Overview

Brief Summary

Fagaceae -- Beech family

    Ivan L. Sander

    Chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii), sometimes called  yellow chestnut oak, rock oak, or yellow oak, grows in alkaline  soils on limestone outcrops and well-drained slopes of the  uplands, usually with other hardwoods. It seldom grows in size or  abundance to be commercially important, but the heavy wood makes  excellent fuel. The acorns are sweet and are eaten by several  kinds of animals and birds.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Across local populations, there is significant variability in the size and width of leaves, and also the hairiness and color of leaf undersides. The scientific name of Chinkapin Oak is sometimes spelled Quercus muehlenbergii. The common name of this tree is sometimes spelled Chinquapin Oak, and it is also referred to as Yellow Chestnut Oak. This tree is one of the 'chestnut oaks' in the white oak group. The common name of this group derives from the fact that their leaves resemble those of Castanea spp. (chestnuts). Among Quercus spp. (oaks) in Illinois, the acorns of Chinkapin Oak are regarded as the sweetest and most edible. The wood of this tree is hard, heavy, strong, and durable; it has been used to make cabinets, furniture, containers, and rail ties. It is also a source of excellent firewood. In addition to Chinkapin Oak, two other species of chestnut oaks occur in Illinois in the southern section of the state
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

This tree is 40-90' tall at maturity, forming a trunk about 1½-4' across and a globoid to ovoid crown that is often irregularly shaped. On thin rocky soil, dwarf specimens of this tree may develop that are only 15-30' tall, but they are usually too weak to develop acorns. For mature trees, trunk bark is light gray to gray, thin, flaky, and irregularly fissured. Sometimes trunk bark develops narrow scales, but deep vertical furrows are absent. Branch bark is light gray and more smooth, while twigs are yellowish brown, brown, or reddish brown, and glabrous with scattered white lenticels. Young shoots are light green, glabrous or pubescent, and terete. Alternate leaves occur along the twigs and young shoots. These leaves are 2-7" long and ¾-3½" across; they are oblong-oblanceolate to broadly oblong-oblanceolate or oblong-elliptic to broadly oblong-elliptic in shape. Along their margins, individual leaves are pinnatifid with 7-15 pairs of shallow lobes that are rounded or tooth-like (usually the latter). Tooth-like lobes curve away from the leaf base and their tips are either pointed or blunt.  The leaf surface along the margins is either flat or wavy (up and down). The lateral veins of each leaf are nearly parallel to each other; they equal the number of lobes along the margin. The upper surface of mature leaves is dark green and glabrous, while the lower surface is either pale grayish green or white and more or less covered with fine stellate hairs. Immature leaves, in contrast, are yellowish green on both the upper and lower surfaces. The petioles are light green to yellow (often the latter), glabrous, and up to 1½" long. Here is a photo of Leafy Branches. Chinkapin Oak is monoecious, producing separate male (staminate) and female (pistillate) flowers on the same tree. Male flowers are produced in drooping greenish yellow catkins (2-4" long) from twigs of the preceding year. Individual male flowers are less than 1/8" across, consisting of an irregularly lobed hairy calyx and several stamens. Female flowers are produced individually or in very short spikes (with 2-3 female flowers) from the tips of the current year's twigs. Individual female flowers are about 1/8" across and reddish green, consisting of a hairy ovoid calyx that surrounds an ovary with 3 stigmata at its apex. The flowers are cross-pollinated by the wind during mid- to late spring. Some female flowers become aborted, while others develop into acorns during the summer. At maturity during the autumn, these acorns are about ¾" long and ovoid in shape. Each mature acorn has a pale gray cap that is slightly tuberculate (bumpy or warty); it extends downward to about one-third the length of the acorn. The nut of a mature acorn is glabrous and brown to black; its interior contains white meat that is mildly sweet and edible. The root system consists of a taproot and spreading lateral roots. During autumn, the deciduous leaves become dull red or brown; a few leaves may persist on a tree during the winter.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Chinkapin Oak is occasional throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include mesic to upland woodlands, rocky upland woodlands, thinly wooded bluffs, wooded slopes, savannas, limestone glades, and woodland borders along fields, roads, and parking lots. This tree is often associated with mineral-rich glacial moraines and rocky areas where limestone underlies the soil surface.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Chinkapin oak is widely distributed throughout much of eastern and
central North America [11]. Its range extends from New England and
Pennsylvania southward mostly in the mountains through Virginia and the
Carolinas to northwestern Florida, westward to northern Mexico,
south-central Texas, and Oklahoma, and north to Minnesota, Wisconsin,
southern Ontario, and southern Michigan [23,26].

Local and disjunct populations occur in western Texas, New Mexico, and
northeastern Mexico [36,69]. In the eastern United States, chinkapin
oak is relatively rare throughout much of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal
plains [32]. It is uncommon or rare in Pennsylvania [32] and in New
England [58]. Chinkapin oak reaches greatest abundance in the
Mississippi and Ohio valleys [23,32].
  • 11. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914]
  • 26. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 23. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442]
  • 32. Kendig, James W. 1979. Nomenclatural history of Quercus muehlenbergii. Bartonia. 46: 45-48. [10141]
  • 36. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 58. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 69. Tucker, John M. 1961. Studies in the Quercus undulata complex. I. A preliminary statement. American Journal of Botany. 48(3): 202-208. [2361]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Occurrence in North America

AL AR CT DE FL GA IL IN IA KS
KY LA MD MA MI MN MS MO NE NJ
NM NY NC OH OK PA RI SC TN TX
VT VA WV WI ON MEXICO

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Chinkapin oak is found in western Vermont and New York, west to  southern Ontario, southern Michigan, southern Wisconsin, extreme  southeastern Minnesota, and Iowa; south to southeastern Nebraska,  eastern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and central Texas; east to  northwest Florida; and north mostly in the mountains to  Pennsylvania and southwestern Massachusetts. There are local  populations in the mountains of southeastern New Mexico,  Trans-Pecos Texas, and northeastern Mexico (5).

   
  -The native range of chinkapin oak.


  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ont.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.; Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo León, Hidalgo, and Tamaulipas).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the term: tree

Chinkapin oak is a spreading, medium to large, deciduous tree which
generally reaches 16 to 52 feet (5-16 m) in height [50] but occasionally
grows to 80 or 90 feet (24-27 m) [46,66]. On exceptional sites in the
lower Wabash and Ohio valleys, individuals can reach 160 feet (48 m) in
height and up to 4 feet (1.2 m) in diameter [23]. Chinkapin oak
typically has large, low branches and a rounded crown [66]. In closed
forest stands it develops a straight, columnar trunk, a dense rounded
crown, and fairly small branches [23]. In the open, plants usually
develop a short trunk and broad crown. Grayish-brown twigs are rigid
and glabrous [66]. The thin bark is light gray to silvery, and rough or
scaly [50,66]. The alternate, simple leaves are coriaceous and variable
in shape [66].
  • 23. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442]
  • 46. Olson, David F., Jr. 1974. Quercus L. oak. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 692-703. [7737]
  • 50. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 66. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Trees , deciduous, moderate to large, to 30 m, occasionally large shrubs (ca. 3 m) on drier sites. Bark gray, thin, flaky to papery. Twigs brownish, 1.5-3(-4) mm diam., sparsely fine-pubescent, soon becoming glabrate, graying in 2d year. Buds brown to red-brown, subrotund to broadly ovoid, 20-40 × (10-)15-25 mm, apex rounded, very sparsely pubescent. Leaves: petiole (7-)10-30(-37) mm. Leaf blade usually obovate, sometimes lanceolate to oblanceolate, (32-)50-150(-210) × (10-)40-80(-106) mm, leathery, base truncate to cuneate, margins regularly undulate, toothed or shallow-lobed, teeth or lobes rounded, or acute-acuminate, often strongly antrorse, secondary veins usually (9-)10-14(-16) on each side, ± parallel, apex short-acute to acuminate or apiculate; surfaces abaxially glaucous or light green, appearing glabrate but with scattered or crowded minute, appressed, symmetric, 6-10-rayed stellate hairs, adaxially lustrous dark green, glabrate. Acorns 1-2, subsessile or on axillary peduncle to 8 mm; cup hemispheric or shallowly cupped, 4-12 mm deep × 8-22 mm wide, enclosing 1/4-1/2 nut, base rounded, margin usually thin, scales closely appressed, moderately to prominently tuberculate, uniformly short gray-pubescent; nut light brown, oblong to ovoid, (13-)15-20(-28) × l0-13(-16) mm. Cotyledons distinct. 2 n = 24.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Quercus acuminata (Michaux) Sargent; Q. brayi Small; Q. prinus Linnaeus var. acuminata Michaux
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Isotype for Quercus alexanderi Britton
Catalog Number: US 476025
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): S. Alexander
Year Collected: 1897
Locality: Birminghman., Michigan, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Britton, N. L. 1901. Man. Fl. N. States & Canada. 336.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Isotype for Quercus alexanderi Britton
Catalog Number: US 476024
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): S. Alexander
Year Collected: 1897
Locality: Birminghman., Michigan, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Britton, N. L. 1901. Man. Fl. N. States & Canada. 336.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Chinkapin Oak is occasional throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include mesic to upland woodlands, rocky upland woodlands, thinly wooded bluffs, wooded slopes, savannas, limestone glades, and woodland borders along fields, roads, and parking lots. This tree is often associated with mineral-rich glacial moraines and rocky areas where limestone underlies the soil surface.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: cover, swamp

