Overview

Distribution

Ariz, Calif.; Mexico (n Baja California).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Small trees and shrubs , to 2-3 m. Twigs rigid, divaricately branched at 65-90° angles, reddish brown, 1.5-3 mm diam., pubescent, sparsely so in 2d year. Terminal buds ovoid, 1-1.5 mm, apex rounded, glabrous. Leaves: petiole 2-5 mm, round in cross section, glabrous to sparsely fasciculate-pubescent. Leaf blade suborbiculate, elliptic to round-ovate, 20-30(-50) × 20-40 mm, crisped, leathery and brittle, base obtuse to strongly subcordate, secondary veins 5-8(-12) pairs, each terminating in spine, basal pairs recurving, others branching at 45° angles, raised abaxially, margins spinose-dentate to occasionally entire, with highly thickened cell walls, spines cartilaginous, (1-)1.5-2 mm, apex broadly rounded or subacute, spinose; surfaces abaxially glaucous with waxy layer, often obscured by golden brown glandular hairs, adaxially grayish dark green, scurfy with fasciculate erect and twisting hairs. Acorns solitary or rarely paired; cup turbinate to saucer-shaped, margins involute, often irregular, 7-10 mm deep × 10-25(-35) mm wide, scales appressed, embedded, often appearing laterally connate into concentric rings with only tip of scale visible, tuberculate, densely golden-tomentose throughout; nut oblong to fusiform, 20-30 × 10-15 mm, apex acute.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Quercus dunnii Kellogg ex Curran
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Ecology

Habitat

Disjunct in canyons, mountain washes, dry thickets, and margins of chapparal communities; 700-1800m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering in spring.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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Wikipedia

Quercus palmeri

Quercus palmeri is a species of oak known by the common name Palmer oak, or Palmer's oak. It is native to California, Baja California, and in Arizona through the transition zone to the eastern Mogollon Rim, where it grows in canyons, mountain slopes, washes, and other dry habitat types.

Description[edit]

Quercus palmeri is a shrub or small tree generally growing 2 or 3 meters tall, but known to reach 6 meters at times. It branches into angular twigs and is reddish brown in color. The leaves are 1 to 3 centimeters in length. They are stiff, leathery, and brittle, their edges wavy with sharp spine-teeth. The upper surface is shiny, waxy, and olive green in color, the lower gray-green and coated with glandular hairs. The fruit is an acorn with a hairy cap up to 2.5 centimeters wide and a blunt-ended nut 2 to 3 centimeters long.

This oak usually grows in small populations, some of which are actually cloned growths of a single plant.[1] One such clone in the Jurupa Mountains in Riverside County, California, named the Jurupa Oak, was determined to be over 13,000 years old, a single individual living as a relict from the Pleistocene.[2] It is therefore one of the oldest living plants in the world.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Flora of North America; RangeMap
  2. ^ May, M. R., et al. (2009). Pleistocene clone of Quercus palmeri Engelm. PLoS ONE
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Notes

Comments

Populations of Quercus palmeri are often small and may exist as single clones. The disjunct populations of California and Baja California are consistent morphologically. In Arizona populations, individuals tend to have flatter leaves bearing fewer teeth; this distinction is not constant, however. Morphologically aberrant populations identified as Q . palmeri in eastern Arizona (Chiracahua, Huachuca, and Santa Catalina mountains) and southwestern New Mexico are most likely the result of introgression from Q . palmeri to Q . chrysolepis (J. M. Tucker and H. S. Haskell 1960). Those populations tend to be intermediate in overall morphology, but all lack the diagnostic trichomes and biochemical markers of Q . palmeri ; they are best classified as Q . chrysolepis affinity Q . palmeri .
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Kartesz (1999) treats this taxon as Quercus dunnii; FNA as Quercus palmeri. They appear to be exact synonyms (for the same circumscription). Unpublished data from Kartesz incidates that he will use the Quercus palmeri name for this taxonomic concept in the next edition of the Synthesis of North American Flora.

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