Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Plains, Moist Localities, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: NC (2 Cos.), SC (2 Cos.), GA, and FL (Radford et al. 1964).

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"Foundin the agricutural fields and fallow fields from plains to 900m. Common. Native of tropical America, now widely naturalized in the tropics."
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"
Global Distribution

Tropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: All districts
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Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [pantropical weed possibly originating in the Americas].
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Believed to be native of central America, now pantropical.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In axillary, solitary or clustered, minute; greenish-white. Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

A dry capsule, dehiscent; seeds 6, vertically muriculate. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Branchlets resemble pinnate leaves. Male flower with 5 disc glands.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate-distichous

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Oblong

Leaf Apex

Obtuse-apiculate

Leaf Base

Obtuse

Leaf Margin

Entire

"
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Description

Annual or biennial, rarely perennial, herbs, 10-170 cm tall or long, erect or prostrate, glabrous throughout; stem simple, base woody, or slightly so and yellowish, straw yellow, or brownish, branched, terete, green at upper part, leaves reduced to lanceolate or triangular scales. Leaves distichous; stipules linear or linear-lanceolate, green; petioles ca. 0.5 mm; leaf blade oblong or elliptic-oblong, 3-8 × 2-4.5 mm, membranous or thinly papery, base rounded, apex obtuse or rounded and often apiculate; lateral veins 4-7 pairs, slightly conspicuous abaxially, obscure adaxially. Plants monoecious. Flower fascicles along lower part of leafy shoots usually male, those in middle usually often bisexual with 1 female and 1 male flower, those toward branchlet apex often female. Male flowers: pedicel 0.5-1 mm; sepals 5, elliptic or ovate, ca. 0.5 × 0.2 mm, yellowish green, margin membranous, apex abruptly acute; disk glands 5, orbicular or obovate, or spatulate, apex truncate or retuse, ca. 0.1 mm in diam., entire; stamens (2 or)3; filaments completely connate into a column, 0.2-0.3 mm high; anthers sessile, 1 often reduced to a single anther sac (or sometimes only 2 functional anthers present), anther sacs divergent, slits completely confluent, dehiscence oblique to less commonly horizontal. Female flowers: pedicels 0.6-1 mm; sepals 5, obovate-oblong or ovate, 0.8-1 × 0.4-6 mm, margin membranous, apex obtuse or acute; disk flat or subulate, deeply 5-lobed; ovary globose-triangular, ca. 0.5 × 0.5 mm, smooth; styles free, erect or ascending, apex shallowly bifid. Fruiting pedicels 1-1.5 mm, dilated at apex; capsules smooth. Seed sharply 3-angled, 0.9-1 × 0.7-0.8 mm, light brown or yellowish brown, radially and with 5 or 6 straight parallel longitudinal ribs on back, minutely transversely striate with hygroscopic cells which project as hyaline setae with a pronounced notching of lumen. Fl. and fr. throughout year.
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Elevation Range

470-900 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: A small prostrate herb, upto 50cm."
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Diagnostic

"Erect herbs to 30 cm tall. Leaves 6-8 x 3-4 mm, oblong, base unequal sided, apex obtuse to acute, lower surface glaucous; stipules lanceolate, scarious. Male flowers towards tip of branchlets, solitary, axillary; tepals 5, ovate; stamens 3, exserted; filaments connate; disc of 5 glands. Female flowers c. 1.5 mm across; tepals 5, oblong; ovary globose; style erect, recurved; pedicel to 2 mm long. Capsule c. 2 mm across, globose. Seeds 6, trigonous, vertically muriculate."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: In and around greenhouses and waste places (Radford et al., 1964).

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General Habitat

"Degraded moist deciduous, forest plantations and also in plains"
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General Habitat

Common in arable or fallow lands. Found in the plains upto 900m. NAtive of America and now across the tropics.
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Dry fields, roadsides, wastelands, forest margin, scrubby woods; below 100-600 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: July-October
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Phyllanthus amarus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Reasons: The above information makes me believe that this species has a tropical distribution and is introduced to US. This information needs to be varified.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Folklore

Indigenous Information: The whole plant is used to treat jaundice.
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Uses

Medicinal
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Uses

The leaves possess an active principle `Phyllanthin' which helps alleviate jaundice.
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