15°  F) or above 38° C (100° F) are rare within the species  natural range.

    Annual rainfall averages 1020 to 1270 mm (40 to 50 in) in the  northeastern portion of the range and 1270 to 1520 mm (50 to 60  in) in other areas. A small area along the Gulf Coast receives  1520 to 2030 mm (60 to 80 in) yearly. In the Atlantic Coastal  Plain, summer is usually wettest and autumn driest. Periodic  summer droughts occur in the western part of the range.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Kenneth W. Outcalt

Source: Silvics of North America

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Habitat & Distribution

Flowering spring. Wooded dunes, hammocks, river bottoms, mesic woods, and ravine slopes; coastal plain; 0-120m; Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., La., Miss., N.C., S.C., Tex.
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Diplodia coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodia magnoliae feeds on Magnolia grandiflora

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered to gregarious, covered, then lifting and piercing pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis magnoliicola is saprobic on dead, dry, fallen petiole of Magnolia grandiflora

Foodplant / spot causer
few, scattered pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta magnoliae causes spots on live leaf of Magnolia grandiflora
Remarks: season: 2,8

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Associated Forest Cover

Southern magnolia rarely forms pure stands but is usually  associated with a variety of mesic hardwoods. It is a minor  component of the following forest cover types (7): Southern  Redcedar (Society of American Foresters Type 73), Cabbage  Palmetto (Type 74), Loblolly Pine-Hardwood (Type 82), Live Oak  (Type 89), Swamp Chestnut Oak-Cherrybark Oak (Type 91), and  Sweetbay-Swamp Tupelo-Redbay (Type 104). Other trees commonly   associated with southern magnolia are beech (Fagus  grandifolia), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), yellowpoplar  (Liriodendron tulipifera), southern red oak Quercus  falcata), white oak (Q. alba), mockernut hickory (Carya  tomentosa), and pignut hickory (C. glabra).

    Understory associates include a wide variety of species. Typical  examples are devils-walkingstick (Aralia spinosa), flowering  dogwood (Cornus florida), swamp dogwood (C. stricta),  beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), strawberry-bush  (Euonymus americanus), southern bayberry (Myrica  cerifera), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus  quinquefolia), poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), sweetleaf  (Symplocos tinctoria), greenbriers (Similax spp.),  and muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Kenneth W. Outcalt

Source: Silvics of North America

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Diseases and Parasites

Damaging Agents

Young southern magnolia are susceptible  to fire-caused injury and mortality Winter droughts can cause  extensive dieback and mortality. A number of fungi, including  species of Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, GlomerellaPhyllosticta, and Septoria cause leaf spots but these  seldom result in any significant damage (2). A leaf spot caused  by Mycosphaerella milleri can be a problem on nursery  seedlings. A number of Fomes and Polyporus fungi  can cause heartrot in southern magnolia. Heavy infestations of  magnolia scale (Neolecanium cornuparyum) can kill  branches or entire trees (18). Oleander pit scale (Asterolecanium  pustulans) and tuliptree scale (Toumeyella liriodendriattack and injure southern magnolia, but rarely cause  mortality (1). A variety of other pests including tuliptree aphid  (Illinoia liriodendri) striped mealybug (Ferrisia  virgata), leaf weevil (0dontopus calceatus), magnolia  leafminer (Phyllocnistis magnoliella), and spider mite  (Tetranychus magnoliae) feed on this species (18). Euzophera  magnolialis, a wood borer, can injure or kill nursery  seedlings.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Kenneth W. Outcalt

Source: Silvics of North America

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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: climax, hardwood

Where fire is surpressed or infrequent, southern magnolia and live oak
can become dominant species in the southern mixed hardwood forests. The
transition from an open, fire-dominated forest to a closed-canopy,
deciduous forest favors the Quercus-Magnolia climax community [3,6,10].
  • 3. Daubenmire, Rexford. 1990. The Magnolia grandiflora-Quercus virginiana forest of Florida. American Midland Naturalist. 123: 331-347. [10871]
  • 6. Engstrom, R. Todd; Crawford, Robert L.; Baker, W. Wilson. 1984. Breeding bird populations in relation to changing forest structure following fire exclusion: a 15-year study. Wilson Bulletin. 96(3): 437-450. [9873]
  • 10. Garren, Kenneth H. 1943. Effects of fire on vegetation of the southeastern United States. Botanical Review. 9: 617-654. [9517]

