Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Magnolia kobus is distributed throughout Japan. This species has been recorded at an elevation of approximately 350 m asl in the Unobe river valley near Rokugo, central Hokkaido. It may also occur in China and South Korea but there is some uncertainty about this. A study on the stem bark of Magnolia kobus was based on specimens collected in Jinju, Kyungnam in Korea (Yang et al. 2006). It is not known from Shikoku and Cheju Island in South Korea.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Magnolia kobus is a small to tall deciduous broadleaf tree which has a slow growth rate but can reach 8-15 metres in height and up to 10 metres in spread. It grows mainly in thickets and deciduous broadleaved secondary forests at elevations of approximately sea level to 1,700 m asl and has a wide variation in the size of flowers and leaves. It blooms in early spring (March), bearing fragrant flowers with hints of pale pink about 10 cm in diameter. The flowers are produced before the leaves, as with most members of the Magnolia subgenus Yulania. The high variability in floral scent chemistry may be due to the importance of visual cues in the reproductive biology of M. kobus which flowers in early spring, resulting in decreased selection for specific floral scent profiles. Alternatively, different scent compounds or chemical profiles may be equally effective in attracting pollinators (Azuma 2001).



Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Plant / epiphyte
Licea margaritacea grows on live bark of Magnolia kobus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Magnolia kobus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Khela, S.

Reviewer/s
Oldfield, S.

Contributor/s

Justification
There is insufficient data on the population, any declines or threats to this species to assess its extinction risk. Therefore, it is assessed as Data Deficient.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Population

Population
There is insufficient population information for Magnolia kobus.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The direct threats to this species are unknown however it is presumed to be in decline due to urban development. It is unknown if this species was subject to logging for firewood in the past.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In cultivation the Kobushi magnolia prefers full sun to partial shade, rich, well-drained soil, and is tolerant of acidic soils but prefers alkaline soils. It can be propagated easily either by seed or by cuttings.
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Wikipedia

Magnolia kobus

Magnolia kobus, known as the Kobushi Magnolia, is a species of Magnolia native to Japan and occasionally cultivated in temperate areas.[2] It is a deciduous, small to tall tree which has a slow rate of growth but can reach 8–15 m (25–75 ft) in height and up to 10 m (35 ft) in spread.

Contents

Classification [edit]

Two varieties of Magnolia kobus are recognized by some sources, such as Hortus Third,[2] with var. borealis being a tree to 25 m (75 ft) high, with leaves to 15 cm (6 in) long, and var. kobus, a tree to 10 m (30 ft) high,with leaves to 10 cm (4 in) long.

M. kobus is classified within Magnolia subgenus Yulania.

The Kobushi magnolia is closely related to the star magnolia (Magnolia stellata), and some authorities consider the star magnolia to be a variety of M. kobus, M. kobus var. stellata.

Description [edit]

Magnolia kobus blooms in the early spring, bearing pleasantly fragrant white flowers with hints of pale pink about 10 cm (4 in) in diameter. The flowers are produced before the leaves, as with most members of Magnolia subgenus Yulania. Young trees do not flower.

The summer foliage of the Kobushi magnolia is dark green. Leaves have an obovate shape with a pointed tip, a smooth, or glabrous, leaf underside, and smooth, even edges. Leaves are 8–15 cm (3–6 in) long, in an alternating arrangement. In autumn, the leaves take on a yellow color and drop from the tree.


 
Magnolia kobus in flower, with a singular blossom in the foreground eclipsing an array of blossoms in the midground, over the backdrop of a waterway. Photographed in the Kantō region of Japan

The fruit of the Kobushi magnolia grows in groups of small red seeds. The groupings are one to three inches in size, and the seeds attract birds.

Older bark, such as that of the trunk, is grey-brown, while new stems are green with small brown spots. There is a strong odor to broken branches or twigs.

Culture [edit]

The Kobushi magnolia prefers full sun to partial shade, rich, well-drained soil, and is tolerant of acidic soils. It can be propagated either by seed or by cuttings.

References [edit]

  1. ^ Cirrus Digital: Northern Japanese Magnolia Magnolia kobus
  2. ^ a b Bailey, Liberty Hyde, and Ethel Zoe Bailey, revised and expanded by the staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium (1976). Hortus Third: A Concise Dictionary of the Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York: MacMillan (and Collier MacMillan, London). pp. xiv + 1290. 
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