Chinkapin oak grows on dry, rocky sites [11], such as calcareous bluffs,
rocky hillsides, and protected slopes and canyons [20]. It also occurs
in glades and valleys, and along rocky streambanks [26,27,66]. In parts
of the Midwest, chinkapin oak grows in rich forests and on stablized
dunes [70]. Chinkapin oak is particularly common near forest margins
[27]. It is fairly tolerant of shade and drought [5,19].

Plant communities: Chinkapin oak is common in only one cover type, the
post oak (Quercus stellata)-black oak (Q. velutinus) type [23].
Elsewhere, it grows as scattered individuals or in relatively isolated
groves. It occurs in a variety of communities, including gallery
forests along stream channels and ravines in the southern and central
Great Plains at the edge of eastern deciduous forests [1]. It is also
present in the Cross Timbers, blackland prairies, post oak savannas, and
pine-oak forests of Texas [48,61].

In the eastern United States, chinkapin oak grows in a number of mixed
mesophytic or submesic woodlands, including beech (Fagus spp.)-maple
(Acer spp.), maple-basswood (Tilia spp.), oak-hickory (Carya spp.),
oak-chestnut (Castanea dentata), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), and
northern red oak (Q. rubra)-basswood [6,23,26,39,49,60]. In parts of
southern Indiana, it occasionally codominates the crown canopy with
northern red oak. In Ohio, chinkapin oak commonly grows in areas
transitional from swamp forest to mesophytic forests [23]. Chinkapin
oak was a prominent species in several presettlement, open woodland
communities of the Midwest and middle South, including portions of Inner
Bluegrass region of Kentucky [15].

Plant associates: Common plant associates in different geographic
locations include:

Midwest - Common associates in gallery forests of the prairies include
hackberry, American elm (Ulmus americana), bur oak, and sycamore
(Platanus occidentalis) [3,63]. Bur oak, white oak, black oak, northern
red oak, and shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) grow with chinkapin oak in
parts of the upper Midwest [12].

Texas - In pine-oak forests of Texas, chinkapin grows in association
with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga
menziesii) [16,48]. Other common associates in Texas include American
elm, hackberry (Celtis spp.), blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica),
Shumard oak (Q. shumardii), western soapberry (Sapindus saponaria ssp.
drummundii), and black cherry (Prunus serotina) [61].

South - Chinkapin oak occurs with white oak, black oak (Quercus
velutinus), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), hickory, black cherry, ash
(Fraxinus spp.), Arizona walnut (Juglans major), yellow-poplar
(Lirodendron tulipifera), and cucumbertree (Magnolia acuminata) in the
Southeast [23]. In remnants of open woodlands common in portions of the
Inner Bluegrass region of Kentucky during presettlement times, chinkapin
oak occurs with bur oak, blue ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata), Shumard oak,
shellbark hickory (Carya laciniosa), shagbark hickory, sugar maple,
black cherry, yellow-poplar, and red mulberry (Morus rubra) [15]. In
the deep South, it grows with holly (Ilex spp.) and other oaks in stands
dominated by beech and magnolia (Magnolia spp.) [23]. In Arkansas,
butternut (Juglans cinera), Arizona walnut, and other oaks are
particularly common associates [23].

Soils: Chinkapin oak commonly occurs on calcareous soils which are
derived from limestone [23]. It also grows on deep, well-drained soils
of river and creekbottoms [61] and on limestone outcrops [23]. Soils
are often of low fertility and deficient in nutrients such as phosphorus
[33]. Chinkapin oak grows on medium acidic to highly alkaline soils
[23] but reaches greatest abundance on basic soils [50]. In parts of
the Midwest, it is absent in relatively level areas where soil leaching
has resulted in an acidicification of a glacial till mantle [23].
Edaphic factors can greatly influence growth rate of chinkapin oak [1].

Climate: Chinkapin oak grows in moist subhumid to humid zones
throughout most of its range but grows in dry subhumid conditions at the
southwestern edge of its range [23]. Growing-season precipitation
ranges from 10 inches (25 cm) in Texas to 80 inches (203 cm) in the
southern Appalachians. The length of the growing season ranges from 120
to 240 days [23].

Elevation: Chinkapin oak grows from 400 to 3,000 feet (122-914 m) [79].
It is absent or rare at higher elevations in the Appalachian Mountains
[23].
  • 70. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573]
  • 27. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 11. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914]
  • 1. Abrams, Marc D. 1985. Age-diameter relationships of Quercus species in relation to edaphic factors in gallery forests of northeast Kansas. Forest Ecology and Management. 13: 181-193. [10377]
  • 26. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 3. Abrams, Marc D. 1986. Historical development of gallery forests in northeast Kansas. Vegetatio. 65: 29-37. [3255]
  • 5. Abrams, Marc D.; Knapp, Alan K. 1986. Seasonal water relations of three gallery forest hardwood species in northeast Kansas. Forest Science. 32(3): 687-696. [256]
  • 6. Albertson, F. W.; Weaver, J. E. 1945. Injury and death or recovery of trees in prairie climate. Ecological Monographs. 15: 393-433. [4328]
  • 12. Brewer, Richard; Kitler, Steven. 1989. Tree distribution in southwestern Michigan bur oak openings. Michigan Botanist. 28(2): 73-79. [13005]
  • 15. Bryant, William S.; Wharton, Mary E.; Martin, William H.; Varner, Johnnie B. 1980. The blue ash-oak savanna--woodland, a remnant of presettlement vegetation in the Inner Bluegrass of Kentucky. Castanea. 45(3): 149-165. [10375]
  • 16. Buechner, Helmut K. 1950. Life history, ecology, and range use of the pronghorn antelope in Trans-Pecos Texas. The American Midland Naturalist. 43(2): 257-354. [4084]
  • 19. Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p. [7116]
  • 20. Dooley, Karen. 1983. Description and dynamics of some western oak forests in Oklahoma. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma. 62 p. Dissertation. [12145]
  • 23. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442]
  • 33. Killingbeck, Keith T. 1988. Microhabitat distribution of two Quercus (Fagaceae) species in relation to soil differences within a Kansas gallery forest. The Southwestern Naturalist. 33(2): 244-247. [5249]
  • 39. Martin, William H.; DeSelm, Hal R. 1976. Forest communities of dissected uplands in the Great Valley of east Tennessee. In: Fralish, James S.; Weaver, George T.; Schlesinger, Richard C., eds. Central hardwood forest conference: Proceedings of a meeting; 1976 October 17-19; Carbondale, IL. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University: 11-29. [3810]
  • 48. Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees & shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas including Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p. [6130]
  • 49. Quigley, Kenneth L. 1971. The supply and demand situation for oak timber. In: Oak symposium: Proceedings; 1971 August 16-20; Morgantown, WV. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 30-36. [9079]
  • 50. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 60. Shelford, V. E. 1954. Some lower Mississippi valley flood plain biotic communities; their age and elevation. Ecology. 35(2): 126-142. [4329]
  • 61. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 63. Smith, David L. 1986. Leaf litter processing and the associated invertebrate fauna in a tallgrass prairie stream. The American Midland Naturalist. 116(1): 78-86. [10384]
  • 66. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: codominant

Chinkapin oak grows as a codominant with bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa)
and hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) in gallery forests of the Konza
Prairie in northeastern Kansas [3]. In most other locations it occurs
as scattered individuals within a mixed overstory.
  • 3. Abrams, Marc D. 1986. Historical development of gallery forests in northeast Kansas. Vegetatio. 65: 29-37. [3255]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES18 Maple - beech - birch
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES39 Prairie