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Plant Response to Fire

Southern magnolia sprouts from surviving root collars following fire [8,16].
  • 8. Feldman, Thomas D. 1987. Fire control and ecological succession in McCarty Woods, Hernando County , Florida. Florida Geographer. 21: 15-19. [8689]
  • 16. Hare, Robert C. 1965. Contribution of bark to fire resistance of southern trees. Journal of Forestry. 63(4): 248-251. [9915]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Southern magnolia seedlings are easily killed by fire. Older trees, due
to bark characteristics, are quite fire resistant. Plants sprout
vigorously when top-killed by fire [10,16,18].
  • 18. Kurz, Herman. 1944. Secondary forest succession in the Tallahassee Red Hills. Proceedings, Florida Academy of Science. 7(1): 59-100. [10799]
  • 10. Garren, Kenneth H. 1943. Effects of fire on vegetation of the southeastern United States. Botanical Review. 9: 617-654. [9517]
  • 16. Hare, Robert C. 1965. Contribution of bark to fire resistance of southern trees. Journal of Forestry. 63(4): 248-251. [9915]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: caudex, root crown

survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex
off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: climax, hardwood, mesic

Southern magnolia is moderately tolerant of shade. It can endure
considerable shade in early life but needs more light as it becomes
older [13]. Southern magnolia will invade pine or hardwood stands and
is able to reproduce under a closed canopy. It will not reproduce under
its own shade. Once established, it can maintain or increase its
presence in stands by sprouts and seedlings that grow up through
openings, which occur sporadically in the canopy [24]. Southern
magnolia has been migrating onto mesic upland sites and establishing
itself, along with associated hardwoods, as part of the climax forest
[22,23].
  • 13. Glitzenstein, Jeff S.; Harcombe, Paul A.; Streng, Donna R. 1986. Disturbance, succession, and maintenance of species diversity in an east Texas forest. Ecological Monographs. 56(3): 243-258. [9670]
  • 22. Myers, Ronald; White, Deborah L. 1987. Landscape history and changes in sandhill vegetation in north-central and south-central Florida. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 114(1): 21-32. [9782]
  • 23. Olson, David F.; Barnes, R. L.; Jones, Leroy. 1974. Magnolia L. Magnolia. In: Schopmeyer, C. S, ed. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 527-530. [7701]
  • 24. Adams, David L. 1972. Natural regeneration following four treatments of slash on clearcut areas of lodgepole pine--a case history. Stn. Note No. 19. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station. 2 p. [12257]

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Regeneration Processes

Southern magnolia is a prolific seed producer, and good seed crops
usually are produced every year. Trees as young as 10 years can produce
seed, but optimum seed production does not occur until age 25. Cleaned
seeds range from 5,800 to 6,800/pound (12,800-15,000/kg). Seed
viability averages about 50 percent. The relatively heavy seeds are
disseminated by birds and mammals, but some may be spread by heavy rains
[24]. Southern magnolia is pollinated by insects [23,30].
  • 30. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 23. Olson, David F.; Barnes, R. L.; Jones, Leroy. 1974. Magnolia L. Magnolia. In: Schopmeyer, C. S, ed. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 527-530. [7701]
  • 24. Adams, David L. 1972. Natural regeneration following four treatments of slash on clearcut areas of lodgepole pine--a case history. Stn. Note No. 19. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station. 2 p. [12257]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

Undisturbed State: Phanerophyte (mesophanerophyte)
Undisturbed State: Phanerophyte (microphanerophyte)
Burned or Clipped State: Cryptophyte (geophtye)

