The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Dicot. 1–944. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2015). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Sep 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • L. 1753. In: Sp. Pl. : 535
  • Long, R. W. & O. K. Lakela. 1971. Fl. Trop. Florida i–xvii, 1–962. University of Miami Press, Coral Cables.
  • Prodromus stirpium in horto ad Chapel Allerton vigentium 379. 1796. (Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton)
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Species Plantarum 1: 535–536. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)
  • Thornhill, Robert, Krings, Alexander, Lindbo, David, Stucky, Jon (2014): Guide to the Vascular Flora of the Savannas and Flatwoods of Shaken Creek Preserve and Vicinity (Pender & Onslow Counties, North Carolina, U. S. A.). Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1099: 1099-1099, URL:
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
    1. American Forestry Association. 1982. National register of  big trees. American Forests 88(4):35.
    3. Coker, William Chambers, and Henry Roland Totten. 1937.  Trees of the Southeastern States. University of North  Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 417 p.
    5. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    7. Gemborys, S. R., and Earl J. Hodgkins. 1971. Forest of small  stream bottoms in the Coastal Plain of southwestern  Alabama. Ecology 52(l):70-84.
    9. Hare, Robert C. 1965. Contribution of bark to fire  resistance of southern trees. Journal of Forestry  63:248-251.
    11. Harrar, Ellwood S., and J. George Harrar. 1946. Guide to  southern trees. McGraw-Hill, New York. 712 p.
    13. Hartmann, Hudson T., and Dale E. Kester. 1959. Plant  propagation: principles and practices. Prentice-Hall,  Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 559 p.
    15. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    17. Illick, Joseph S. 1924. Tree habits: how to know the  hardwoods. American Nature Association, Washington, DC. 337  p.
    19. Johnson, Warren T., and Howard H. Lyon. 1976. Insects  that feed on trees and shrubs: an illustrated practical  guide. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 464 p.
    21. Kral, Robert. 1961. Sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana L.). In  Deer browse plants of southern forests. p. 40-41. L. K.  Halls and T. H. Ripley, eds. USDA Forest Service,  Southeastern and Southern Forest Experiment Stations,  Asheville, NC, and New Orleans, LA.
    23. Kral, Robert. 1977. Sweetbay/Magnolia virginiana L. In  Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. p.  199. Lowell K. Halls, ed. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report SO-16. Southern Forest Experiment Station,  New Orleans, LA.
    25. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of the United States  trees, vol. 1. Conifers and important hardwoods. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1146.  Washington, DC. (Map 142-E.)
    27. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375  p.
    29. Maisenhelder, Louis C. 1970. Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora  and Magnolia virginiana). USDA Forest Service, American  Woods FS-245. Washington, DC. 8 p.
    31. Monk, Carl D. 1966. An ecological study of hardwood swamps  in north-central Florida. Ecology 47(4):649-654.
    33. Monk, Carl D., and Timothy W. Brown. 1965. Ecological  consideration of cypress heads in north-central Florida.  American Midland Naturalist 74:126-140.
    35. Priester, David S. 1980. Unpublished report. USDA Forest  Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Charleston,  SC.
    37. Putnam, John A., George M. Furnival, and J. S. McKnight.  1960. Management and inventory of southern hardwoods. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 181.  Washington, DC. 102 p,
    39. Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell.  1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas.  University of North Carolina Press Chapel Hill 1183 p.
    41. Sargent, Charles Sprague. 1933. Manual of the trees of North  America. p. 345-351. Houghton Mifflin Co., Cambridge, MA.
    43. Stubbs, Jack. 1981. Personal communication. USDA Forest  Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Clemson SC.
    45. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1974. Seeds  of woody plants in the United States. C. S. Schopmeyer, tech  coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook  450. Washington DC. 883 D.
    47. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service  1973. Bayboro series. National Cooperative Soil Survey  Report. Washington, DC. 2 p.
    49. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service  1978. Portsmouth series. National Cooperative Soil Survey  Report Washington DC 2 p.


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