The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2015). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Sep 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 4(1): 440. 1805. (Sp. Pl.)
  • Willd. 1805. In: Sp. Pl. 4: 440
    1. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S Department of  Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175 Washington, DC. 642 p.
    3. Beck, D. E. 1977. Twelve-year acorn yields in southern Appalachian  oaks. USDA Forest Service, Research Note SE-244. Southeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Asheville NC. 8 p.
    5. Berry, F. H., and F. F. Lombard. 1978. Basidiomycetes  associated with decay of living oak trees. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper  NE-413. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 8 p.
    7. Campbell, Robert A. 1965. Chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.)  In Silvics of forest trees of the United States. p. 573-576. H. A.  Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture Agriculture Handbook 271.  Washington, DC.
    9. Carmean, Willard H. 1972. Site index curves for upland oaks in the  Central States. Forest Science 18:109-120.
    11. Della-Bianca, Leno. 1981. Personal communication.
    13. Doolittle, W. T. 1958. Site index comparisons for several forest  species in the southern Appalachians. Soil Science Society of American  Proceedings 22:455-458.
    15. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    17. Farmer, Robert E., Jr. 1977. Epicotyl dormancy in white and chestnut  oaks. Forest Science 23:329-332.
    19. Farmer, Robert E., Jr. 1978. Seasonal carbohydrate levels in roots of  Appalachian hardwood planting stock. Tree Planters' Notes 29(3):22-24.
    21. Farmer, Robert E., Jr. 1980. Comparative analysis of first-year  growth in six deciduous tree species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  10:35-41.
    23. Harrar, E. S. 1971. Chestnut oak Quercus prinus L. In  Hough's Encyclopedia of American woods, vol. 6. p. 68-78. Robert Speller  & Sons, New York.
    25. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386.  Washington, DC. 658 p.
    27. Houston, D. R., and H. T. Valentine. 1977. Comparing and predicting  forest stand susceptibility to gypsy moth. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  7:447-461.
    29. Ike, A. F., Jr., and C. D. Huppuch. 1968. Predicting tree height  growth from soil and topographic site factors in the Georgia Blue Ridge  Mountains. Georgia Forest Research Paper 54. Georgia Forest Research Council,  Macon. 11 p.
    31. Immel, Mark J., Robert L. Rumsey, and Stanley B. Carpenter. 1978.  Comparative growth responses of northern red oak and chestnut oak seedlings to  varying photoperiod. Forest Science 24:554-560.
    33. Korstian, Clarence F. 1927. Factors controlling germination and early  survival in oaks. Yale University School of Forestry, Bulletin 19. New Haven,  CT. 115 p.
    35. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of United States trees, vol. 1.  Conifers and important hardwoods. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous  Publication 1146. Washington, DC. 9 p., 313 maps.
    37. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native  and naturalized). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541.  Washington, DC. 375 p.
    39. McCormick, James F., and R. B. Platt. 1980. Recovery of an  Appalachian forest following the chestnut blight or Catherine Keever-you  were right. American Midland Naturalist 104:264-273.
    41. Mowbray, T. B., and H. J. Oosting. 1968. Vegetation gradients in  relation to environment and phenology in a southern Blue Ridge gorge.  Ecological Monographs 38:309-344.
    43. Olson, David F., Jr. 1974. Quercus L. Oak. In Seeds of  woody plants in the United States. p. 692-703. C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    45. Racine, C. H. 1971. Reproduction of three species of oak in relation  to vegetational and environmental gradients in the southern Blue Ridge.  Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 98:297-310.
    47. Roth, Elmer R., and George H. Hepting. 1969. Prediction of  butt rot in newly regenerated sprout oak stands. Journal of Forestry  67:756-760.
    49. Sander, Ivan L. 1971. Height growth of new oak sprouts depends on  size of advance reproduction. Journal of Forestry 69:809-811.
    51. Sharik, T. L., M. S. Ross, and G. M. Hopper. 1983. Early fruiting in  chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.). Forest Science 29:221-224.
    53. Sharp, W. M., and H. H. Chisman. 1961. Flowering and fruiting in the  white oaks. 1. Staminate flowering through pollen dispersal. Ecology  42:365-372.
    55. Sharp, W. M., and V. G. Sprague. 1967. Flowering and fruiting in the  white oaks. Pistillate flowering, acorn development, weather, and  yields. Ecology 48:243-251.
    57. Stout, B. B. 1956. Studies of the root system of deciduous trees.  Black Rock Forest Bulletin 15. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. 45 p.
    59. Trimble, George R., Jr. 1960. Relative diameter growth rates of five  upland oaks in West Virginia. Journal of Forestry 58:111-115.
    61. Trimble, George R., Jr. 1967. Diameter increase in second-growth  Appalachian hardwood stands-a comparison of species. USDA Forest Service,  Research Note NE-75. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 5 p. 
    63. Trimble, George R., Jr., and D. W. Seegrist. 1973. Epicormic  branching on hardwood trees bordering forest openings. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper NE-261. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 6  p.
    65. Trimble, George R., Jr., and Sidney Weitzman. 1956. Site index  studies of upland oaks in the northern Appalachians. Forest Science 2:162-173. 
    67. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1985. Insects of  eastern forests. Miscellaneous Publication 1426. Washington, DC. 608 p.
    69. Wendel, G. W. 1975. Stump sprout growth and quality of several  Appalachian hardwood species after clearcutting. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper NE-329. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 9 p.


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