Overview

Brief Summary

Fagaceae -- Beech family

    M B Edwards

    Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii) is one of the largest  southern red oaks. Other common names are spotted oak, Schneck  oak, Shumard red oak, southern red oak, and swamp red oak. It is  a lowland tree and grows scattered with other hardwoods on moist,  well-drained soils associated with large and small streams. It  grows moderately fast and produces acorns every 2 to 4 years that  are used by wildlife for food. The wood is superior to most red   oaks, but it is mixed indiscriminately with other red oak lumber  and used for the same products. This tree makes a handsome shade  tree.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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M B Edwards

Source: Silvics of North America

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Comprehensive Description

Description

General: Beech Family (Fagaceae). Native tree growing to 25 m tall, with an open, rounded-spreading crown. Bark dark gray, smoothish, furrowed into ridges on lower trunk and older branches, the trunk sometimes buttressed on older trees. Leaves are alternate, elliptic, 8–18 cm long, to 12 cm wide, deeply divided into 5–9 bristle-tipped lobes broadest toward the tip, the sinuses thumb-shaped, dark green above, with tufts of hairs in vein axils below, commonly turning red in fall. Male and female flowers are borne in separate catkins on the same tree (the species monoecious) on the current year's branchlets. Acorns maturing in the second year, egg-shaped, 1.5–3 cm long, with a flattened, more or less shallow cup. This species is named for Benjamin Franklin Shumard (1820-1869), state geologist of Texas.

Shumard oak belongs to the red oak group (subgenus Erythrobalanus) and hybridizes with species of that group:

Q. hypoleucoides, Q. imbricaria, Q. marilandica, Q. nigra, Q. nuttallii, Q. palustris, Q. phellos, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina.

Variation within the species:

Trees known as Q. shumardii var. texana (Q. texana, Q. rubra var. texana, Q. nuttallii; Texas red oak, Nuttall's oak) are now recognized as Q. buckleyi Dorr & Nixon (Dorr & Nixon 1985). Quercus shumardii var. schneckii (Britt.) Sarg. is now generally regarded as within limits of typical variation for the species. Quercus shumardii var. stenocarpa Laughlin (Laughlin 1969), with very narrow acorns and shallow acorn cups, has been described from Missouri and Illinois.

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Alternative names

Shumard red oak, southern red oak, swamp red oak, spotted oak, Schneck oak

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Maryland and Virginia west to Iowa, south to eastern Texas and Florida. Rare at the northern part of range (but common in most of it).

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Shumard oak occurs on the Atlantic Coastal Plain from North Carolina
south to northern Florida; west to central Texas; north to central
Oklahoma, eastern Kansas, Missouri, southern Illinois, western and
southern Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. It occurs locally north to
southern Michigan, and southern Pennsylvania [9,11,25]. Specimens have
been collected from extreme southwestern Ontario and the eastern Niagara
peninsula [38].

The status of Shumard oak in Maryland is uncertain. It has been
reported in Maryland by reliable sources [9], but specimens were not
located by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Fish and Wildlife Service
survey [47].
  • 25. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 9. Brown, Russell G.; Brown, Melvin L. 1972. Woody plants of Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Port City Press. 347 p. [21844]
  • 11. Edwards, M. B. 1990. Quercus shumardii Buckl. Shumard oak. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 734-737. [21823]
  • 38. Waldron, Gerald E.; Aboud, Steven W.; Ambrose, John D.; Meyers, George A. 1987. Shumard oak, Quercus shumardii, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 101(4): 532-538. [5731]
  • 47. Broome, C. Rose; Reveal, James L.; Tucker, Arthur O.; Dill, Norman H. 1979. Rare and endangered vascular plants of Maryland. Newton Corner, MA: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 64 p. [16508]

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

14 Great Plains

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Occurrence in North America

AL AR FL GA IL IN KY KS LA MD
MI MS MO NC OH OK PA SC TN TX
VA WV ON

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Shumard oak is found in the Atlantic Coastal Plain primarily from  North Carolina to northern Florida and west to central Texas; it  is also found north in the Mississippi River Valley to central  Oklahoma, eastern Kansas, Missouri, southern Illinois, Indiana,  western and southern Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. It is found  locally north to southern Michigan, southern Pennsylvania, and  Maryland (4).

