Overview

Brief Summary

Description

Japanese angelica tree is a deciduous shrub or small tree native to China, Korea, Japan and the Russian Federation. It occurs in Ontario, Canada and throughout much of the northeastern U.S. from New Hampshire south to Maryland and west to Michigan and Illinois. It also occurs in Oregon and Washington. It can grow to 30 ft. in height. It has prickly stems and large compound leaves that are 2 or 3 times pinnate. The leaf stalks and flower stalks may have prickles. The main lateral veins of the leaflets continue all the way to the teeth at the leaflet margin. Flowering occurs late July through August and fruits mature in August and September. Flowers are small and white and emerge from tips of stems in broad umbels 1-2 ft. across that lack a central stalk. Fruits are black and about 1/10 in. across. Angelica-tree is becoming increasingly common in the mid-Atlantic and should be watched and controlled as needed.

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Comprehensive Description

General Description

Shrubs or treelets, 1.5-7 m tall. DBH up to 15 cm. Stem usually pricky, rarely inermis, sometime pickles in rows nearly encircling the stem; bark brownish gray or gray. Leaves bipinnate, 70-125 cm long, 50-90 cm wide, with 3-5 pinnae, each 5-15-foliolated, 20-45 cm long; stipules basal or nearly so, narrowly triangular, 1-1.5 cm long; petioles pubescent or becoming nearly glabrescent, umarmed, greenish; rachises subtended with a pair of accessory leaflets, rarely with a pair of 5-foliolated accessory pinnae; leaflets ovate to broadly ovate, sometimes narrowly ovate to lanceolate, chartaceous, 6-15 cm long, 3.5-8.5 cm wide, acute to acuminate at apex, rounded to obtuse, occasionally subcordate at base, serrulate to serrate, lateral veins 7-9 pairs, adaxial surfaces green, slightly rugose, sometimes scabrid, abaxial surfaces glaucous or brownish glaucous, pubescent to densely pubescent, sometimes pilose, pilose on veins, or glabrous, petiolules 0-6 mm long. Inflorescences terminal, 25-55 cm long, 35-80 cm wide, umbellately paniculate, branching in 3 to 4 orders, lacking a main axis or with a very short one, less than 12 cm long, consisting of 5-8 primary branches, each 30-55 cm long, yellowish green when young, turning into pink at fruiting, bracts and bracteoles persistent, secondary bracts lanceolate to triangular, ciliate, 4-10 mm long, bracteoles lanceolate, ciliate, 1.5-2 mm long; umbels 6-15-flowered, pedicels 1-6 mm long, pubescent. Floral buds yellowish green. Flowers greenish white. Sepals minute, triangular to rounded. Petals ovate, 1.8-2.2 mm long. Filaments 2-2.5 mm long; anthers yellowish white, oblong, 0.7-1.2 mm long. Ovary 5-locular; styles distinct. Floral disc projected. Fruit globose to subglobose, ca. 4 mm in diameter, purplish black.
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Anhui, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, N Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, E Russia].
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Aralia elata is the most widely distributed species within Aralia, occurring in Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan and Zhejiang provinces of China, Japan and Korea.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Aralia elata is characterized by its lack of a main inflorescence axis or with a very short one (less than 12 mm long), secondary inflorescence braches consisting of many umbels (more than 7, rarely a few), leaflet margins serrulate to serrate, petioles usually unarmed, and bracts small (secondary bracts 4-10 mm long) and narrowly triangular.
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Description

Shrubs or small trees, 2-5(-8) m tall, andromonoecious. Branches armed with sparse prickles. Leaves 2(or 3)-pinnately compound, with a pair of accessory leaflets at each division of rachis; petiole to ca. 50 cm, glabrous or pubescent, prickly; petiolules 3-5 mm; leaflets 5-11(-13) per pinna, broadly ovate to elliptic-ovate or narrowly ovate, 5-12(-19) × 2.5-8 cm, membranous, papery, or subleathery, abaxially glabrous or light yellow or gray pubescent, sometimes or more densely pubescent on veins, or sometimes glabrescent, adaxially sparsely strigose, secondary veins 6-10 pairs, raised abaxially, conspicuous adaxially, base cordate to subcordate or rounded, margin serrulate, apex acuminate. Inflorescence a terminal panicle of umbels, densely yellow-brown or gray pubescent, unarmed; primary axis 1-5 cm; secondary axes 20-35 cm; ultimate axes with a terminal umbel of bisexual flowers and 1 to several lateral umbels of male flowers; bracts persistent, lanceolate to subulate, 2-5 mm, sometimes ciliate; umbels 6-15-flowered; pedicels 1-10 mm, densely pubescent. Ovary 5-carpellate; styles 5, free or united to middle. Fruit globose, ca. 3-4 mm in diam.; styles persistent. Fl. Jul-Sep, fr. Sep-Dec. 2n = 24*.
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Diagnostic Description