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Life Form

More info for the term: tree

Tree

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Fire Ecology

Southern magnolia is well adapted to fire. Although the bark is
relatively thin, the cork layer underneath the bark does not burn easily
and is relatively resistant to heat [15,27].
  • 15. Hare, Robert C. 1961. Heat effects on living plants. Occ. Pap. 183. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,Southern Forest Experiment Station. 32 p. [6708]
  • 27. Simpfendorfer, K. J. 1989. Trees, farms and fires. Land and Forests Bulletin No. 30. Victoria, Australia: Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands, Lands and Forests Division. 55 p. [10649]

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Reaction to Competition

Overall, southern magnolia is  tolerant of shade. It can endure considerable shade in early life  (8), but needs more light as it becomes older (2). It will invade  existing stands and is able to reproduce under a closed canopy  (3,8). Once established, it can maintain or increase its presence  in stands by sprout and seedling production that grows up through  openings, which occur sporadically in the canopy.

    Southern magnolia is considered to be one of the major species of  the potential climax forest of the southeastern Coastal Plains  (3,6,15,16,20). In the past, regular burning restricted the  species to the wetter sites, as seedlings are easily killed by  fire. Older trees, however, due to bark characteristics, are  quite fire resistant (3,10) and even if the tops are killed, they  sprout vigorously. Since the advent of improved fire control,  southern magnolia has been migrating onto mesic upland sites and  establishing itself, along with associated hardwoods, as part of  the climax forest.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Rooting Habit

Southern Magnolia is a deep-rooted species,  except on sites with a high water table. Seedlings quickly  develop one major taproot. As trees grow the root structure  changes. Trees of sapling stage and beyond have a rather  extensive heart root system (i.e. several to many sunken roots  grow down from the root collar of the tree trunk). Older trees  may develop a fluted base with the ridges corresponding to the   attachment of major lateral roots.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Southern magnolia flowers between April and June; its fruit ripens from
September through late fall [6,12].
  • 12. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 6. Engstrom, R. Todd; Crawford, Robert L.; Baker, W. Wilson. 1984. Breeding bird populations in relation to changing forest structure following fire exclusion: a 15-year study. Wilson Bulletin. 96(3): 437-450. [9873]

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Flower/Fruit

Fl.Per.: April-May.
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Reproduction

Vegetative Reproduction

Mature southern magnolia commonly  develops root and stump sprouts (3). Portions of lower limbs of  saplings often become imbedded in the forest floor where they  develop roots, eventually producing separate trees. Air-layering,  stem cuttings, and grafts have all been used to propagate the  species for ornamental plantings.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Seedling Development

Seeds usually germinate the first or  second spring following seedfall Germination is epigeal (19). The  best natural seedbed is a rich, moist soil protected by litter.  Even though viable, seeds rarely germinate under the parent tree  because of reported inhibitory effects (3).

    Seedlings are very susceptible to frost damage, and even a light  freeze can cause mortality. Partial shade is beneficial for the  first 2 years of seedling growth. Under favorable conditions  growth is quite rapid. In nurseries, seedlings usually grow 46 to  61 cm (18 to 24 in) the first year (2).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Seed Production and Dissemination

The seeds are  drupelike, with a soft, fleshy outer seedcoat and an inner stony  portion. Southern magnolia is a prolific seed producer and good  seed crops normally occur every year (14). Trees as young as 10  years old can produce seed, but optimum seed production under  forest conditions usually does not occur until age 25. Cleaned  seeds range in number from 12,800 to 15,000/kg (5,800 to  6,800/lb) and average 14,200/kg (6,450/lb) (19). Seed viability  averages about 50 percent. The relatively heavy seeds are  disseminated mostly by birds and mammals, but some may be spread  by heavy rains.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Flowering and Fruiting

The large, white, fragrant  flowers are perfect (19) and appear from April to June. The  fleshy conelike fruit matures from September through the late  fall. When the fruit matures and opens, seeds 6 to 13 mm (0.25 to  0.5 in) long emerge and hang temporarily suspended by slender,  silken threads before dropping (2).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Growth