   
  -The native range of Shumard oak.


  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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M B Edwards

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Ont.; Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kans., Ky., La., Md., Mich., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va.
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Adaptation

Shumard oak occurs on moist, well-drained loamy soils of stream and river terraces and adjacent ridges and bluffs as well as mesic slopes and poorly drained upland sites, at elevations of 0–500 meters. It is intolerant or only weakly tolerant of flooding and does not usually occur on the lowest river bottoms. Shumard oak is intolerant of shade but rare in early successional stands, probably colonizing gaps in mature forests. It usually occurs as scattered trees with more prominent southern oak species of the oak-hickory forest region.

Flowering occurs from March-April (June) and fruiting from September-October.

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Shumard oak occurs on the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains from North Carolina to northern Florida and west to central Texas. Northward, it is common in Missouri, western Tennessee and Kentucky, southern Illinois, Indiana, and western Ohio. Occurrences further north are more local and sporadic. For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees , deciduous, to 35 m. Bark gray-brown to dark brown, shallowly fissured with scaly or light-colored flat ridges, inner bark pinkish. Twigs gray to light brown, (1.5-)2-3.5(-4.5) mm diam., glabrous. Terminal buds gray to grayish brown, ovoid or broadly ellipsoid, 4-8 mm, often noticeably 5-angled in cross section, glabrous. Leaves: petiole 20-60 mm, glabrous. Leaf blade broadly elliptic to obovate, 100-200 × 60-150 mm, base obtuse to truncate, occasionally acute, margins with 5-9 lobes and 15-50 awns, lobes oblong or distally expanded, apex acute; surfaces abaxially glabrous except for prominent axillary tufts of tomentum, adaxially glossy, glabrous, secondary veins raised on both surfaces. Acorns biennial; cup saucer-shaped to cup-shaped, 7-12 mm high × 15-30 mm wide, covering 1/4-1/3 nut, outer surface glabrous or puberulent, inner surface light-brown to red-brown, glabrous or with ring of pubescence around scar, scales often with pale margins, tips tightly appressed, obtuse or acute; nut ovoid to oblong, occasionally subglobose, 14-30 × 10-20 mm, glabrous, scar diam. 6.5-12 mm.
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Description

More info for the term: tree

Shumard oak is a large, deciduous, native tree. It ranges up to 120
feet (40 m) in height, with trunk diameters of up to 80 inches (200 cm)
[9,33,38,45]. The crown is open and wide spreading, with massive,
ascending branches. The trunk of older trees is heavily buttressed.
The bark is furrowed, with broken ridges [38]. The leaves are
five-lobed to nine-lobed. Shumard oak acorns are egg-shaped,
approximately 1 inch (2.5 cm) long, and enclosed in a thick, flat,
saucer-shaped cup with pubescent scales [11].

Shumard oak is long-lived; the oldest Shumard oak found on a blue
ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata) savanna was 480 years of age [10].
  • 45. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 9. Brown, Russell G.; Brown, Melvin L. 1972. Woody plants of Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Port City Press. 347 p. [21844]
  • 10. Bryant, William S.; Wharton, Mary E.; Martin, William H.; Varner, Johnnie B. 1980. The blue ash-oak savanna--woodland, a remnant of presettlement vegetation in the Inner Bluegrass of Kentucky. Castanea. 45(3): 149-165. [10375]
  • 11. Edwards, M. B. 1990. Quercus shumardii Buckl. Shumard oak. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 734-737. [21823]
  • 33. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 38. Waldron, Gerald E.; Aboud, Steven W.; Ambrose, John D.; Meyers, George A. 1987. Shumard oak, Quercus shumardii, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 101(4): 532-538. [5731]

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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Found on both dry calcareous slopes and moist bottomlands.

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: tree

Shumard oak is usually widely spaced and never occurs in pure stands
[33]. It occurs with the more prominent southern oaks included in the
oak-hickory forest region described by Braun [46].

