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Overview

Brief Summary

Holm Oak

The Holm Oak is native to the Mediterranean, found on the north and south coast and many of the islands encompased  Found extensively near the coast with Spain being the only exeption where it can be found across the country. It is as much at home on both fertile and poor soils but does not tolerate poorly drained soils. A strong and robust tree growing slowly but steadily to 18 to 20 meters it has been of value for over a thousand years in the feeding of pigs for what is now known as Serrento Ham..It is a member of the white oak family, forms a rounded crown with a fairly short trunk and has small leathery leaves, typical of evergreen oaks native to harsh climates.

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / gall
hypophyllous erineum of Aculops coulteri causes gall of live leaf of Quercus ilex

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Amanita ovoidea is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Quercus ilex
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / spot causer
hypophyllous, scattered, blackish olive-green pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta quercus-ilicis causes spots on leaf of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Beltrania dematiaceous anamorph of Beltrania querna is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / saprobe
Beltrania dematiaceous anamorph of Beltrania rhombica is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Campsosporium anamorph of Campsosporium pellucidum is saprobic on dead wood of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara hughesii is saprobic on fallen, dead leaf of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Clytra laeviuscula grazes on live flower of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 5-8

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, numerous, gregarious pycnidium of Coleophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Coleophoma cylindrospora is saprobic on dead leaf of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / saprobe
punctiform acervulus of Coryneum coelomycetous anamorph of Coryneum elevatum is saprobic on twig of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous uredium of Cronartium quercuum parasitises live leaf (sucker shoot) of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Cylindrium anamorph of Cylindrium elongatum is saprobic on fallen, dead, decaying leaf of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 7-4
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Dictyochaeta dematiaceous anamorph of Dictyochaeta simplex is saprobic on fallen, dead leaf of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 4-6

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Diplocladiella dematiaceous anamorph of Diplocladiella scalaroides is saprobic on fallen, dead, decaying peduncle of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / mycorrhiza
fruitbody of Elaphomyces leucosporus is mycorrhizal with live root of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / spot causer
acervulus of Sphaceloma anamorph of Elsinoe quercus-ilicis causes spots on live leaf of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / saprobe
hypophyllous, superficial ascoma of Epibelonium gaeumannii is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 3

Foodplant / gall
hypophyllous erineum of Eriophyes ilicis causes gall of live leaf of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe alphitoides parasitises Quercus ilex

Foodplant / saprobe
transversely elongate or oblong, immersed, then erumpent, imperfectly multiloculate stroma of Fusicoccum coelomycetous anamorph of Fusicoccum quercinum is saprobic on cupule of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 4-5

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum floriforme is associated with Quercus ilex

Foodplant / saprobe
punctiform stroma of Helminthosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Helminthosporium microsorum is saprobic on twig of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 5-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Henicospora dematiaceous anamorph of Henicospora minor is saprobic on fallen, dead leaf of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / saprobe
subcuticular, opening by slit apothecium of Hypoderma ilicinum is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Inonotus dryadeus is saprobic on live trunk (base) of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Lachnum fuscescens var. fuscescens is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 9-6

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Lanzia coracina is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf (vein) of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 3

Foodplant / saprobe
mostly hypophyllous conidioma of Leptothyrium coelomycetous anamorph of Leptothyrium ilicinum is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 2-3

Foodplant / feeds on
gregarious, crowded pycnidium of Macrophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Macrophoma nitens feeds on twig of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmius quercophilus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed leaf of Quercus ilex
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
amphigenous thyriothecium of Microthyrium ilicinum is saprobic on dead, fallen, rotting, greyed leaf of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 4-10
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hypophyllous apothecium of Niptera muelleri-argoviensis is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 8-10
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Parapleurotheciopsis dematiaceous anamorph of Parapleurotheciopsis ilicina is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 4-10

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Perenniporia ochroleuca is associated with live trunk of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / saprobe
acervulus of Pestalotiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pestalotiopsis montellica is saprobic on dead Quercus ilex

Foodplant / saprobe
linearly arranged pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis glandicola is saprobic on fallen acorn of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / pathogen
Phytophthora cinnamomi infects and damages root of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / pathogen
mycelium of Phytophthora ramorum infects and damages shoot of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Polyscytalum dematiaceous anamorph of Polyscytalum truncatum is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula inamoena is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Quercus ilex
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula insignis is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Quercus ilex
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula pseudoimpolita is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Quercus ilex
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula stenotricha is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Quercus ilex
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Spongipellis pachyodon is saprobic on living trunk of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / saprobe
discrete or effuse colony of Subramaniomyces dematiaceous anamorph of Subramaniomyces fusisaprophyticus is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Quercus ilex
Remarks: season: 8

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Subulispora dematiaceous anamorph of Subulispora britannica is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Quercus ilex

