The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. Apfelbaum, Steven I.; Haney, Alan W. 1990. Management of degraded oak savanna remnants in the upper Midwest: preliminary results from three years of study. In: Hughes, H. Glenn; Bonnicksen, Thomas M., eds. Restoration `89: the new management challenge: Proceedings, 1st annual meeting of the Society for Ecological Restoration; 1989 January 16-20; Oakland, CA. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Arboretum, Society for Ecological Restoration: 280-291. [14705]
  • 10. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 12. Gorman, Owen T.; Roth, Roland R. 1989. Consequences of a temporally and spatially variable food supply for an unexploited gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) population. American Midland Naturalist. 121(1): 41-60. [13302]
  • 13. Hamilton, Ernest S.; Limbird, Arthur. 1982. Selective occurrence of arborescent species on soils in a drainage toposequence, Ottawa County, Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science. 82(5): 282-292. [4343]
  • 14. Hardin, James W. 1975. Hybridization and introgression in Quercus alba. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 56: 336-363. [10553]
  • 15. Harrington, John A. 1989. Major prairie planting on highway corridor to test methods, value of resulting vegetation (Wisconsin). Restoration and Management Notes. 7(1): 31-32. [8069]
  • 16. Kron, Kathleen A. 1989. The vegetation of Indian Bowl wet prairie and its adjacent plant communities. I. Description of the vegetation. Michigan Botanist. 28(4): 179-200. [17358]
  • 18. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of the United States trees. Volume 1. Conifers and important hardwoods. Misc. Publ. 1146. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 320 p. [1462]
  • 2. Archambault, Louis; Barnes, Burton V.; Witter, John A. 1989. Ecological species groups of oak ecosystems of southeastern Michigan. Forest Science. 35(4): 1058-1074. [9768]
  • 20. McCarthy, Joseph J.; Dawson, Jeffrey O. 1991. Effects of drought and shade on growth and water use of Quercus alba, Q. bicolor, Q. imbricaria and Q. palustris seedlings. In: McCormick, Larry H.; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings, 8th central hardwood forest conference; 1991 March 4-6; University Park, PA. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-148. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 157-178. [15309]
  • 21. Mitsch, William J.; Rust, William G. 1984. Tree growth responses to flooding in a bottomland forest in northeastern Illinois. Forest Science. 30(2): 499-510. [5011]
  • 22. Muth, Gilbert Jerome. 1980. Quercus saderiana R. Br. Campst., its distribution, ecology, and relationships to other oaks. In: Plumb, Timothy R., technical coordinator. Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology, management and utilization of California oaks; 1979 June 26-28; Claremont, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-44. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 75-80. [7017]
  • 23. Myers, Charles C.; Buchman, Roland G. 1984. Manager's handbook for elm-ash-cottonwood in the North Central States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-98. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 11 p. [8919]
  • 24. Nixon, Charles M.; McClain, Milford W.; Russell, Kenneth R. 1970. Deer food habits and range characteristics in Ohio. Journal of Wildlife Management. 34(4): 870-886. [16398]
  • 25. Olson, David F., Jr. 1974. Quercus L. oak. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 692-703. [7737]
  • 27. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1956. Wood...colors and kinds. Agric. Handb. 101. Washington, DC. 36 p. [16294]
  • 28. Thomson, Paul M. 1977. Quercus X introgressa, a new hybrid oak. Rhodora. 79: 453-464. [10372]
  • 3. Barnes, William J.; Dibble, Eric. 1988. The effects of beaver in riverbank forest succession. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66: 40-44. [2762]
  • 30. Vincent, Gilles; Bergeron, Yves; Meilleur, Alain. 1986. Plant community pattern analysis: a cartographic approach applied in the Lac des Deux-Montagnes area (Quebec). Canadian Journal of Botany. 64: 326-335. [16948]
  • 31. Preston, Richard J., Jr. 1948. North American trees. Ames, IA: The Iowa State College Press. 371 p. [1913]
  • 32. Rouse, Cary. 1986. Fire effects in northeastern forests: oak. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-105. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 7 p. [3884]
  • 33. Sander, Ivan L.; Rosen, Howard N. 1985. Oak: An American wood. FS-247. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 11 p. [18167]
  • 34. Solomon, J. D.; McCracken, F. I.; Anderson, R. L.; [and others]
  • 35. Wargo, Philip M.; Houston, David R.; LaMadeleine, Leon A. 1983. Oak decline. Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet 165. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 8 p. [18166]
  • 36. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 4. Blinn, Charles R.; Buckner, Edward R. 1989. Normal foliar nutrient levels in North American forest trees: A summary. Station Bulletin 590-1989. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station. 27 p. [15282]
  • 5. Braun, E. Lucy. 1936. Forests of the Illinoian till plain of southwestern Ohio. Ecological Monographs. 6(1): 91-149. [8379]
  • 6. Burns, Teresa L.; Dahlgren, Robert B. 1983. Breeding bird use of flooded dead trees in Rathbun Reservoir, Iowa. In: Davis, Jerry W.; Goodwin, Gregory A.; Ockenfeis, Richard A., technical coordinators. Snag habitat management: proceedings of the symposium; 1983 June 7-9; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-99. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 99-101. [17821]
  • 7. Ernst, John P.; Brown, Valerie. 1989. Conserving endangered species on southern forested wetlands. In: Hook, Donal D.; Lea, Russ, eds. The forested wetlands of the southern United States: Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 July 12-14; Orlando, FL. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-50. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 135-145. [9232]
  • 9. Faber-Langendoen, Don; Maycock, Paul F. 1989. Community patterns and environmental gradients of buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis, ponds in lowland forests of southern Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 103(4): 479-485. [13458]
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. External link.
  • Der Gesellsschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, neue Schriften 3: 396. 1801. (Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Neue Schriften)
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Dicot. 1–944. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2013). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Oct 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication., version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Holotype: Muller, C. H. 1942. Amer. Midl. Naturalist. 27: 473.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Schwegman, J. E. 1991. The Vascular Flora of Langham Island, Kankakee County, Illinois. Erigenia 11: 1–8.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Willd. 1801. In: Neue Schriften Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 3: 396
    1. Bray, J. R. 1960. A note on hybridization between Quercus  macrocarpa Michx. x Quercus bicolor Willd. in Wisconsin.  Canadian Journal of Botany 38(5):701-704.
    3. Bryant, Robert Louis. 1963. The lowland hardwood forests of  Ingham County, Michigan. Their structure and ecology. Thesis  (Ph.D.), Michigan State University, East Lansing.  Dissertation Abstracts 25(2):728.
    5. Bryant, W. W. 1978. An unusual forest type hydro-mesophytic  for the inner blue grass region of Kentucky, USA. Castanea  43(2):129-137.
    7. Clark, F. Bryan. 1965. Swamp white oak Quercus  bicolor Willd.). In Silvics of forest trees of the  United States. p. 625-627. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271.  Washington, DC.
    9. Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. The  University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 657 p.
    11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    13. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    15. Johnson, Paul S. 1967. Vegetational developments after  logging in southern Michigan lowland hardwood forests.  Unpublished report. North Central Forest Experiment Station,  Columbia, MO.
    17. Martin, A. C., H. S. Zim, and A. L. Nelson. 1951. American  wildlife and plants. McGraw-Hill, New York. 500 p.
    19. Olson, David F., Jr. 1974. Quercus L. Oaks. In Seeds  of woody plants in the United States. p. 692-703. C. S.  Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    21. Thomson, P. M. 1977. Quercus-Introgressa sexual hybrid, a  new hybrid oak. Rhodora 79(819):453-464.


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