Common tree associates not previously mentioned include white ash
(Fraxinus americana), shagbark hickory (Carya ovata), shellbark hickory
(C. laciniosa), mockernut hickory (C. tomentosa), bitternut hickory (C.
cordiformis), water hickory (C. aquatica), Delta post oak (Quercus
stellata var. paludosa), willow oak (Q. phellos), water oak (Q. nigra),
southern red oak (Q. falcata var. falcata), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica),
winged elm (Ulmus alata), magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), yellow-poplar
(Liriodendron tulipifera), American beech (Fagus grandiflora), and
spruce pine (Pinus glabra) [11].
  • 11. Edwards, M. B. 1990. Quercus shumardii Buckl. Shumard oak. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 734-737. [21823]
  • 33. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 46. Braun, E. L. 1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North America. Philadelphia, PA: The Blakiston Co. 596 p. [19637]

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the terms: hardwood, swamp

26 Sugar maple - basswood
40 Post oak - blackjack oak
52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak
53 White oak
62 Silver maple - American elm
66 Ashe juniper - redberry (Pinchot) juniper
67 Shin (Mohrs) oak
75 Shortleaf pine
76 Shortleaf pine - oak
80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine
81 Loblolly pine
82 Loblolly pine - hardwood
91 Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak
93 Sugarberry - American elm - green ash
94 Sycamore - sweetgum - American elm

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Habitat characteristics

Shumard oak grows best on moist, well-drained loamy soils on terraces,
colluvial sites, and adjacent bluffs associated with large and small
streams. Shumard oak also occurs in Coastal Plains hammocks [26].
Shumard oak is intolerant or only weakly tolerant of flooding [2,19],
and does not usually occur on the lowest river bottoms [18]. It is
fairly drought tolerant, and is tolerant of alkaline soils and their
associated nutrient deficiency [11]. It can be planted in soils with pH
greater than 7.5 [2,21]. In central Texas, it occurs on dry, low
limestone hills. In the south-central United States, it occurs on dry
uplands and ridges [26].
  • 2. Allen, James A.; Kennedy, Harvey E., Jr. 1989. Bottomland hardwood reforestation in the lower Mississippi Valley. Slidell, LA: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Research Center; Stoneville, MS: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experimental Station. 28 p. [15293]
  • 11. Edwards, M. B. 1990. Quercus shumardii Buckl. Shumard oak. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 734-737. [21823]
  • 18. Hodges, John D.; Switzer, George L. 1979. Some aspects of the ecology of southern bottomland hardwoods. In: North America's forests: gateway to opportunity: Proceedings, 1978 joint convention of the Society of American Foresters and the Canadian Institute of Forestry. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters: 360-365. [10028]
  • 19. Hosner, John F.; Boyce, Stephen G. 1962. Tolerance to water saturated soil of various bottomland hardwoods. Forest Science. 8(2): 180-186. [18950]
  • 21. Kennedy, Harvey E., Jr.; Krinard, Roger M. 1985. Shumard oaks successfully planted on high pH soils. Res. Note SO-321. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 3 p. [21957]
  • 26. Lotti, Thomas. 1960. Silvical characteristics of Shumard oak. Res. Note No. 113. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experiment Station. 10 p. [21956]

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Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine
FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine
FRES14 Oak - pine
FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress
FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood
FRES18 Maple - beech - birch
FRES32 Texas savanna
FRES39 Prairie

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Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

K084 Cross Timbers
K086 Juniper - oak savanna
K099 Maple - basswood forest
K100 Oak - hickory forest
K101 Elm - ash forest
K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest
K112 Southern mixed forest
K113 Southern floodplain forest

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Soils and Topography

Shumard oak grows best in rich sites of the southern forests that  have moist, well-drained loamy soils found on terraces, colluvial  sites, and adjacent bluffs associated with large and small  streams. It is found in hammocks of the Coastal Plain, but rarely  on first-bottom sites. It appears to be tolerant of sites with  high pH and associated nutrient deficiencies. In trial plantings,  Shumard oak has grown well on alluvium with a pH near 7.5.  Shumard oak is most commonly found on soils in the orders  Alfisols, Inceptisols, and Vertisols.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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M B Edwards