Foodplant / spot causer
hypophyllous ascoma of Taphrina caerulescens causes spots on live, blistered leaf of Quercus ilex

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula rhodomelanea is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Quercus ilex x robur (Q. x turneri)
Remarks: Other: uncertain

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Quercus ilex

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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© Info Flora (CRSF/ZDSF) & Autoren 2005

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Wikipedia

Quercus ilex

Quercus ilex, the evergreen oak,[1] holm oak or holly oak is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region. It takes its name from holm, an ancient name for holly.[2] It is a member of the white oak section of the genus, with acorns that mature in a single summer. It was first introduced to the United Kingdom in the 16th century. The first trees to be planted from acorns into England are still to be found growing within the stately grounds of Mamhead Park, Devon. They are uncommonly fine examples; several of these trees are 10 ft (3 m) in circumference at 3 ft (1 m) from the ground, and one of them measures 13½ ft (4 m) in circumference.[citation needed] One specimen in Milo, in Sicily is reputed to be 700 years old[3] while a small population on the slopes of northern village of Wardija in Malta are said to be between 500 and 1,000 years old. Quercus ilex is the national tree of Malta and prior to the Carthaginian period was prevalent on the islands.[4]

Description[edit]

Leaves and catkins in spring

Quercus ilex is a medium-sized tree 20–27 metres (66–89 ft) tall with finely square-fissured blackish bark and leathery evergreen leaves. The old leaves fall 1–2 years after new leaves emerge. The leaves are dark green above and pale whitish-grey with dense short hairs below. The leaf shape is variable (depending on age and growing conditions),[5] the adult leaves are entire, 4–8 centimetres (1.6–3.1 in) long and 1–3 cm (0.39–1.18 in) broad, while those on the lower branches of young trees are often larger (to 10 cm or 3.9 in long), and are toothed or somewhat spiny – possibly as protection from grazing animals. In this, the foliage resembles that of the common European Holly Ilex aquifolium, and this resemblance has led to its common and botanic names. The name ilex is originally the classical Latin name for the Holm Oak, but was later also used as a botanical genus name for the hollies. The flowers are catkins, produced in the spring; the fruit is an acorn, which matures in about six months.

Subspecies[edit]

There are two subspecies:

  • Quercus ilex subsp. ilex. Native in the north and east of the species' range, from northern Iberia and France east to Greece. Leaves narrow; acorns 2 cm long, bitter tasting.
  • Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia (syn. Q. rotundifolia, Q. ballota). Native in the southwest of the species' range, in central and southern Iberia (Portugal and Spain) and northwest Africa. Leaves broader; acorns 2.5 cm long, sweet tasting.

Ecology[edit]

Holm Oak grows in pure stands or mixed forest in relatively arid climates and often at low or moderate elevations, such as coastal California (the Spanish name for the Holm Oak, encina, is the origin of the name of many California localities). One of the plant associations in which Holm Oak is found is the Holm Oak/Atlas Cedar forests of the Atlas Mountains. In Morocco, some of these mixed forests are habitat to the endangered primate, Barbary Macaque, Macaca sylvanus.[6]

Holm oak is damaging biodiversity in the United Kingdom, and is listed as an alien invader. Normally the tree is unable to withstand frost, which would prevent it from spreading north, but with climate change, it has successfully penetrated these areas.[7]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Mature acorns on a tree in Corsica

The wood is hard and tough, and has been used since ancient times for general construction purposes as pillars, tools, wagons (Hesiod, Works and Days 429), vessels, and wine casks. It is also used as firewood, or in charcoal manufacture.

The Holm Oak is one of the top three trees used in the establishment of truffle orchards, or truffières. Truffles grow in an ectomycorrhizal association with the tree's roots.

The acorns, like those of the Cork Oak, are edible (toasted or as a flour), and are an important food for free-range pigs reared for ibérico ham production. Boiled in water, the acorns can also be used as a medicinal treatment for injury dis-infections.

It can be clipped to form a tall hedge, and it is suitable for coastal windbreaks, in any well drained soil. It forms a picturesque rounded head, with pendulous low-hanging branches. Its size and solid evergreen character gives it an imposing architectural presence that makes it valuable in many urban and garden settings. While Holm Oak can be grown in much of maritime northwestern Europe, it is not tolerant of cold continental winters.

References[edit]

Line notes[edit]

  1. ^ Flora of the Maltese Islands, Hans Christian Weber, Bernd Kendzior, 2006, Margraf Publishers p. 184
  2. ^ Holm Oak, 2002
  3. ^ See the article about the tree
  4. ^ Flora of the Maltese Islands, Hans Christian Weber, Bernd Kendzior, 2006, Margraf Publishers p. 184
  5. ^ Flora of the Maltese Islands, Hans Christian Weber, Bernd Kendzior, 2006, Margraf Publishers p. 184
  6. ^ C. Michael Hogan, 2008
  7. ^ BBC News, 2008
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