Overview

Distribution

Global Range: Rediscovered in St. Clair County, Alabama in 1994. Historically known from Angelina County, Texas (Poole et al. 2007). Falsely reported from Virginia, Georgia, and Arkansas (Kartesz 1999).

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Ala., Tex.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs, rarely small trees , deciduous or subevergreen, shrubs low, under 2 m, often trailing, rhizomatous, trees to 6 m. Bark brown, scaly. Twigs light brown, 1.5-3 mm diam., densely tomentulose. Buds reddish brown, ovoid, 2-3(-4) mm, apex acute or rounded, sparsely pubescent. Leaves: petiole (4-)5-10(-15) mm. Leaf blade obovate or oblanceolate, (39-)50-100(-125) × 20-60(-91) mm, base cuneate, margins minutely revolute, broadly 3-lobed distally or with 3-5 rounded, irregular lobes in distal 1/2, secondary veins curved, 6-8 on each side, apex broadly ovate or triangular-lobed; surfaces abaxially grayish or silvery, densely tomentulose-glandular with minute, appressed-stellate hairs, adaxially dark green, glossy, glabrous or with minute, scattered, simple hairs. Acorns 1-2, on peduncle 2-10(-35) mm; cup deeply or shallowly cup-shaped, 5-10 mm deep × 10-13 mm wide, including 1/3-1/2 nut, scales closely appressed, gray, tomentulose; nut light brown, ovoid, 10-17 × 7-13 mm, apex rounded, glabrous. Cotyledons distinct.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Quercus stellata Wangenheim var. boyntonii (Beadle) Sargent
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Type Information

Type collection for Quercus boyntoni Beadle
Catalog Number: US 780301
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. L. Boynton
Year Collected: 1900
Locality: Rocky summit of heights of Black Creek, near Gladsden., Alabama, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Beadle, C. D. 1901. Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 47.
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Type collection for Quercus boyntoni Beadle
Catalog Number: US 780303
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. L. Boynton
Year Collected: 1900
Locality: Lookout Mountain., Alabama, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Beadle, C. D. 1901. Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 47.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: In Alabama, this species occurs in sandstone glades within a matrix of pine-oak-hickory forest (A. Schotz, pers. comm., 2010). In Texas, it was found in the shrub layer of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)-oak forests on deep sandy soils in creek bottoms and possibly also in shallower soils of upland prairies (Poole et al. 2007).

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Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Deep sands and crevices in pine forests, along streams; of conservation concern; 0-200m.
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 1 - 20

Comments: Approximately five to twelve occurrences in Alabama (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of 2010, A. Schotz, pers. comm., 2010).

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled

Reasons: Rediscovered in northeast Alabama in 1994. In Texas, only known from two historical sites; the last time it was seen was 1953. Most of its habitat in Texas has been altered; the forested land has become pine plantations and the grasslands have become pastures. Threatened by change in land use.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1+2c

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1998
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
World Conservation Monitoring Centre

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s

History
  • 1997
    Extinct/Endangered
    (Walter and Gillett 1998)
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Population

Population
The status of this species is not well consolidated. It appears to have become extinct in the areas from which it was known. There is, however, a possibility that it occurs in Mississippi and Lousiana.
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Threats

Degree of Threat: Medium

Comments: Landscape fragmentation that would alter natural processes such as naturally occurring fire that historically burned along the periphery of the glades is a threat (A. Schotz, pers. comm., 2010). This species frequently occurs along glade margins and may need some fire to promote growth and reproduction. Potentially threatened by changes in land use including clear-cutting for agriculture or urban development (Alabama Natural Heritage Program 1994). Other threats include use of habitat as staging areas for logging operations, trash dumping, and ATV activity (A. Schotz, pers. comm., 2010).

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Stewardship Overview: Protect and maintain habitat in a landscape context that would allow fire and other natural processes to take place (A. Schotz, pers. comm., 2010). Prevent logging. Avoid alterations to hydrology that would cause rocky bluff habitat to be inundated. Further document the species' status and monitor trends.

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Wikipedia

Quercus boyntonii

Quercus boyntonii is a species of oak in the Fagaceae family. It is endemic to the United States mostly in Alabama. It is commonly called the Boynton oak.

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Notes

Comments

Quercus boyntonii is a rare and poorly known species of somewhat uncertain distribution; probably it is often overlooked. Some intermediates between Q . boyntonii and Q . margaretta are known. These tend to be larger shrubs, to 2 m with felty hairs proximally but with the rhizomatous habit of Q . boyntonii .
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Accepted as a species by Kartesz (1994, 1999) and by FNA (1997).

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