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Climate

Usually Shumard oak grows in a humid, temperate climate,  characterized by hot summers and mild, short winters. The growing  season usually extends from 210 to 250 days through the major  portion of the species commercial range. The average annual  temperature is 16° to 21° C (60° to 70° F)  with an average annual precipitation of 1140 to 1400 mm (45 to 55  in). The annual maximum temperature for this area is 38° C  (100° F) and the annual minimum temperature is about -9°  C (15° F). The majority of the rainfall occurs from April  through September. Shumard oak tolerates drought well, as shown  by its presence in parts of Texas and Oklahoma where the average  annual rainfall is only about 640 mm (25 in) (7).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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M B Edwards

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Mesic slopes and bottoms, stream banks and poorly drained uplands; 0-500m.
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Dispersal

Establishment

Shumard oak begins to produce fruit at about 25 years, with optimum production at about 50 years and good crops every 2–3 years. Germination occurs at high frequencies; full light is required for good seedling establishment and growth. Shumard oaks are known to have reached at least 480 years of age.

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Associations

Associated Forest Cover

Shumard oak is included in the forest cover type Swamp Chestnut  Oak-Cherrybark Oak (Society of American Foresters Type 91), a  bottom-land type of the Southern Forest Region (1). Shumard oak  is a prominent hardwood associate of this type, along with green  and white ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica and F. americana),  the hickories, shagbark (Carya ovata), shellbark  (C. laciniosa), mockernut (C. tomentosa), and  bitternut (C. cordiformis), as well as white oak (Quercus  alba), Delta post oak (Q. stellata var. paludosa)  and blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica). Main associates in  the type are willow oak (Quercus phellos), water oak (Qfalcata), southern red oak (Q. falcata var. falcata),  post oak (Q. stellata), American elm (Ulmus  americana), winged elm (U. alata), water  hickory (Carya aquatica), southern magnolia (Magnolia  grandiflora), yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera),  beech (Fagus grandifolia), and occasionally loblolly  (Pinus taeda) and spruce (P. glabra) pines.

    Shumard oak is often included in cover types Ash-Juniper-Redberry  (Pinchot) Juniper (Type 66) and Mohrs (Shin) Oak (Type 67). Some  of the other associates of Shumard oak include red buckeye (Aesculus  pavia), devils-walkingstick (Aralia spinosa), American  hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), flowering dogwood (Cornus  florida), witch-hazel (Hamamelis uirginiana), American  holly (Ilex opaca), red mulberry (Morus rubra), southern  bayberry (Myrica cerifera), and American basswood (Tilia  caroliniana).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Diseases and Parasites

Damaging Agents

This species is susceptible to wilts and  leaf diseases. Oak leaf blister (Taphrina caerulescens) is  common in certain years. Oak wilt (Ceratocystis fagacearumhas killed Shumard oak in Missouri. The most common  wood-rotting fungi attacking this oak are Fomes spp.Polyporus spp., and Stereum spp.

    No insects are specifically associated with Shumard oak, but many  insects attack southern oaks, probably including Shumard. Insect  defoliators are June beetles (Phyllophaga spp.),  orangestriped oakworm (Anisota senatoria), cankerworms  (Alsophila pometaria and Paleacrita vernata), forest  tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria), yellownecked  caterpillar (Datana ministra), variable oakleaf  caterpillar (Heterocampa manteo), and the redhumped  oakworm (Symmerista canicosta) (7).

    The borers that attack healthy trees are red oak borer (Enaphalodes  rufulus), in cambium and other sapwood; carpenterworms (Prionoxystus  spp.), in heart and sapwood; and the Columbian timber  beetle (Corthylus columbianus), in sapwood. Those  attacking weakened trees include twolined chestnut borer (Agrilus  bilineatus), in cambium; and the tilehorned prionus (Prionus  imbricornis), in roots.

    Dying trees are attacked by the oak timberworm (Arrhenodes  minutus). The golden oak scale (Asterolecanium  variolosum) kills reproduction and tops in older trees. The  gouty oak gall (Callirhytis quercuspunctata) and horned  oak gall (C. cornigera) injure small limbs, while the  basswood leafminer (Baliosus nervosus) attacks the leaves  (7).