Growth and Yield

On good sites, southern magnolia trees  average 18 to 24 in (60 to 80 ft) tall and 61 to 91 cm (24 to 36  in) in d.b.h. in 80 to 120 years. Heights of 30 to 38 in (100 to  125 ft) have been reported in Florida (2). Annual diameter growth  for large mature trees in an east Texas stand was .24 cm (.09 in)  (8). In unmanaged natural stands in the Florida panhandle, trees  without overtopping competition will average .76 cm (.3 in) of  diameter growth and 0.46 m (1.5 ft) of height growth per year  through age 50. Under natural conditions, many trees spend 10 to  20 years in the understory before they reach the upper canopy.  Annual diameter growth for these trees is .51 cm (.2 in) and  average height growth is .31 m (1.0 ft) to age 50 years.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

No work has been done to characterize individual populations.  Extensive breeding has been done to develop races of southern  magnolia for ornamenta use (13). Common varieties include Magnolia  grandiflora lanceolata with a narrow pyramidal habit and M.  grandiflora gallissoniensis, reported to be cold hardy (17).

    Southern magnolia has been hybridized with sweet bay (Magnolia  virginiana) and M. guatemalensis.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Magnolia grandiflora L.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Magnolia grandiflora

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Distributed in coastal plains of southern United States and cultivated elsewhere.

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Management

Management considerations

Winter drought can cause extensive dieback and mortality of southern
magnolia. Seedlings are susceptible to frost damage; even a light
freeze can cause mortality. A number of Fomes and Polyporus fungi cause
heartrot in southern magnolia. Heavy infestations of magnolia scale
(Neolecanium cornuparyum) kill branches or entire trees [14,24].
  • 14. Gumeringer, Karen. 1989. Magnolia (Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae). Forest World. 5(3): 44-45. [11080]
  • 24. Adams, David L. 1972. Natural regeneration following four treatments of slash on clearcut areas of lodgepole pine--a case history. Stn. Note No. 19. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station. 2 p. [12257]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Other uses and values

More info for the term: tree

Southern magnolia is a valuable and extensively planted ornamental. The
leaves, fruit, bark, and wood yield a variety of extracts with potential
applications as pharmaceuticals [14,24]. Southern magnolia is a good
urban landscape tree because it is resistant to acid deposition [24].
  • 14. Gumeringer, Karen. 1989. Magnolia (Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae). Forest World. 5(3): 44-45. [11080]
  • 24. Adams, David L. 1972. Natural regeneration following four treatments of slash on clearcut areas of lodgepole pine--a case history. Stn. Note No. 19. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station. 2 p. [12257]

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Cover Value

More info for the term: cover

Southern magnolia provides cover for many small birds and mammals [29].
  • 29. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

Southern magnolia seeds are eaten by squirrels, opossum, quail, and the
wild turkey [23,24].
  • 23. Olson, David F.; Barnes, R. L.; Jones, Leroy. 1974. Magnolia L. Magnolia. In: Schopmeyer, C. S, ed. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 527-530. [7701]
  • 24. Adams, David L. 1972. Natural regeneration following four treatments of slash on clearcut areas of lodgepole pine--a case history. Stn. Note No. 19. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station. 2 p. [12257]

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Wood Products Value

The hard, heavy wood of southern magnolia is used to make furniture,
pallets, and veneer [5,24].
  • 5. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • 24. Adams, David L. 1972. Natural regeneration following four treatments of slash on clearcut areas of lodgepole pine--a case history. Stn. Note No. 19. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station. 2 p. [12257]

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Special Uses

Because of its showy flowers and lustrous evergreen foliage,  southern magnolia is a valuable and extensively planted  ornamental. In many urban areas where other species do poorly,  this magnolia can grow because of its resistance to damage by  sulfur dioxide. The seeds are eaten by squirrels, opossums,  quail, and turkey (9). The leaves, fruits, bark and wood yield a  variety of extracts with potential applications as   pharmaceuticals (4,5).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Wikipedia

Magnolia grandiflora

Magnolia grandiflora, commonly known as the southern magnolia or bull bay, is a tree of the family Magnoliaceae native to the southeastern United States, from Virginia south to central Florida, and west to East Texas and Oklahoma. Reaching 27.5 m (90 ft) in height, it is a large, striking, evergreen tree with large, dark green leaves up to 20 cm (8 in) long and 12 cm (4.5 in) wide, and large, white, fragrant flowers up to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter. Widely cultivated in warmer areas around the world, over 50 cultivars have been bred and marketed commercially. The timber is hard and heavy, and has been used commercially to make furniture, pallets, and veneer.