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

14 Northern pin oak
27 Sugar maple
40 Post oak - blackjack oak
42 Bur oak
52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak
57 Yellow poplar
60 Beech - sugar maple
236 Bur oak

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

K038 Cedar glades
K089 Black belt
K100 Oak - hickory forest
K103 Mixed mesophytic forest
K104 Appalachian oak forest

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Soils and Topography

Chinkapin oak is usually found on warm, moist Udalf Alfisols,  Dystrochrept Inceptisols, Udoll Mollisols, and Udult Ultisols  over much of its range. In the extreme southwestern part of the  range chinkapin oak also grows on warm, dry Ustoll Mollisols and  Astalf Alfisols (9). Chinkapin oak is generally found on  well-drained upland soils derived from limestone or where  limestone outcrops occur. Occasionally it is found on   well-drained limestone soils along streams. It appears that soil  pH is strongly related to the prescence of chinkapin oak, which  is generally found on soils that are weakly acid (pH about 6.5)  to alkaline (above pH 7.0). It grows on both northerly and  southerly aspects but is more common on the warmer southerly  aspects. It is absent or rare at high elevations in the  Appalachians (3,4).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Climate

The climate in which chinkapin oak grows is humid except for the  southwestern fringe of its natural range, which is moist subhumid  to dry subhumid. The average length of frost-free periods ranges  from 120 days in Vermont to 240 days in Texas. Precipitation in  the growing season (April 1 to September 30) ranges from an  average of about 250 mm (10 in) in southwest Texas to about 2030  mm (80 in) in the southern Appalachians. In southern Indiana and  southern Ohio where chinkapin oak grows best, growing season  precipitation is from 510 to 640 mm (20 to 25 in) (4).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Mixed deciduous forest, woodlands and thickets, sometimes restricted to n slopes and riparian habitats in w parts of range, limestone and calcareous soils, rarely on other substrates; 0-2300m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Faunal Associations

In Illinois and neighboring areas of the Midwest, the caterpillars of several butterflies and skippers eat the foliage of Chinkapin Oak and other oaks (Quercus spp.)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associated Forest Cover

Chinkapin oak is rarely a predominant tree, but it grows in  association with many other species. It is a component of the  forest cover type White Oak-Black Oak-Northern Red Oak (Society  of American Foresters Type 52) and the Post Oak-Blackjack Oak  (Type 40) (2).

    It grows in association with white oak (Quercus alba), black  oak (Q. uelutina), northern red oak (Q. rubra), scarlet  oak (Q. coccinea), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), red  maple (A. rubrum), hickories (Carya spp.), black  cherry (Prunus serotina), cucumbertree (Magnolia  acuminata), white ash (Fraxinus americana), American  basswood (Tilia americana), black walnut (Juglans  nigra), butternut (J. cinerea), and  yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). American beech  (Fagus grandifolia), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata),  pitch pine (P. rigida), Virginia pine (P.  uirginiana), Ozark chinkapin (Castanea ozarkensis),  eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), bluejack oak  (Quercus incana), southern red oak (Q. falcata),  blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), and winged elm (Ulmus  alata) also grow in association with chinkapin oak. In the  Missouri Ozarks a redcedar-chinkapin oak association has been  described.

    The most common small tree and shrub species found in association  with chinkapin oak include flowering dogwood (Cornus  florida), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), sourwood  (Oxydendron arboreum), eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya  virginiana), Vaccinium spp., Viburnum spp., hawthorns (Crataegus  spp.), and sumacs (Rhus spp.). The most common woody  vines are wild grape (Vitis spp.) and greenbrier (Smilax  spp.).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diseases and Parasites

Damaging Agents

Severe wildfire kills saplings and small  pole-size trees but these resprout. Fire scars serve as entry  points for decay-causing fungi, however, and the resulting decay  can cause serious losses.

    Oak wilt (Ceratocystis fagacearum), a vascular disease,  attacks chinkapin oak and usually kills the tree within 2 to 4  years. Other diseases that attack chinkapin oak include the  cankers Strumella coryneoidea and Nectria galligenashoestring root rot (Armillarea mellea), anthracnose  (Gnomonia veneta), and leaf blister (Taphrina spp.)  (4).

    The most serious defoliating insects that attack chinkapin oak are  the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), the orangestriped  oakworm (Anisota senatoria), and the variable oakleaf  caterpillar (Heterocampa manteo). Insects that bore into  the bole and seriously degrade the products cut from infested  trees include the carpenterworm. (Prionoyxstus robiniae),  little carpenterworm (P. macmurtrei), white  oak borer (Goes tigrinus), Columbian timber beetle (Corthylus  columbianus), oak timberworm (Arrhenodes minutus), and  twolined chestnut borer (Agrilus bilineatus). The acorn  weevils (Curculio spp.), larvae of moths (Valentinia  glandulella and Melissopus latiferreanus), and  gallforming cynipids (Callirhytis spp.) attack and  destroy the acorns (4).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: prescribed fire, series

Prescribed fire: Prescribed fire can be an important tool for
regenerating oak stands because it tends to promote vigorous sprouting,
reduce competing vegetation [55], and expose mineral soil, which favors
seedling establishment. A series of low-intensity prescribed fires
prior to timber harvest can promote advanced regeneration in oaks [72].
[See Management Considerations]. The effects of fire on oaks may vary;
in some cases fire can kill or injure oaks, but in others fire has
little effect [55]. In the southern Appalachians, biennial summer burns
are often effective in promoting advance regeneration, while single
preharvest or postharvest burns generally have little effect [72].
  • 55. Rouse, Cary. 1986. Fire effects in northeastern forests: oak. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-105. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 7 p. [3884]
  • 72. Van Lear, David H.; Waldrop, Thomas A. 1988. Effects of fire on natural regeneration in the Appalachian Mountains. In: Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.; Kidd, William E., Jr., eds. Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands: Workshop proceedings; 1988 May 24-26; Morgantown, WV. SAF Publ. 88-03. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 56-70. [13934]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Plant Response to Fire

More info for the term: severity

Chinkapin oak commonly sprouts after aboveground portions of the plant
are damaged or destroyed [23]. Specific response is presumably related
fire severity and intensity, season of burn, and plant age and vigor.
Most oaks sprout from the stump after moderate fires [28], and from
underground portions when completely top-killed [55]. Hannah [28]
reported that the best sprouts often originate from buds located at or
below ground level. These sprouts may be more vigorous and less
susceptible to rot or other damage.

Seedlings, saplings, and small pole-sized trees commonly sprout if
girdled by fire. Damaged seedlings often resprout several times and may
ultimately grow beyond the fire-susceptible stage [28]. Sprouting
ability appears to decrease as plants age. Large trees are much less
likely to sprout when severely damaged by fire.

Large oaks that survive fire frequently serve as seed sources [28].
Dying trees often produce a massive seed crop [55]. Also, some seed is
transported from adjacent, unburned areas by birds and mammals. Fire
may favor seedling establishment because it exposes mineral soil,
creating an optimal seedbed [55].
  • 23. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442]
  • 28. Hannah, Peter R. 1987. Regeneration methods for oaks. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4: 97-101. [3728]
  • 55. Rouse, Cary. 1986. Fire effects in northeastern forests: oak. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-105. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 7 p. [3884]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

More info for the term: tree

Oaks tend to be less susceptible to fire during the dormant season.
Weak individuals are less likely to heal than healthy, vigorous ones.
Oaks growing in overstocked stands typically exhibit lower vigor and are
more susceptible to fire-caused damage. Crooked or leaning trees are
particularly vulnerable to damage since the flames are more likely to be
directly below the stem, thereby increasing the amount of heat received
at the bark's surface. Basal injuries often permit the entry of insects
or decay that may ultimately kill the tree [55].
  • 55. Rouse, Cary. 1986. Fire effects in northeastern forests: oak. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-105. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 7 p. [3884]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the term: resistance

The fire resistance of chinkapin oak has not been well documented [15];
the results of several studies have been somewhat contradictory. Abrams
[3] observed no fire-caused overstory mortality in gallery forests of
northeasternern Kansas. Many large individuals were scarred from
recurrent fires [2] but still exhibited good growth and vigor.
Killingbeck [33], however, reported that chinkapin oak is very
susceptible to fire in gallery forests. These observed differences in
fire effects on chinkapin oak may be attributable to variation in fire
severity and intensity, site characteristics, plant age or size, form,
vigor, season of burn, and stocking levels [55].