    As in many oaks, the nut is attacked by acorn weevils in the genus  Curculio. A reliable method of sorting weeviled acorns from sound  ones is by color of the cup scar on the nut; a bright, light tan  indicates a good acorn, a dull brown, a bad one.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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M B Edwards

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Comments: Apparently secure throughout most of its range. States in which it is listed rare are at periphery of range.

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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: cover, hardwood, prescribed fire

Management of Shumard oak as deer browse in Ashe juniper woodlands
includes prescribed burning of previously chained sites. These sites
should be burned with hot fires, with intervals of at least 7 to 10
years between fires [3]. Prescribed fire on chained Ashe juniper sites
removed dead Ashe juniper debris and killed young Ashe juniper trees.
Over 10 years, Shumard oak was one of three dominant secondary species
which provided browse and cover for game birds and white-tailed deer
[40].

Shumard oak occurs in bottomland hardwood forests, which are not usually
subjected to prescribed fires since the risk of fire damage is high. It
also occurs on sites where pines, particularly loblolly pine (Pinus
taeda) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata), are the desired species.
Prescribed fire is used to control hardwoods on these sites when the
pines have reached pole size or larger [43].
  • 3. Armstrong, W. E. 1980. Impact of prescribed burning on wildlife. In: White, Larry D., ed. Prescribed range burning in the Edwards Plateau of Texas: Proceedings of a symposium; 1980 October 23; Junction, TX. College Station, TX: Texas Agricultural Extension Service, The Texas A&M University System: 22-26. [11430]
  • 40. Wright, Henry A. 1986. Manipulating rangeland ecosystems with fire. In: Komarek, Edwin V.; Coleman, Sandra S.; Lewis, Clifford E.; Tanner, George W., compilers. Prescribed fire and smoke management symposium proceedings; 1986 February 13; Kissimmee, FL. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 3-6. [3092]
  • 43. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]

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Plant Response to Fire

Hot fires will stimulate root sprouting in Shumard oak, presumably after
top-kill [3,40].
  • 3. Armstrong, W. E. 1980. Impact of prescribed burning on wildlife. In: White, Larry D., ed. Prescribed range burning in the Edwards Plateau of Texas: Proceedings of a symposium; 1980 October 23; Junction, TX. College Station, TX: Texas Agricultural Extension Service, The Texas A&M University System: 22-26. [11430]
  • 40. Wright, Henry A. 1986. Manipulating rangeland ecosystems with fire. In: Komarek, Edwin V.; Coleman, Sandra S.; Lewis, Clifford E.; Tanner, George W., compilers. Prescribed fire and smoke management symposium proceedings; 1986 February 13; Kissimmee, FL. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 3-6. [3092]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the terms: fire severity, severity, top-kill

Information concerning fire severity and damage to Shumard oak is
lacking in the literature. Mature trees are probably intermediate in
resistance to low- and moderate-severity fires. Severe fires would
probably top-kill or kill mature trees. Seedlings and saplings are
likely to be killed by any fire.

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Post-fire Regeneration

Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/soboliferous species root sucker

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: fire exclusion, top-kill, tree

Specific information on the relationship of Shumard oak and fire was not
found in the literature. Shumard oak occurs in bottomland hardwood
forests which are dependent on fire exclusion [43]. It also occurs in
post oak (Quercus stellata)-blackjack oak communities which, though they
can be damaged by fire, are fire resistant [42]. Shumard oak occurs in
blue ash savannas, which are maintained by a combination of factors
including fire [10].

Shumard oak is probably moderately resistant to immediate fire damage,
but, like many hardwoods, is subject to attack by disease when wounded
by fire. Basal wounding usually results in at least top-kill of such
trees, either by girdling the tree or by creating avenues for infection
by wood-rotting fungi. Top-killed Shumard oak produce root sprouts [40].

