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F. T. Metzger
Eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), also called American hophornbeam, hornbeam, leverwood, and "ironwood," is a small, short-lived tree scattered in the understory of hardwood forests. It has a slow to medium growth rate on a great variety of soils and produces an extremely hard wood. The tree is not large enough for commercially important lumber but is used locally. It makes an attractive landscape tree and provides wildlife with a limited amount of seed.