Description[edit]

Flower and foliage of M. grandiflora

Magnolia grandiflora is a medium to large evergreen tree which may grow 120  ft (36.5 m) tall.[1] It typically has a single stem (or trunk) and a pyramidal shape.[2] The leaves are simple and broadly ovate, 12–20 cm (5–8 in) long and 6–12 cm (2–5 in) broad,[2] with smooth margins. They are dark green, stiff and leathery, and often scurfy underneath with yellow-brown pubescence. The large, showy, lemon citronella-scented flowers are white, up to 30 cm (12 in) across and fragrant, with six to 12 petals with a waxy texture, emerging from the tips of twigs on mature trees in late spring. Flowering is followed by the rose-coloured fruit, ovoid, 7.5–10 cm (3–4 in) long, and 3–5 cm (1.5–2 in) wide.[3]

Exceptionally large trees have been reported in the southern United States. The national champion is a specimen in Smith County, Mississippi, that stands an incredible 37 m (122 feet). Another record includes a 35-m-high specimen from the Chickasawhay District, De Soto National Forest, in Mississippi, which measured 17.75 ft in circumference at breast height, from 1961, and a 30-m-tall tree from Baton Rouge, which reached 18 ft in circumference at breast height.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

Magnolia grandiflora was one of the many species first described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae in 1759, basing his description on the earlier notes of Miller. He did not select a type specimen. Its specific epithet is derived from the Latin words grandis "big", and flor- "flower".[4]

M. grandiflora is most commonly known as southern magnolia, a name derived from its range in the Southern United States. Many broadleaved evergreen trees are known as bays for their resemblance to the leaves of the red bay (Persea borbonia), with this species known as the bull bay for its huge size or alternatively because cattle have been reported eating its leaves. Laurel magnolia,[4] evergreen magnolia,[3] large-flower magnolia or big laurel are alternative names.[5] The timber is known simply as magnolia.[3]

M. grandiflora fruit

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Southern magnolias are native to the Southeastern United States, from southeast Virginia south to central Florida, and then west to East Texas and Oklahoma. It is found on the edges of bodies of water and swamps, in association with sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), water oak (Quercus nigra), and black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica). In more sheltered habitats, it grows as a large tree, but can be a low shrub when found on coastal dunes.[6] It is killed by summer fires, and is missing from habitats that undergo regular burning.[7]

In Florida, it is found in a number of different ecological areas that are typically shady and have well-draining soils; it is also found in hummocks, along ravines, on slopes, and in wooded floodplains.[8] Despite preferring sites with increased moisture, it does not tolerate inundation.[3] It grows on sand-hills in maritime forests, where it is found growing with live oaks and saw palmetto.[7] In the eastern United States, it has become an escape, and has become naturalized in the tidewater area of Virginia and locally in other areas outside of its historically natural range.[9]

Ecology[edit]

Individual seeds

M. grandiflora can produce seed by 10 years of age, although peak seed production is achieved closer to 25 years of age. Around 50% of seeds can germinate, and they are spread by birds and mammals.[3] Squirrels, opossums, quail, and turkey are known to eat the seeds.[10]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