Shumard oak is not usually found in early seral communities and is
therefore unlikely to colonize early postfire communities.
  • 10. Bryant, William S.; Wharton, Mary E.; Martin, William H.; Varner, Johnnie B. 1980. The blue ash-oak savanna--woodland, a remnant of presettlement vegetation in the Inner Bluegrass of Kentucky. Castanea. 45(3): 149-165. [10375]
  • 40. Wright, Henry A. 1986. Manipulating rangeland ecosystems with fire. In: Komarek, Edwin V.; Coleman, Sandra S.; Lewis, Clifford E.; Tanner, George W., compilers. Prescribed fire and smoke management symposium proceedings; 1986 February 13; Kissimmee, FL. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 3-6. [3092]
  • 42. Watson, Geraldine E. 1986. Influence of fire on the longleaf pine - bluestem range in the Big Thicket region. In: Kulhavy, D. L.; Conner, R. N., eds. Wilderness and natural areas in the eastern United States: a management challenge. Nacogdoches, TX: Stephen F. Austin University: 181-185. [10334]
  • 43. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: climax, hardwood, swamp

Shumard oak is intolerant of shade but is rare in early successional
stands. It often occurs in climax forests. Since Shumard oak is shade
intolerant and requires openings in which to establish, it is not
considered a true climax species [11]. Monk [27] classifies Shumard oak
as a climax exclusive: a species which occupies specific environmental
situations in the climax community and is rarely encountered in
successional stands. It is likely that Shumard oak colonizes gaps in
mature forests. In Florida, Shumard oak occurs in climax magnolia-beech
forests [15]. In Missouri, it occurs as an overstory associate on river
bottom ridges occupied by sugar maple (Acer saccharum), pawpaw (Asimina
triloba), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and swamp chestnut oak
(Quercus michauxii). There were no Shumard oak seedlings or saplings in
these stands [31]. In Texas, Shumard oak was found in 47-year-old
bottomland hardwood stands and undisturbed adjacent forest, but not in
early successional stands [29].

It is likely that mature Shumard oak produces allelopathic substances [11].
  • 11. Edwards, M. B. 1990. Quercus shumardii Buckl. Shumard oak. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 734-737. [21823]
  • 15. Gano, Laura. 1917. A study in physiographic ecology in northern Florida. Botanical Gazette. 63: 337-372. [21989]
  • 27. Monk, Carl D. 1968. Successional and environmental relationships of the forest vegetation of north central Florida. American Midland Naturalist. 79(2): 441-457. [10847]
  • 29. Nixon, Elray S. 1975. Successional stages in a hardwood bottomland forest near Dallas, Texas. Southwestern Naturalist. 20: 323-335. [12250]
  • 31. Robertson, Philip A.; Weaver, George T.; Cavanaugh, James A. 1978. Vegetation and tree species patterns near the northern terminus of the southern floodplain forest. Ecological Monographs. 48(3): 249-267. [10381]

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Regeneration Processes

Minimum seed-bearing age for Shumard oak is 25 years. Optimum seed
production occurs at about 50 years of age. Good seed crops are
produced every 2 to 3 years [11]. The acorns are frequently multiseeded
(an unusual trait). Seeds are dispersed by seedhoarding mammals (mainly
squirrels) [11]. Acorns exhibit internal dormancy, which is broken by
cold, moist conditions. Moist stratification at 36 degrees Fahrenheit
(2 deg C) for 8 to 12 weeks breaks dormancy. The acorns typically
contain about 40 percent moisture at maturity [8]. Factors affecting
seed germination and seedling establishment include microclimate
conditions, soil moisture, and stand variables. The limiting factor
appears to be seed supply, which may be affected by seed predation
[11,26]. Full light is required for good seedling establishment and
growth [11].

Shumard oak sprouts from the roots when top-killed [3]. This ability is
more pronounced in younger individuals. Shumard oak is not a prolific
sprouter on moist sites; more sprouts are found on dry sites. It is
difficult to propagate by cuttings [26].
  • 3. Armstrong, W. E. 1980. Impact of prescribed burning on wildlife. In: White, Larry D., ed. Prescribed range burning in the Edwards Plateau of Texas: Proceedings of a symposium; 1980 October 23; Junction, TX. College Station, TX: Texas Agricultural Extension Service, The Texas A&M University System: 22-26. [11430]
  • 8. Bonner, F. T.; Vozzo, J. A. 1987. Seed biology and technology of Quercus. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-66. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 21 p. [3248]
  • 11. Edwards, M. B. 1990. Quercus shumardii Buckl. Shumard oak. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 734-737. [21823]
  • 26. Lotti, Thomas. 1960. Silvical characteristics of Shumard oak. Res. Note No. 113. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experiment Station. 10 p. [21956]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: tree

