Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
“Calliostoma (Maurea) antipodense Marshall, new species
(Figures 63, 69, 117, 138)
Description: Shell up to 37 mm high, slightly higher than broad, rather thin, anomphalous, glossy; spire up to 1.77 × as high as aperture, rather evenly conical, spire angle 71-74°. Colour orange buff, spiral cords reddish brown between paler nodules. Protoconch 400 µm wide, sculptured with network of fine threads that enclose hexagonal spaces, terminal varix strong. Teleoconch of up to 8.5 strongly convex whorls, suture becoming deeply channeled after 4th whorl, periphery rounded, base weakly convex. First 0.2 whorls delineated by a growth scar, with 2 axial costae and 4 spiral threads. Subsequent spire whorls sculptured with spiral cords that multiply by intercalation from 4 (P1-P4) to 9 (P1-P4, S1-S3 + 2 suprasutural spirals); summit of P4 partly covered by succeeding whorls on 1st 4 whorls, after which insertion point progressively descends to fully expose P4 and then 2 additional spirals, the lower of which is either partly covered by succeeding whorls or fully exposed; nodules rounded on P1, P2, P3, S1, and S2, other spirals smooth, spiral interspaces considerably wider than each spiral. P1 at first much weaker than P2 and P3, which are strong and similar throughout, gradually enlarging over 1st 5 whorls then weakening and becoming obsolete. Secondary spirals enlarging to resemble adjacent primaries. S1 and S2 commencing on mid 4th to early 5th whorl, S3 commencing mid 4th to mid 5th whorl. Base with 6 spiral cords of similar size, weaker than spire spirals, inner 3 smooth or with rounded nodules, others smooth. Axial costae strong on 1st 3 whorls, weakening and vanishing on 4th whorl. Fine spiral lirae on 1st 3 or 4 whorls, fine collabral growth lines and obscure spiral lines throughout; fine spiral threads in basal interspaces and intercalating in spiral interspaces on spire on last 1 or 2 adult whorls. Aperture ovate, outer lip simple, inner lip thickened, parietal glaze extremely thin and transparent.
Type Data: Holotype MNZ M.80434 (height 31.8 mm, width 29.2 mm, 8.3 teleoconch whorls) and paratype, off Leeward I., Antipodes Is., alive, 18-73 m, 21 November 1972, r.v. Acheron. Paratypes (31): Eltanin stn 2141, 49°40'S, 178°52'E, off Antipodes Is., alive, 86-95 m (2 MNZ, 4 USNM); Eltanin stn 27/1850, 49°40'S, 178°53'E, off Antipodes Is., alive, 103 m, 3 January 1967 (4 MNZ, 20 USNM).
Distribution (figure 63): Off Antipodes Islands, taken alive at 18-103 m (minimum limit uncertain) from hard substrata. Probably endemic.
Diet: The intestinal tract of the specimen examined contained many calcareous octocoral scales (Cnidaria, Primnoidae), a few thecate hydroid fragments, and sand.
Remarks: Compared with C. simulans, to which it is most closely related, C. antipodense differs in its deeper shell pigmentation, more strongly convex whorls, deeply channeled suture, and obsolescence of P1 after the fifth teleoconch whorl. Interestingly, C. eminens, the other Antipodes Islands endemic, also has an exceptionally deep suture.”
(Marshall, 1995: 105-106)