Saplings and pole-sized chinkapin oaks are easily damaged by fire [23];
trees become more fire resistant as the bark thickens with age [28].
Most acorns are characterized by a relatively high moisture content. As
the moisture within the acorns is heated, the seeds swell and often
rupture [55]. Therefore, few acorns present on a site survive fire.
  • 2. Abrams, Marc D. 1985. Fire history of oak gallery forests in a northeast Kansas tallgrass prairie. The American Midland Naturalist. 114(1): 188-191. [1]
  • 3. Abrams, Marc D. 1986. Historical development of gallery forests in northeast Kansas. Vegetatio. 65: 29-37. [3255]
  • 15. Bryant, William S.; Wharton, Mary E.; Martin, William H.; Varner, Johnnie B. 1980. The blue ash-oak savanna--woodland, a remnant of presettlement vegetation in the Inner Bluegrass of Kentucky. Castanea. 45(3): 149-165. [10375]
  • 23. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442]
  • 28. Hannah, Peter R. 1987. Regeneration methods for oaks. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4: 97-101. [3728]
  • 33. Killingbeck, Keith T. 1988. Microhabitat distribution of two Quercus (Fagaceae) species in relation to soil differences within a Kansas gallery forest. The Southwestern Naturalist. 33(2): 244-247. [5249]
  • 55. Rouse, Cary. 1986. Fire effects in northeastern forests: oak. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-105. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 7 p. [3884]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: caudex, root crown

survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex
survivor species; on-site surviving roots
off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: fire suppression, litter, root crown

Chinkapin oak often sprouts from the stump or root crown after fire
[23]. Reestablishment through seed may occur on favorable sites in good
years. Rouse [55] reported that seedling establishment of oaks is often
favored on mineral seedbeds produced by fire.

Mean fire intervals in gallery forests of northeastern Kansas have been
estimated at approximately 11 to 20 years [2]. These fires most likely
originated in adjacent prairies which historically burned every 2 to 3
years. Since settlement times, gallery forests have expanded into
prairie because of increased fire suppression [3] [See Successional
Status]. Litter in gallery forests presumably decomposes more rapidly,
and the areal extent of fire may have been limited by the lower fuel
accumulations typical of these sites [2]. Killingbeck [33] observed
that patches of chinkapin oak predominate on infertile,
phosphorus-deficient sites in gallery forests. Intense, damaging fires
are unlikely to occur on these sites because biomass and litter
accumulations are low. Increased cattle grazing may also have led to
reduced fuels and less destructive fires [10]. Oak woodlands are
currently being replaced by maple-basswood forests because of reductions
in fire frequencies [3].
  • 2. Abrams, Marc D. 1985. Fire history of oak gallery forests in a northeast Kansas tallgrass prairie. The American Midland Naturalist. 114(1): 188-191. [1]
  • 3. Abrams, Marc D. 1986. Historical development of gallery forests in northeast Kansas. Vegetatio. 65: 29-37. [3255]
  • 10. Bragg, Thomas B.; Hulbert, Lloyd C. 1976. Woody plant invasion of unburned Kansas bluestem prairie. Journal of Range Management. 29(1): 19-24. [10383]
  • 23. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442]
  • 33. Killingbeck, Keith T. 1988. Microhabitat distribution of two Quercus (Fagaceae) species in relation to soil differences within a Kansas gallery forest. The Southwestern Naturalist. 33(2): 244-247. [5249]
  • 55. Rouse, Cary. 1986. Fire effects in northeastern forests: oak. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-105. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 7 p. [3884]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: climax, cool-season, density, fire exclusion, fire frequency, fire suppression, frequency, tree, xeric

Chinkapin oak is a climax tree on dry soils, particularly those of
limestone origin. It is seral on more moist sites [23]. Chinkapin oak
is moderately shade tolerant when young, but becomes increasingly
intolerant of shade with age.

Upper Midwest: Chinkapin oak and bur oak commonly dominate oak savannas
of the upper Midwest. Evidence suggests that tree density in these oak
savannas increased after settlement [12]. Fire frequencies were
presumably much reduced at this time, enabling chinkapin oak to reach
extremely large sizes. With continued fire suppression, these oak
savannas are being replaced by more shade-tolerant species such as elm
(Ulmus spp.), sugar maple, and buckeye (Aesculus spp.) [42]. In the
absence of disturbance, sugar maple assumes dominance in climax stands
[42].

Central Midwest: In oak-hickory forests of southern Indiana, chinkapin
oak stands are seral to climax beech-ash-maple forests. Chinkapin oak
grows in the final successional stages of Ozark floodplain communities
which are dominated by sugar maple and bitternut hickory (Carya
cordiformia) at climax. On south- and west-facing slopes near these
communities, it is considered a subclimax or seral species [23].

Southeast: Chinkapin oak and bur oak dominate certain early seral
forests in Mississippi Valley lowlands [3]. These forests are replaced
first by black oak, then northern red oak-shagbark hickory, and finally
American basswood (Tilia americana)-eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya
virginiana) forests [3]. Chinkapin oak also grows in certain climax
floodplain oak-hickory communities in the lower Mississippi Valley [60].
Hickories and the rapidly growing southern red oak (Quercus falcata)
develop first following disturbance on sites in this region. Seedlings
of chinkapin oak generally appear 75 to 100 years after the initial
disturbance [60]. Martin and DeSelm [39] reported that in eastern
Tennessee, chinkapin oak occasionally occurs in old-growth forests in
limestone valleys.

Middle South: In presettlement times chinkapin oak grew as an overstory
codominant in certain unique open woodland communities of the Inner
Bluegrass region of Kentucky [15]. Evidence suggests that these
communities were maintained by a combination of factors such as soil,
climate, grazing, and fire history. With changes in fire frequency and
increased grazing brought about by settlement, these communities
declined and were ultimately replaced by cultivated fields and pastures
dominanted by cool-season grasses [15].

Eastern Great Plains: During settlement times, reductions in fire
frequency enabled woody species, such as chinkapin oak, to expand
westward into parts of the prairie [3,10]. However, with further
reductions in fire frequency, oak woodlands dominated by chinkapin oak
and bur oak are being replaced by maple-basswood forests [3].
Historically, these narrow oak forests burned periodically as fires from
grasslands spread into adjacent woodlands.

In the Kansas prairie, chinkapin oak is a component of early seral
forests [5]. In many of these forests, this oak apparently grew and
reproduced beneath the overstory canopy until approximately 50 years ago
[3]. At this point, development of a thick organic seedbed, attributed
to fire exclusion, may have limited oak establishment. Continued
overstory development within the past 10 to 30 years has led to the
proliferation of more shade-tolerant species [3]. Species such as
hackberry ultimately replace the oaks on moist sites, whereas redbud
(Cercis spp.) assumes dominance on more xeric sites [3,52]. A return to
more frequent fires could permit the oaks to assume dominance on these
sites [52].
  • 3. Abrams, Marc D. 1986. Historical development of gallery forests in northeast Kansas. Vegetatio. 65: 29-37. [3255]
  • 5. Abrams, Marc D.; Knapp, Alan K. 1986. Seasonal water relations of three gallery forest hardwood species in northeast Kansas. Forest Science. 32(3): 687-696. [256]
  • 10. Bragg, Thomas B.; Hulbert, Lloyd C. 1976. Woody plant invasion of unburned Kansas bluestem prairie. Journal of Range Management. 29(1): 19-24. [10383]
  • 12. Brewer, Richard; Kitler, Steven. 1989. Tree distribution in southwestern Michigan bur oak openings. Michigan Botanist. 28(2): 73-79. [13005]
  • 15. Bryant, William S.; Wharton, Mary E.; Martin, William H.; Varner, Johnnie B. 1980. The blue ash-oak savanna--woodland, a remnant of presettlement vegetation in the Inner Bluegrass of Kentucky. Castanea. 45(3): 149-165. [10375]
  • 23. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442]
  • 39. Martin, William H.; DeSelm, Hal R. 1976. Forest communities of dissected uplands in the Great Valley of east Tennessee. In: Fralish, James S.; Weaver, George T.; Schlesinger, Richard C., eds. Central hardwood forest conference: Proceedings of a meeting; 1976 October 17-19; Carbondale, IL. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University: 11-29. [3810]
  • 42. Miceli, J. C.; Rolfe, G. L.; Pelz, D. R.; Edgington, J. M. 1977. Brownfield Woods, Illinois: woody vegetation and changes since 1960. The American Midland Naturalist. 98(2): 469-176. [10371]
  • 52. Reichman, O. J. 1987. Forests. In: Konza Prairie: A tallgrass natural history. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas: 115-124. [4255]
  • 60. Shelford, V. E. 1954. Some lower Mississippi valley flood plain biotic communities; their age and elevation. Ecology. 35(2): 126-142. [4329]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: cover, fresh, monoecious, presence

Chinkapin oak is monoecious. Staminate catkins form from the base of
new growth or from lateral buds on the previous year's growth.
Pistillate flowers grow from the axils of the current year's growth
[66]. Flowers are wind pollinated [52]. Acorns are borne singly or in
pairs, and are dark brown to nearly black [23]. About half of the nut
is enclosed by the cup [27]. Acorns mature in one season [23].