The plant collector Mark Catesby, the first in North America, brought M. grandiflora to Britain in 1726, where it entered cultivation and overshadowed M. virginiana, which had been collected a few years earlier. It had also come to France, the French having collected it in the vicinity of the Mississippi River in Louisiana.[11] It was glowingly described by Philip Miller in his 1731 work The Gardeners' Dictionary.[12] One of the earliest people to cultivate it in Europe was Sir John Colliton of Exeter in Devon; scaffolding and tubs surrounded his tree, where gardeners propagated its branches by layering, the daughter plants initially selling for five guineas each (but later falling to half a guinea).[12]

Tree planted 1807 at Jardin des plantes in Nantes

It is often planted in university campuses and allowed to grow into a large tree, either with dependent branches, or with the lower branches removed to display the bare trunks. It is also espaliered against walls, which improves its frost-hardiness.[4]

United States cultivation[edit]

It is a very popular ornamental tree throughout its native range in the coastal plain of the Gulf/South Atlantic states. Grown for its attractive, shiny green leaves and fragrant flowers, it has a long history in the southern United States. Many large and very old specimens found in the subtropical port cities such as New Orleans, Mobile, Savannah, Charleston, and Wilmington, NC. M. grandiflora is the state tree of Mississippi and the state flower of Louisiana.

The species is also cultivated in the warmer parts of the United States; On the East Coast, a small number of specimens can be found growing as far north as coastal areas of New Jersey, Connecticut, and Long Island, NY. Farther south, it is grown more widely in Delaware, much of the Chesapeake Bay region in Maryland, and much of eastern Virginia. On the West Coast, it can be grown as far north as British Columbia/Seattle area, though cooler summers on the West Coast slow growth compared to the East Coast.[4]

In the interior of the US, some of the cold-hardy cultivars have survived north to the southern Ohio Valley (southern Ohio, Kentucky, southern Indiana). Farther north, few known long term specimens are found due to the severe winters, very cold temperatures, and/or lack of sufficient summer heat.

Magnolia grandiflora is also grown in parts of Mexico, Central America, and South America as well as parts of Asia.[4]

It is recommended for seashore plantings in areas that are windy but have little salt spray.[13] The foliage will bronze, blotch, and burn in severe winters at the northern limits of cultivation, especially when grown in full winter sun,[14] but most leaves remain until they are replaced by new foliage in the spring. In climates where the ground freezes, winter sun appears to do more damage than the cold. In the Northern Hemisphere, the south side of the tree will experience more leaf damage than the north side. Two extremes are known, with leaves white underneath and with leaves brown underneath. The brown varieties are claimed to be more cold-hardy than the white varieties, but this does not appear to be proven as yet. Once established, the plants are drought tolerant, and the most drought tolerant of all the Magnolia species.[14]

The leaves are heavy and tend to fall year round from the interior of the crown and form a dense cover over the soil surface,[14] and they have been used in decorative floral arrangements.[15] The leaves have a waxy coating that makes them resistant to damage from salt and air pollution.[14]

In the United States, southern magnolia, along with sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana) and cucumbertree (Magnolia acuminata), is commercially harvested. Lumber from all three species is simply called magnolia, which is used in the construction of furniture, boxes, pallets, venetian blinds, sashes, and doors and used as veneers. Southern magnolia has yellowish-white sapwood and light to dark brown heartwood tinted yellow or green. The usually straight-grained wood has uniform texture with closely spaced rings. The wood is ranked moderate in heaviness, hardness, and stiffness, and moderately low in shrinkage, bending, and compression strength; it is ranked moderately high in shock resistance.[16] Its use in the Southeastern United States has been supplanted by the availability of harder woods.[17]

Cultivars[edit]

Over 50 cultivars have been developed and named in North America and Europe. Most plants in nurseries are propagated by cuttings, resulting in more consistent form in the various varieties available.[18] Many older cultivars have been superseded by newer ones and are no longer available.[19] Some cultivars have been found to be more cold hardy, they include:

  • 'Bracken's Brown Beauty', developed by Ray Bracken of Easley, South Carolina, in the late 1960s, is a popular cultivar which has survived long-term in southern Ohio, West Virginia, New Jersey, and Long Island, NY. This cultivar grows in a dense and compact pattern, with narrow, medium-sized, glossy leaves. Flowers measure 5-6 in (12.5 - 15.0 cm).
  • 'Edith Bogue' was brought to the coastal plain of New Jersey from Florida in the 1920s. The original tree sent to Edith A. Bogue from Florida helped to establish cold-hardy specimens in the Middle Atlantic states from Delaware to coastal Connecticut. Once established, 'Edith Bouge' has been known to have only minor spotting and margin burn on the leaf in temperatures as low as -5°F (-20°C). With a vigorous classic pyramidal shape, this cultivar grows to 35 ft with a 15-ft spread.
  • 'Angustifolia', developed in France in 1825, has narrow, spear-shaped leaves 20 cm (8 in) long by 11 cm (4.4 in) wide, as its name suggests.[18]
  • 'Exmouth' was developed in the early 18th century by John Colliton in Devon. It is notable for its huge flowers, with up to 20 tepals, and vigorous growth. Erect in habit, it is often planted against walls. The leaves are green above and brownish underneath.[20] The flowers are very fragrant and the leaves are narrow and leathery.[21]
  • 'Goliath' was developed by Caledonia Nurseries of Guernsey, and has a bushier habit and globular flowers of up to 30 cm (12 in) diameter. Long-flowering, it has oval leaves which lack the brownish hair underneath.[20]
  • 'Little Gem', a dwarf cultivar, is grown in more moderate climates, roughly from Maryland and the Virginias southward. Originally developed in 1952 by Steed's Nursery in Candor, North Carolina, it is a slower-growing form with a columnar shape which reaches around 4.25 m (14 ft) high and 1.2 m (4 ft) wide. Flowering heavily over an extended period in warmer climate, it bears medium-sized, cup-shaped flowers, and has elliptic leaves 12.5 cm (5 in) long by 5 cm (2 in) wide.[20]

Other commonly grown cultivars include:

  • 'Ferruginea' has dark-green leaves with rust-brown undersides.[21]
  • 'Southern Charm' has large oval leaves, bushy habit, and smaller growth. It is also known as 'Teddy Bear'.

Chemistry[edit]

M. grandiflora contains phenolic constituents shown to possess significant antimicrobial activity. Magnolol, honokiol, and 3,5′-diallyl-2′-hydroxy-4-methoxybiphenyl exhibited significant activity against Gram-positive and acid-fast bacteria and fungi.[22] The leaves contain coumarins and sesquiterpene lactones.[23] The sesquiterpenes are known to be costunolide, parthenolide, costunolide diepoxide, santamarine, and reynosin.[24]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gardiner, p. 144
  2. ^ a b Zion, Robert L. (1995). Trees for architecture and landscape. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-471-28524-3. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Maisenhelder, Louis C. (1970). "Magnolia". American Woods FS-245. US Dept. of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Callaway, p. 99
  5. ^ Coladonato, Milo (1991). "Magnolia grandiflora". Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Retrieved 12 January 2010. 
  6. ^ Gardiner, p. 143
  7. ^ a b Whitney, Eleanor Noss; Rudloe, Anne; Jadaszewski, Erick. Priceless Florida: Natural Ecosystems and Native Species. Pineapple Press (FL). p. 36. ISBN 978-1-56164-308-0. 
  8. ^ Nelson, Gil; Marvin, Jr Cook. The Trees of Florida: A Reference and Field Guide (Reference and Field Guides (Paperback)). Pineapple Press (FL). p. 17. ISBN 978-1-56164-055-3. 
  9. ^ http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200008470
  10. ^ Halls, L. K. 1977. Southern magnolia/Magnolia grandiflora L. In Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. p. 196-197. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report SO-16. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.
  11. ^ Aitken, Richard (2008). Botanical Riches: Stories of Botanical Exploration. Melbourne, Victoria: Miegunyah Press: State Library of Victoria. p. 112. ISBN 0-522-85505-9. 
  12. ^ a b Gardiner, p. 18
  13. ^ Bush-Brown, Louise Carter; Bush-Brown, James; Irwin, Howard S. (1996). America's garden book. New York: Macmillan USA. p. 537. ISBN 0-02-860995-6. 
  14. ^ a b c d Sternberg, Guy; Wilson, James; Wilson, Jim (2004). Native trees for North American landscapes: from the Atlantic to the Rockies. Portland: Timber Press. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-88192-607-1. 
  15. ^ Callaway, p. 13
  16. ^ The Encyclopedia of Wood. Skyhorse Publishing. pp. 1–7. ISBN 978-1-60239-057-7. 
  17. ^ Callaway, p. 14
  18. ^ a b Gardiner, p. 145
  19. ^ Callaway, p. 100
  20. ^ a b c Gardiner, p. 147
  21. ^ a b Brickell, Christopher (1989). The American Horticultural Society encyclopedia of garden plants. New York: Macmillan. p. 51. ISBN 0-02-557920-7. 
  22. ^ Antimicrobial activity of phenolic constituents of magnolia grandiflora L. Alice M. Clark, Arouk S. El-Feraly, Wen-Shyong Li, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, August 1981, Volume 70, Issue 8, pages 951–952, doi:10.1002/jps.2600700833
  23. ^ Coumarins and sesquiterpene lactones from Magnolia grandiflora leaves. Yang MH, Blunden G, Patel AV, O'Neill MJ and Lewis JA, Planta medica, 1994, vol. 60, no 4, pages 390-390, INIST:11250251
  24. ^ Isolation and characterization of the sesquiterpene lactones costunolide, parthenolide, costunolide diepoxide, santamarine, and reynosin from Magnolia grandiflora L. Farouk S. El-Feraly and Yee-Ming Chan, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, March 1978, Volume 67, Issue 3, pages 347–350, doi:10.1002/jps.2600670319