Tree

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Reaction to Competition

Shumard oak is classed as  intolerant of shade and needs open areas as well as adequate  moisture to become established; such openings are easily invaded  by competing annuals that inhibit oak establishment. It is  reported, however, that at maturity Shumard oak retards the  growth of competing understory vegetation apparently by an  allelopathic effect (3).

    Shumard oak reproduction shows some tolerance to complete  inundation, a requisite for survival on bottom-land sites.  Conditions other than species-site relationships are important in  determining the regeneration potential and succession of the  species in bottom-land hardwood situations. Water is apparently  most likely to become the limiting factor on sites that are  consistently flooded for fairly long periods of time during the  growing season, such as true swamps, deep sloughs, and backwater  areas.

    Shumard oak is one of the prominent oaks in oak-hickory regions  but does not act as a dominant in the extensive range of the  oak-hickory association. Therefore, the place of Shumard oak in  the ecological succession is not clearly defined. It is probably  not a true climax tree in most oak-hick communities where it is  found.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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M B Edwards

Source: Silvics of North America

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Rooting Habit

No information is currently available.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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M B Edwards

Source: Silvics of North America

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Shumard oak flowers from March to April, and as late as June in some
parts of its range [9,11]. Acorns ripen from September to October of
their second year [11].
  • 9. Brown, Russell G.; Brown, Melvin L. 1972. Woody plants of Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Port City Press. 347 p. [21844]
  • 11. Edwards, M. B. 1990. Quercus shumardii Buckl. Shumard oak. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 734-737. [21823]

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Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring.
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Reproduction

Vegetative Reproduction

Shumard oak does not propagate  readily on moist sites or by cuttings.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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M B Edwards

Source: Silvics of North America

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Seedling Development

As with other oaks, germination is  hypogeal (8). It appears that the microclimate, edaphic  conditions, and several stand variables all have a definite  influence on the quantity Of small established oak regeneration,  but their effect is probably overshadowed by the seed supply.  Where oak regeneration is to be favored in uneven-age management,  large openings appear most desirable. In even-age management,  when a seed-tree cut is contemplated, extremely large- or  small-diameter trees should be left as seed producers only as a  last resort (2).

    The species needs full light to achieve good reproduction. In the  Coastal Plain, Shumard oak is found mostly on sites with rich,  well-drained soils and an abundance of moisture, but it may also  inhabit dry, upland sites.

    The stems of the young seedlings are smooth, brownish green or  light gray, changing to gray or grayish brown by midseason of the  first year. Buds are ovoid with acute apex, 6 min (0.25 in) long,  smooth, with closely overlapping gray-brown or dull straw-colored  scales (5).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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M B Edwards

Source: Silvics of North America

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Seed Production and Dissemination

The minimum  seed-bearing age for Shumard oak is 25 years and optimum  production is about 50 years. The interval between seed crops is  2 to 3 years. There are about 23 kg (50 lb) of seeds per 35  liters (bushel) of fruit. The range of cleaned seeds per kilogram  is 172 to 282 (78 to 128/lb) with an average of 220 (100) (8).  Acorns of Shumard oak are an excellent wildlife food and are  consumed by birds, white-tailed deer, and squirrels. Animals that  hoard the acorns also disseminate them. This species frequently  produces multiseeded acorns.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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M B Edwards

Source: Silvics of North America

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Flowering and Fruiting

Shumard oak is monoecious. Its  flowers usually appear in March or April; they are unisexual,  with stamens in glabrous 15 to 18 cm. (6 to 7 in) long aments and  the pistils are single or paired on pubescent stalks. The fruit  is an egg-shaped acorn 2.5 cm (1 in) long, enclosed at the base  in a thick, flat, saucer-shaped cup with pubescent scales. The  acorn ripens and falls during September or October of its second   year.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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M B Edwards