Most eastern oaks produce good seed crops at variable intervals [28].
Best seed crops are generally produced by large trees (> 20 inches [51
cm] d.b.h.) with vigorous crowns. Cold or wet weather during flowering
can result in poor seed production [28,47]. Acorns are disseminated by
gravity, and rodents and birds [66]. Groups of seedlings commonly
originate from the caches of blue jays [30]. Although effective
dispersal agents, birds and mammals also consume many seeds. In some
areas, 90 to 100 percent of the annual acorn crop may be lost to seed
predators [71].

Acorns of chinkapin oak germinate soon after falling to the ground [47].
Stratification is not required [46]. Acorns of chinkapin oak remain
viable for only short periods, even when properly stored. Bonner and
Vozzo [9] reported that germinaton of fresh acorns was 91.3 percent, but
that germination declined to 39.0 percent after 1 year in storage and to
only 2.0 percent after 2 years.

Seedlings of chinkapin oak develop best on well-drained calcareous soil
[23]. They can tolerate moderate shrub-tree cover [23] but require
sufficient light for good early growth. Seedlings are rare in gallery
forests of Kansas but are common at nearby prairie-forest borders [5].
Roots of developing seedlings must quickly reach mineral soil; in many
areas, establishment is limited by the presence of a thick organic layer
[3,55].

Vegetative regeneration: Chinkapin oak sprouts readily after
disturbance [23]. Stump sprouting often occurs [48], but in many areas,
it is less common than root sprouting [65]. Hannah [28] reported that
the best sprouts often develop at or below the ground level. Small
poles, saplings, and even seedlings can sprout when cut or burned [28].
Repeated sprouting is also common [74]. Seedlings often develop an
"s"-shaped curve at ground level, which helps protect dormant buds from
fire. After repeated fires, these stems may develop "stools" or areas
comprised of callus tissue filled with dormant buds [55]. Epicormic
buds located beneath the bark of older oaks commonly sprout when these
trees are damaged [74].

Bud dormancy in oaks is largely controlled by auxins rather than by
levels of carbohydrate reserves [74]. Apical dominance can restrict the
development of belowground buds when buds survive on aboveground
portions of the plant. Sprouting is reduced by low light levels [74]
and decreases as the stand ages [41]. McIntyre [41] reported that the
number of sprouts per group tends to decrease from poor to good sites.
Initial sprout growth is typically rapid [55].
  • 27. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 3. Abrams, Marc D. 1986. Historical development of gallery forests in northeast Kansas. Vegetatio. 65: 29-37. [3255]
  • 5. Abrams, Marc D.; Knapp, Alan K. 1986. Seasonal water relations of three gallery forest hardwood species in northeast Kansas. Forest Science. 32(3): 687-696. [256]
  • 9. Bonner, F. T.; Vozzo, J. A. 1987. Seed biology and technology of Quercus. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-66. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 21 p. [3248]
  • 23. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442]
  • 28. Hannah, Peter R. 1987. Regeneration methods for oaks. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4: 97-101. [3728]
  • 30. Knapp, Eric E.; Rice, Kevin J. 1998. Genetic structure and gene flow in Elymus glaucus (blue rye): implications for native grassland retoration. Restoration Ecology. 4(1): 1-10. [11875]
  • 41. McIntyre, A. C. 1936. Sprout groups and their relation to the oak forests of Pennsylvania. Journal of Forestry. 34: 1054-1058. [10086]
  • 46. Olson, David F., Jr. 1974. Quercus L. oak. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 692-703. [7737]
  • 47. Olson, David F., Jr.; Boyce, Stephen G. 1971. Factors affecting acorn production and germination and early growth of seedlings and seedling sprouts. In: Oak symposium: Proceedings; 1971 August 16-20; Morgantown, WV. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 44-48. [9081]
  • 48. Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees & shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas including Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p. [6130]
  • 52. Reichman, O. J. 1987. Forests. In: Konza Prairie: A tallgrass natural history. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas: 115-124. [4255]
  • 55. Rouse, Cary. 1986. Fire effects in northeastern forests: oak. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-105. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 7 p. [3884]
  • 65. Stapanian, Martin A.; Smith, Christopher C. 1986. How Fox Squirrels influence the invasion of prairies by nut-bearing trees. Journal of Mammalogy. 67(2): 326-332. [11978]
  • 66. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 71. Van Dersal, William R. 1940. Utilization of oaks by birds and mammals. Journal of Wildlife Management. 4(4): 404-428. [11983]
  • 74. Vogt, Albert R.; Cox, Gene S. 1970. Evidence for the hormonal control of stump sprouting by oak. Forest Science. 16(2): 165-171. [9872]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Form

More info for the term: tree

Tree

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

Vegetation in a gallery forest on the Konza Prairie in northeastern
Kansas was surveyed before and after 2 years of annual prescribed
burning in April. The number of chinkapin oak seedlings increased from
100 per hectare before burning to 250 per hectare after 1 year of
burning, but no chinkapin oak seedlings or saplings were present on the
plots after 2 years of burning [4].
  • 4. Abrams, Marc D. 1988. Effects of prescribed fire on woody vegetation in a gallery forest understory in northeastern Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 91(3-4): 63-70. [10796]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reaction to Competition

Chinkapin oak is classed as  intolerant of shade. It withstands moderate shading when young  but becomes more intolerant of shade with age. It is regarded as  a climax species on dry, droughty soils, especially those of  limestone origin. On more moist sites it is subclimax to climax.  It is often found as a component of the climax vegetation in  stands on mesic sites with limestone soils. However, many  oak-hickory stands on moist sites that contain chinkapin oak are  succeeded by the climax beech, maple, and ash (1,4).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Rooting Habit

No information available.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: association

Chinkapin oak leafs out in mid-spring [52]. Plants flower when leaves
are approximately 25 percent grown [23]. Fruit ripens at the end of the
first growing season [27]. Generalized flowering and fruiting dates by
geographic location are as follows:

Location Flowering Fruiting Authority

WI May ---- Curtis 1959
New England May 21-June 8 ---- Seymour 1985
n-c Great Plains early May September Stephens 1973
NC-SC April October Radford and
others 1968
Great Plains April-May ---- Great Plains Flora
Association 1986
KS May ---- Reichman 1987
Blue Ridge Mtns. April-May ---- Wofford 1989
  • 27. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 23. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442]
  • 52. Reichman, O. J. 1987. Forests. In: Konza Prairie: A tallgrass natural history. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas: 115-124. [4255]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering late winter-spring.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Vegetative Reproduction

Chinkapin oak sprouts readily and  like other oaks the tops of advance reproduction generally are  younger than the roots. Stumps of cut trees also sprout but no  relation between sprouting frequency and stump size or age has  been determined (7).

    Rooting of stem cuttings and budding techniques have not been  successful in propagating chinkapin oak, but some success has  been attained with grafting (4).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Seedling Development

Studies of oak regeneration in the  Central States indicate chinkapin oak seedlings are established  and grow much as do other upland oaks (4,7). Germination is  hypogeal (8). Chinkapin oak acorns germinate in the fall soon  after falling, and growth of the radicle continues until stopped  by cold temperatures. Growth is resumed when the soil warms  enough in the spring, at which time the epicotyl emerges. A light  to moderate litter cover does not hinder germination and  seedling establishment. Chinkapin oak seedlings tolerate moderate  overstory or understory cover but growth is slow. When an old  stand is harvested, the species must be present as large advance  reproduction if it is to be a component of the new stand.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Seed Production and Dissemination

Because chinkapin oak  is not common, its seed production characteristics have not been  studied. Observations in the Central States indicate, however,  that good seed crops occur at infrequent intervals. Chinkapin oak  acorns are disseminated in the same manner as those of other  oaks-by gravity and rodents (4).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Flowering and Fruiting

Chinkapin oak is monoecious in  flowering habit; flowers emerge in April to late May or early  June. The staminate flowers are borne in catkins that develop  from the leaf axils of the previous year, and the pistillate  flowers develop from the axils of the current year's leaves. The  fruit, an acorn or nut, is borne singly or in pairs, matures in 1  year, and ripens in September or October. About half of the acorn  is enclosed in a thin cup and is chestnut brown to nearly black  (8).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth

Growth and Yield

Chinkapin oak attains a height of from  18 to 24 m (60 to 80 ft) and a d.b.h. of from 61 to 91 em (24 to  36 in) at maturity. In forest stands it develops a straight  columnar bole with a dense rounded crown and fairly small  branches; in the open it develops a short bole with a broad  spreading crown.