Cited texts[edit]

  • Callaway, Dorothy Johnson (1994). The world of magnolias. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-236-6. 
  • Gardiner, Jim (2000). Magnolias: A Gardener's Guide. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-446-6. 
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Notes

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Magnolia grandiflora (a hexaploid) is highly variable, especially the leaves, which range from glabrous to densely red-brown felted on the abaxial surface. It is the only magnolia species in the flora with free stipules, and the inner spathaceous bract is unique among Magnolia taxa in the flora. Curled filiform trichomes occur on the abaxial leaf surface. In the wild, hybrids with M. virginiana (a diploid) have been reported but not confirmed by the present author. The compatibility of these taxa is well known from the Freeman hybrid, a highly sterile tetraploid growing at the U.S. National Arboretum in Washington, D.C. In crosses using the hexaploid M. grandiflora , this parent is dominant and nearly masks the other parent. 

 Magnolia grandiflora is an escape, and it naturalizes in the tidewater area of Virginia and locally elsewhere beyond its natural range in the southeastern United States. It ranks among the noblest of North American broadleaved trees and is cultivated widely in the United States and in many other countries. A large number of cultivars have been introduced to horticulture.

Southern magnolia ( Magnolia grandiflora ) is the state tree of both Louisiana and Mississippi.

The largest known tree of Magnolia grandiflora, 37.2m in height with a trunk diameter of 1.97m, is recorded from Smith County, Mississippi (American Forestry Association 1994).

The Choctaw and Koasati tribes used the bark of Magnolia grandiflora as dermatological and kidney aids (D.A. Moerman 1986).

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Cultivated in northern part of Pakistan. Oil is extracted from leaves and flowers. The pounded leaves are used for toothache.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

More info for the term: shrubs

The currently accepted scientific name for southern magnolia is Magnolia
grandiflora L. [19]. The genus Magnolia consists of 35 species of
deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs in North and Central America,
eastern Asia and the Himalayas; nine species are native to the United
States [23].
  • 19. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 23. Olson, David F.; Barnes, R. L.; Jones, Leroy. 1974. Magnolia L. Magnolia. In: Schopmeyer, C. S, ed. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 527-530. [7701]

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Common Names

southern magnolia
evergreen magnolia
bull-bay
big-laurel
large-flower magnolia

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