Aralia elata differs from A. chinensis L. in the former’s less pubescent leaflets and inflorescences, glaucous (vs. green) abaxial leaflet surface, coronulate (vs. striated) cuticles on abaxial leaflet surface, fewer flowers (7-25 vs. 20-50) and shorter pedicels of terminal umbels [1.5-10 mm (usually 4-7 mm) vs. 10-20 mm (usually 12-15 mm)]. Aralia elata closely related to A. dasyphylloides. The major differences between these two species lie in the aggregation of flowers into heads (A. dasyphylloides) or umbels (A. elata), and densely tomentose (A. dasyphylloides) or somewhat pubescent to glabrous (A. elata) leaves.
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Ecology

Habitat

Forests, forest margins, scrub fields, roadsides; near sea level to 2700 m.
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Growing in hillside, roadside, streamsides, disturbed areas, forest edges, along ravines, thickets and secondary forest; from sea level to 2100 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering from July to September.
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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

The phylogeny of Aralia sect. Dimorphanthus has been inferred using the ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (Wen, 2000). The ITS phylogeny suggests a close relationship among Aralia elata, A. dasphylloides, and A. scaberula. Aralia elata and A. dasphylloides have largely allopatric distributional areas with overlapping boundaries. A. dasphylloides is mostly distributed in southern China and also occurs (but is not common) in eastern and central China. A. elata has a more northern distribution and is most frequent in central and eastern China and Japan. It seems reasonable to hypothesize that A. elata perhaps gave rise to A. dasphylloides via geographical speciation (Wen, 2004). Based on the morphological variation, Wen (1993) provided a generic delimitation of Aralia, in which Arala elata belong to section Dimorphanthus.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

There are some reports for the chromosomal data of Aralia elata. All counts are 2n = 24 (Sokolovskaya, 1966; Sun et al., 1988; Wu, 1995; Yi et al., 2004). The base chromosome number of A. elata has been suggested to be x = 12 (Wen, 2002).
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Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Aralia elata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 34
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Aralia elata

Aralia elata, or Japanese angelica tree, is a woody plant belonging to the family Araliaceae.

Description[edit]

It is an upright deciduous small tree or shrub growing up to 10 m (33 ft) in height,[1] native to eastern Russia, China, Korea, and Japan.

In Japan it is known as tara-no-ki (Katakana: タラノキ/Kanji: 楤木), and in Korea as dureup namu (두릅나무). It prefers deep loamy soils in partial shade, but will grow in poorer soils and in full sun. The plant is sometimes cultivated, often in a variegated form, for its exotic appearance.

The bark is rough and gray with prickles. The leaves are alternate, large, 60–120 cm long, and double pinnate. The flowers are produced in large umbels in late summer, each flower small and white. The fruit is a small black drupe.

Aralia elata is closely related to the American species Aralia spinosa, with which it is easily confused.

Gastronomy[edit]

Dureup bugak (두릅부각), fried shoots of Aralia elata, and chal jeonbyeong (찰전병).

In Japan, the shoots (taranome) are eaten in the spring. They are picked from the end of the branches and are fried in a tempura batter.

In Korean cuisine, its shoots called dureup are used for various dishes, such as dureup jeon (두릅전), that is a variety of jeon (pancake-like dish) made by pan-frying the shoots covered with minced beef and batter.[2]

Dureup namul (두릅나물), also called dureup muchim (두릅무침) is a dish made by blanching dureup seasoned with chojang (chili pepper and vinegar sauce).[3]

It is also common to eat Aralia elata as Dureup bugak (두릅부각), fried shoots of the plant coated with glutinous rice paste, usually served along with chal jeonbyeong (찰전병), a kind of pancake made by pan-frying glutinous rice flour.

Invasive species[edit]

The tree was introduced in 1830 in the United States. Birds like the fruits and are spreading its seeds allowing the tree to expand as an invasive species in the Northeastern United States.[4]

References[edit]

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