    Because chinkapin oak is usually found as scattered individuals,  its growth characteristics have not been extensively studied.  Observations from studies in the Central States, particularly  southern Indiana, indicate its growth is similar to that of white  oak on similar sites (4). It should respond well to release and  there is no reason to discriminate against it in thinnings.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Chinkapin oak intergrades with dwarf chinkapin oak (Quercus  prinoides) and both have been recognized as varieties of the  same species by some authors. Dwarf chinkapin oak, however, is  commonly a low-growing, clump-forming shrub, rarely treelike, and  is a separate distinct species.

    Two recognized, named hybrids of chinkapin oak are Q. x  introgressa P M. Thomson (Q. muehlenbergii x Q. bicolor x  prinoides), and Q. x deamii Trel. (Q.  muehlenbergii x macrocarpa).

    Chinkapin oak is also known to hybridize with white oak (Q.  alba); Gambel oak Q. gambelii); and dwarf chinkapin  oak (Q. prinoides) (6).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Quercus muehlenbergii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Management considerations

More info for the terms: natural, selection, series

Silviculture: Oaks often regenerate poorly after timber harvest.
Hannah [28] reported that the use of natural seedbeds and standard
hardwood silvicultural practices are often ineffectual in promoting oak
regeneration. Vigorous, advanced regeneration is essential for
producing good stands of oak after timber harvest [18,47,57]. For
adequate regeneration of oaks, advanced regeneration at least 4.5 feet
(1.4 m) in height should number at least 435 per acre (176/ha) prior to
harvest. A series of selection cuts can produce stands with several age
classes and can generate sufficient advanced regeneration for
well-stocked, postharvest stands. Initial cuts should reduce overstory
densities to no less than 60 percent stocking. Reduction of competing
understory species may be necessary in some instances [57].

Chemical control: Oaks often produce basal sprouts in response to
herbicide treatments [24]. Herbicides such as tebuthiuron and triclopyr
can reduce crowns of chinkapin oaks by 88 to 98 percent and kill 74 to
94 percent of chinkapin oak trees [67].

Insects/disease: Chinkapin oak is relatively resistant to insects and
disease [48]. It is, however, susceptible to attack by oak wilt, acorn
weevils, and the gypsy moth [23].
  • 18. Clark, F. Bryan; Watt, Richard F. 1971. Silvicultural methods for regenerating oaks. In: Oak symposium: Proceedings; 1971 August 16-20; Morgantown, WV. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 37-43. [9080]
  • 23. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442]
  • 24. Garrett, H. E.; Thomas, M. W.; Pallardy, S. G. 1989. Susceptibility of sugar maple and oak to eleven foliar-applied herbicides. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 81-85. [9371]
  • 28. Hannah, Peter R. 1987. Regeneration methods for oaks. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4: 97-101. [3728]
  • 47. Olson, David F., Jr.; Boyce, Stephen G. 1971. Factors affecting acorn production and germination and early growth of seedlings and seedling sprouts. In: Oak symposium: Proceedings; 1971 August 16-20; Morgantown, WV. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 44-48. [9081]
  • 48. Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees & shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas including Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p. [6130]
  • 57. Sander, Ivan L. 1979. Regenerating oaks. In: Proceedings of the National siviculture workshop. Theme: The shelterwood regeneration method; 1979 September 17-21; Charleston, SC. Washington, D. C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Division of Timber Management: 212-22. [11670]
  • 67. Wells, Philip V.; Hunziker, Juan H. 1976. Origin of the creosote bush (Larrea) deserts of southwestern North America. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 63: 843-861. [3492]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun, mesic to dry-mesic conditions, and a mildly acidic to alkaline soil containing loam, silt-loam, clay-loam, or glacial till. Seedlings and young saplings have greater tolerance of shade than mature trees.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Other uses and values

More info for the term: tree

Acorns were an important food source for Native American peoples [71].
The acorns of chinkapin oak are sweet and edible when roasted [11].
Chinkapin oak is an attractive shade tree [48]; it was first cultivated
in 1822 [46].
  • 11. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914]
  • 46. Olson, David F., Jr. 1974. Quercus L. oak. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 692-703. [7737]
  • 48. Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees & shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas including Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p. [6130]
  • 71. Van Dersal, William R. 1940. Utilization of oaks by birds and mammals. Journal of Wildlife Management. 4(4): 404-428. [11983]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cover Value

More info for the terms: cover, tree

Chinkapin oak provides good cover for a variety of bird and mammal
species. Young oaks with low branches serve as particularly good winter
cover [59]. Oak leaves often persist longer than those of many other
plant associates, and in some areas, young oaks may represent the only
brushy winter cover in dense pole stands [59]. In the pine-oak zone of
Texas, species such as chinkapin oak provide shade for pronghorns [16].
Oaks frequently serve as perching or nesting sites for various species
of songbirds [18]. The well-developed crowns provide shelter and hiding
cover for tree squirrels and other small mammals. Many species of birds
and mammals use twigs and leaves as nesting material [39]. Large oaks
provide denning sites for a variety of mammals [18].
  • 16. Buechner, Helmut K. 1950. Life history, ecology, and range use of the pronghorn antelope in Trans-Pecos Texas. The American Midland Naturalist. 43(2): 257-354. [4084]
  • 18. Clark, F. Bryan; Watt, Richard F. 1971. Silvicultural methods for regenerating oaks. In: Oak symposium: Proceedings; 1971 August 16-20; Morgantown, WV. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 37-43. [9080]
  • 39. Martin, William H.; DeSelm, Hal R. 1976. Forest communities of dissected uplands in the Great Valley of east Tennessee. In: Fralish, James S.; Weaver, George T.; Schlesinger, Richard C., eds. Central hardwood forest conference: Proceedings of a meeting; 1976 October 17-19; Carbondale, IL. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University: 11-29. [3810]
  • 59. Shaw, Samuel P. 1971. Wildlife and oak management. In: Oak symposium: Proceedings; 1971 August 16-20; Morgantown, WV. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 84-89. [9087]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: mast

Browse and acorns of chinkapin oak are important to a wide variety of
birds and mammals [23]. Oak browse is often eaten by deer and rabbits;
rabbits sometimes girdle small trees [28]. Beaver feed on the bark and
twigs [23], and porcupines consume the bark [71].

The acorns of chinkapin oak are a high quality, dependable food source
[30,52]. Mice, squirrels, voles, other small mammals, and white-tailed
deer consume the acorns of chinkapin oak [13,52,65]. Acorns are an
especially important fall food item for the black bear [54]; the
relative abundance of fall mast crops can affect black bear reproductive
success during the following year [21].

The acorns of chinkapin oak are a particularly important food item for
the red-headed woodpecker, red-bellied woodpecker, northern bobwhite,
and blue jay [64]. Other bird species that feed on acorns include the
ruffed grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, wild turkey,
common crow, northern flicker, grackle, blue jay, brown thrasher, tufted
titmouse, starling, lesser prairie chicken, chickadees, nuthatches, and
waterfowl [38,52,71].
  • 13. Briggs, John M.; Smith, Kimberly G. 1989. Influence of habitat on acorn selection by Peromyscus leucopus. Journal of Mammalogy. 70(1): 35-43. [10387]
  • 21. Elowe, Kenneth D.; Dodge, Wendell E. 1989. Factors affecting black bear reproductive success and cub survival. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(4): 962-968. [10339]
  • 23. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442]
  • 28. Hannah, Peter R. 1987. Regeneration methods for oaks. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4: 97-101. [3728]
  • 30. Knapp, Eric E.; Rice, Kevin J. 1998. Genetic structure and gene flow in Elymus glaucus (blue rye): implications for native grassland retoration. Restoration Ecology. 4(1): 1-10. [11875]
  • 38. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 500 p. [4021]
  • 52. Reichman, O. J. 1987. Forests. In: Konza Prairie: A tallgrass natural history. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas: 115-124. [4255]
  • 54. Rogers, Lynn. 1976. Effects of mast and berry crop failures on survival, growth, and reproductive success of black bears. Transactions, North American Wildlife Conference. 41: 431-438. [8951]
  • 64. Stapanian, Martin A.; Smith, Christopher C. 1984. Density-dependent survival of scatterhoarded nuts: an experimental approach. Ecology. 65(5): 1387-1396. [10380]
  • 65. Stapanian, Martin A.; Smith, Christopher C. 1986. How Fox Squirrels influence the invasion of prairies by nut-bearing trees. Journal of Mammalogy. 67(2): 326-332. [11978]
  • 71. Van Dersal, William R. 1940. Utilization of oaks by birds and mammals. Journal of Wildlife Management. 4(4): 404-428. [11983]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

Chinkapin oak can be readily propagated through seed. Attempts to root
stem cuttings or propagate through budding have been largely
unsuccessful [23]. Details on propagation techniques are available
[9,23,46].
  • 9. Bonner, F. T.; Vozzo, J. A. 1987. Seed biology and technology of Quercus. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-66. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 21 p. [3248]
  • 23. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442]
  • 46. Olson, David F., Jr. 1974. Quercus L. oak. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 692-703. [7737]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wood Products Value

Wood of chinkapin oak is dark brown with a narrow, pale sapwood; it is
hard, heavy, strong, and durable [66]. These characteristics make it a
valuable wood for many uses [48]. It is commonly used as sawtimber and
is considered a member of the select white oak group [49].

When properly dried and treated, oak wood glues well, machines very
well, and accepts a variety of finishes [43]. It is widely used for
cabinets, furniture, pallets, and containers [43,53]. Oak wood was
traditionally used for railroad ties [53] and is commonly cut for
firewood [17].
  • 48. Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees & shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas including Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p. [6130]
  • 49. Quigley, Kenneth L. 1971. The supply and demand situation for oak timber. In: Oak symposium: Proceedings; 1971 August 16-20; Morgantown, WV. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 30-36. [9079]
  • 66. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 17. Carey, Andrew B.; Gill, John D. 1980. Firewood and wildlife. Res. Note 299. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 5 p. [9925]
  • 43. Moser, Harold C. 1971. Manufacture of oak furniture, cabinets, and panels. In: White, D. E.; Roach, B. A., co-chairmen. Oak symposium proceedings; 1971 August 16-20; Morgantown, WV. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 100-102. [13732]
  • 53. Reynolds, Hugh W. 1971. Manufacture of industrial products from oak. In: White, D. E.; Roach, B. A., co-chairmen. Oak symposium proceedings; 1971 August 16-20; Morgantown, WV. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 103-105. [13733]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Nutritional Value

Browse: Nutrient content of oak leaves has been reported as follows
[45]:

Dry Crude Ether N-free
matter Ash fiber extract extract Protein
---------------------percent dry matter------------------

100 56 27.4 2.5 54.3 10.2

Acorns: Most acorns are nutritious [28] and high in carbohydrates [29].
Acorns of the white oaks are generally low in lipids (5 to 10 percent)
and tannins (0.5 to 2.5 percent) [62].
  • 28. Hannah, Peter R. 1987. Regeneration methods for oaks. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4: 97-101. [3728]
  • 29. Harlow, Richard F.; Whelan, James B.; Crawford, Hewlette S.; Skeen, John E. 1975. Deer foods during years of oak mast abundance and scarcity. Journal of Wildlife Management. 39(2): 330-336. [10088]
  • 45. National Academy of Sciences. 1971. Atlas of nutritional data on United States and Canadian feeds. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 772 p. [1731]
  • 62. Smallwood, Peter D.; Peters, W. David. 1986. Grey squirrel food preferences: the effects of tannin and fat concentration. Ecology. 67(1): 168-175. [10519]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Palatability

Browse: In general, the palatability of oak browse is relatively high
for livestock and many wildlife species. Eastern oaks are preferred
browse of white-tailed deer in some locations [71]. New growth is
particularly palatable to deer and rabbits [28].

Acorns: The acorns of chinkapin oak are sweet and highly palatable to
many species of birds and mammals [23].
  • 23. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442]
  • 28. Hannah, Peter R. 1987. Regeneration methods for oaks. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4: 97-101. [3728]
  • 71. Van Dersal, William R. 1940. Utilization of oaks by birds and mammals. Journal of Wildlife Management. 4(4): 404-428. [11983]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Special Uses

Chinkapin oak acorns are sweet and palatable and are eaten by  squirrels, mice, voles, chipmunks, deer, turkey, and other birds.  Acorns may be taken from the tree or from the ground. Because  trees are scattered, chinkapin oak acorns are an important source  of food only to the extent the contribute to the total mast  available (4).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Ivan L. Sander

Source: Silvics of North America

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Quercus muehlenbergii

Quercus muehlenbergii, the chinkapin oak (or chinquapin oak), is an oak in the white oak group (Quercus sect. Quercus). The species was often called Quercus acuminata in older literature. Quercus muehlenbergii, (its scientific name often misspelt muhlenbergii) is native to eastern and central North America, ranging from Vermont west to Wisconsin and south to South Carolina, western Florida, New Mexico, and northeastern Mexico from Coahuila south to Hidalgo.

Classification and nomenclature[edit]

Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg, for whom Quercus muehlenbergii was named (portrait by Charles Willson Peale, 1810)

Since its recognition as a different species from the similar-appearing chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), Q. muehlenbergii has generally been regarded as a distinct species; no subspecies or varieties are currently recognized within it, although a few infraspecific variants had been accepted in the past.

The tree's scientific name honors Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg (1753–1815), a Lutheran pastor and amateur botanist in Pennsylvania. In publishing the name Quercus mühlenbergii, German-American botanist George Engelmann mistakenly used an umlaut in spelling Muhlenberg's name, even though Pennsylvania-born Muhlenberg himself did not use an umlaut in his name. Under the modern rules of botanical nomenclature, umlauts are transliterated, with "ü" becoming "ue", hence Engelmann's Quercus mühlenbergii is now presented as Quercus muehlenbergii. In lack of evidence that Engelmann's use of the umlaut was an unintended error, and hence correctable, the muehlenbergii spelling is considered correct, although the more appropriate orthographic variant Quercus muhlenbergii is often seen.[1]

The low-growing, cloning Q. prinoides (dwarf chinkapin oak) is similar to Q. muehlenbergii and has been confused with it in the past, but is now generally accepted as a distinct species.[2] If the two are considered to be conspecific, the earlier-published name Quercus prinoides has priority over Q. muehlenbergii, and the larger chinkapin oak can then be classified as Quercus prinoides var. acuminata, with the dwarf chinkapin oak being Quercus prinoides var. prinoides. Q. prinoides was named and described by the German botanist Karl (Carl) Ludwig Willdenow in 1801, in a German journal article by Muhlenberg.

Description[edit]

Key characteristics of Quercus muehlenbergii (chinkapin oak):[3]

  • The veins and sinuses are regular.

Chinkapin oak is monoecious in flowering habit; flowers emerge in April to late May or early June. The staminate flowers are borne in catkins that develop from the leaf axils of the previous year, and the pistillate flowers develop from the axils of the current year's leaves. The fruit, an acorn or nut, is borne singly or in pairs, matures in 1 year, and ripens in September or October. About half of the acorn is enclosed in a thin cup and is chestnut brown to nearly black.

Chinkapin oak is closely related to the smaller but generally similar dwarf chinkapin oak (Quercus prinoides). Chinkapin oak is usually a tree, but occasionally shrubby, while dwarf chinkapin oak is a low-growing, clone-forming shrub. The two species generally occur in different habitats: chinquapin oak is typically found on calcareous soils and rocky slopes, while dwarf chinkapin oak is usually found on acidic substrates, primarily sand or sandy soils, and also dry shales.[2]

Chinkapin oak is also sometimes confused with the related chestnut oak (Quercus montana), which it closely resembles. However, unlike the pointed teeth on the leaves of the chinkapin oak, chestnut oak leaves generally have rounded teeth. The two species have contrasting kinds of bark: Chinkapin oak has a gray, flaky bark very similar to that of white oak (Q. alba) but with a more yellow-brown cast to it (hence the occasional name yellow oak for this species), while chestnut oak has dark, solid, deeply ridged bark. The chinkapin oak also has smaller acorns than the chestnut oak or another similar species, the swamp chestnut oak (Q. michauxii), which have some of the largest acorns of any oaks.

Ecology[edit]

Soil and topography[edit]

Chinkapin oak is generally found on well-drained upland soils derived from limestone or where limestone outcrops occur. Occasionally it is found on well-drained limestone soils along streams. The Chinkapin oak is generally found on soils that are weakly acid (pH about 6.5) to alkaline (above pH 7.0). It grows on both northerly and southerly aspects but is more common on the warmer southerly aspects. It is absent or rare at high elevations in the Appalachians.

Associated cover[edit]

It is rarely a predominant tree, but it grows in association with many other species. It is a component of the forest cover type White Oak-Black Oak-Northern Red Oak (Society of American Foresters Type 52) and the Post Oak-Blackjack Oak (Type 40) (2).

It grows in association with white oak (Quercus alba), black oak (Q. velutina), northern red oak (Q. rubra), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), red maple (A. rubrum), hickories (Carya spp.), black cherry (Prunus serotina), cucumbertree (Magnolia acuminata), white ash (Fraxinus americana), American basswood (Tilia americana), black walnut (Juglans nigra), butternut (J. cinerea), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). American beech (Fagus grandifolia), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), pitch pine (P. rigida), Virginia pine (P. uirginiana), Ozark chinkapin (Castanea ozarkensis), eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), bluejack oak (Quercus incana), southern red oak (Q. falcata), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), and winged elm (Ulmus alata) also grow in association with chinkapin oak. In the Missouri Ozarks a redcedar-chinkapin oak association has been described.[citation needed]

The most common small tree and shrub species found in association with chinkapin oak include flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), sourwood (Oxydendron arboreum), eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), Vaccinium spp., Viburnum spp., hawthorns (Crataegus spp.), and sumacs (Rhus spp.). The most common woody vines are wild grape (Vitis spp.) and greenbrier (Smilax spp.).[citation needed]

Reaction to competition[edit]

Chinkapin oak is classed as intolerant of shade. It withstands moderate shading when young but becomes more intolerant of shade with age. It is regarded as a climax species on dry, drought prone soils, especially those of limestone origin. On more moist sites it is subclimax to climax. It is often found as a component of the climax vegetation in stands on mesic sites with limestone soils. However, many oak-hickory stands on moist sites that contain chinkapin oak are succeeded by a climax forest including beech, maple, and ash.

Diseases and pests[edit]

Severe wildfire kills chinkapin oak saplings and small pole-size trees, but these often resprout. However, fire scars serve as entry points for decay-causing fungi, and the resulting decay can cause serious losses.

Oak wilt (Ceratocystis fagacearum), a vascular disease, attacks Chinkapin oak and usually kills the tree within two to four years. Other diseases that attack Chinkapin oak include the cankers Strumella coryneoidea and Nectria galligena, shoestring root rot (Armillarea mellea), anthracnose (Gnomonia veneta), and leaf blister (Taphrina spp.).[citation needed]

The most serious defoliating insects that attack Chinkapin oak are the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), the orangestriped oakworm (Anisota senatoria), and the variable oakleaf caterpillar (Heterocampa manteo). Insects that bore into the bole and seriously degrade the products cut from infested trees include the carpenterworm (Prionoyxstus robiniae), little carpenterworm (P. macmurtrei), white oak borer (Goes tigrinus), Columbian timber beetle (Corthylus columbianus), oak timberworm (Arrhenodes minutus), and twolined chestnut borer (Agrilus bilineatus). The acorn weevils (Curculio spp.), larvae of moths (Valentinia glandulella and Melissopus latiferreanus), and gall forming cynipids (Callirhytis spp.) feed on the acorns.[citation needed]

Uses[edit]

Like that of other white oak species, the wood of the chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) is a durable hardwood prized for many types of construction.[citation needed]

The chinquapin oak is especially known for its sweet and palatable acorns. Indeed, the nuts contained inside of the thin shell are among the sweetest of any oak, with an excellent taste even when eaten raw, providing an excellent source of food for both wildlife and people. The acorns are eaten by squirrels, mice, voles, chipmunks, deer, turkey, and other birds.[4][5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Quercus muehlenbergii". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 7 October 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "Quercus prinoides". Flora of North America. Retrieved 8 October 2011. 
  3. ^ Barnes, B. V. & Wagner Jr., W. H. (2008). Michigan Trees University of Michigan Press
  4. ^ http://npsot.org/wp/boerne/publications/native-grown-articles/chinquapin-oak-a-nice-good-looking-shade-tree/
  5. ^ http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/quercus/muehlenbergii.htm

Other references[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Shrubby forms of Quercus muehlenbergii are difficult to distinguish from Quercus prinoides , but Q . muehlenbergii does not spread clonally or produce acorns on small shrubs as does Q . prinoides . The edaphic preferences of these two species are distinctive, with Q . muehlenbergii never far from limestone substrates and Q . prinoides occurring mostly on dry shales and deep sands. Populations of Q . muehlenbergii from the southwest part of its range, on the Edwards Plateau of Texas and westward, sometimes are segregated as Q . brayi Small, but the variation appears to be clinal with inconsistent differences. Distributed from Hidalgo, Mexico to Maine, Q . muehlenbergii is one of the most widespread species of temperate North American trees. 

 The Delaware-Ontario prepared infusions from the bark of Quercus muehlenbergii to stop vomiting (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Name often spelled 'muhlenbergii' in older works; correct spelling is now considered to be 'muehlenbergii' under rules for transliterating umlauts in International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Berlin). According to Little (Checklist, 1979), original publication of name by Engelmann used a 'u' with an umlaut, which is now transliterated to 'ue' under ICBN. However, Dan Nicolson in e-mail correspondence with Alan Weakley (Oct 2000), citing TL-2, notes that Gotthilf Henry Ernest Muhlenberg (1753-1815) was born in America (although educated in Germany), and used an anglicized spelling, Muhlenberg, adopted by his father, and signed letters without an umlaut. Nevertheless, the form used in the original publication of the name may be uncorrectable in this regard, since the author's intention of a Germanic spelling was clear. (Furthermore, the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, St. Louis ed. (2000), uses the spelling 'muehlenbergii' in mention of this species in an example (Art. H.10.3, example 5)). Larry Morse, 23Oct00, rev. 14Nov00 & 17Oct01.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

More info for the terms: natural, swamp

The currently accepted scientific name of chinkapin oak is Quercus
muehlenbergii Engelm. [36]. Many authorities recognize this species
under an alternate spelling, Q. muhlenbergii Engelm. [31]. Chinkapin
oak is a member of the white oak subgenus or section (Lepidobalanus) [9]
and is placed within the chestnut oak subsection (Prinoideae Trelease)
[44]. Two forms have been delineated on the basis of leaf and nut
morphology [23]. A form characterized by wide leaves has been
identified as Q. muehlenbergii f. alexanderi (Britton) Trel. [75].

Chinkapin oak hybridizes with many other oak species, including bur oak
(Q. macrocarpa), white oak (Q. alba), Gambel oak (Q. gambelii), dwarf
chinkapin oak, Q. x deamii, Q. x introgressa, and Q. bicolor x prinoides
[36,40]. Hybridization with gray oak (Q. grisea) and swamp white oak
(Q. bicolor) is suspected [68,69]. Q. x deamii (=Q. fallax) is probably
a hybrid of chinkapin oak and white oak or chinkapin oak and bur oak
[7,23]. Q. introgressa may be a natural hybrid of chinkapin oak and
dwarf chinkapin oak. Introgressants and hybrid swarms between chinkapin
oak and dwarf chinkapin oak are common [68].
  • 75. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 9. Bonner, F. T.; Vozzo, J. A. 1987. Seed biology and technology of Quercus. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-66. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 21 p. [3248]
  • 23. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442]
  • 36. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 69. Tucker, John M. 1961. Studies in the Quercus undulata complex. I. A preliminary statement. American Journal of Botany. 48(3): 202-208. [2361]
  • 31. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954]
  • 7. Bartlett, H. H. 1951. Regression of X Quercus deamii toward Quercus macrocarpa and Quercus muhlenbergii. Rhodora. 53(635): 249-264. [10664]
  • 40. Maze, Jack. 1968. Past hybridization between Quercus macrocarpa and Quercus gambelii. Brittonia. 20: 321-333. [1559]
  • 44. Muth, Gilbert Jerome. 1980. Quercus saderiana R. Br. Campst., its distribution, ecology, and relationships to other oaks. In: Plumb, Timothy R., technical coordinator. Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology, management and utilization of California oaks; 1979 June 26-28; Claremont, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-44. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 75-80. [7017]
  • 68. Thomson, Paul M. 1977. Quercus X introgressa, a new hybrid oak. Rhodora. 79: 453-464. [10372]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Common Names

chinkapin oak
chinquapin oak
yellow chestnut oak
chestnut oak
rock chestnut oak
rock oak
yellow oak

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonyms

Quercus prinoides Willd. var. acuminata (Michx.) Gleason

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!