Source: Silvics of North America

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Growth

Growth and Yield

Shumard oak grows quite large,  especially on favorable bottom-land sites where it reaches a  height of 30.5 m (100 ft) or more with a trunk diameter of 0.9 to  1.2 in (3 to 4 ft). Its shape is characterized by a clear trunk  and spreading crown. In a report describing the concentration of  hardwood species on pine sites, cubic volume is reported for all  sites (pine and hardwood) as 7.3 million m³ (259 million ft³)  in 11 Southern States. The total volume on pine sites is 3.4  million m³ (120 million ft³ (6). Heavy pole stands  contain over 430 stems/ha (175 stems/acre) 13 to 28 cm (5 to 11  in) d.b.h. In old-growth, mixed stands with Shumard oak, there  are total volumes of as much as 420 m³/ha (30,000 fbm/acre).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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M B Edwards

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Shumard oak has two varieties-Quercus shumardii Buckl.  var. shumardii (typical), and Q. shumardii var.  texana (Buckl.) Ashe, Texas oak, found in central Texas,  including the Edwards Plateau, and in southern Oklahoma in the  Arbuckle Mountains.

    Shumard oak hybridizes with Quercus hypoleucoides; Q. imbricaria  Q. x egglestonii Trel.); Q. marilandica (Q. x  hastingsii Sarg.); Q. nigra (Q. x neopalmeri Sudw.);  Q. nuttallii; Q. palustris (Q. x mutabilis  Palmer & Steyerm.); Q. phellos (Q. x moultonensis  Ashe), Q. rubra (Q. x riparia  Laughlin); and Q. velutina Q. x discreta Laughlin) (4).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Quercus shumardii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: The species does not appear to be in any danger. It is considered relatively common in all but the periphery of its range.

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Information on state- and province-level protection status of plants in the
United States and Canada is available at NatureServe.

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Management

Management considerations

Shumard oak can be successfully direct seeded or planted as seedlings
[20,39]. Soil fertilization does not improve establishment success
[39]. Height growth of direct-seeded Shumard oaks is slow compared to
that of planted stock; growth rates are sufficient to achieve wildlife
Habitat management objectives but not for timber production [1].

Acorns with a moisture content below 20 to 30 percent are not likely to
germinate [48]. Seed moisture for Shumard oaks can be measured by using
microwave ovens [7].

Diseases of Shumard oak include oakleaf blister, oak wilt, and various
wood rotting fungi (Fomes spp., Polyporus spp., and Stereum spp.) [11].

Insect defoliators that attack Shumard oak, but are not species
specific, include June beetles, orange-striped oakworms, cankerworms,
forest tent caterpillars, yellow-necked caterpillars, variable oakleaf
caterpillars, and red-humped oakworms [11]. Shumard oak acorns are
subject to attack by acorn weevils [26].
  • 1. Allen, James A. 1990. Establishment of bottomland oak plantations on the Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge Complex. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 14(4): 206-210. [14615]
  • 7. Bonner, F. T.; Turner, B. J. 1980. Rapid measurement of the moisture content of large seeds. Tree Planters' Notes. 31(3): 9-10. [13311]
  • 11. Edwards, M. B. 1990. Quercus shumardii Buckl. Shumard oak. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 734-737. [21823]
  • 20. Kennedy, Harvey E., Jr. 1990. Oak regeneration - what we know. In: Van Sambeek, J. W.; Larson, M. M., eds. Proceedings, 4th workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings; 1989 March 1-2; Columbus, OH. (Abstracts). Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-139. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 26. Abstract. [13153]
  • 26. Lotti, Thomas. 1960. Silvical characteristics of Shumard oak. Res. Note No. 113. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experiment Station. 10 p. [21956]
  • 39. Wittwer, R. F. 1991. Direct seeding of bottomland oaks in Oklahoma. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 15(1): 17-22. [13978]
  • 48. Olson, David F., Jr. 1974. Quercus L. oak. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 692-703. [7737]

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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Shumard oak can be successfully direct seeded or planted as seedlings, but it is difficult to propagate by cuttings. Seed dormancy is broken by stratification for 60-90 days at 1-5 C. Seed can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown outdoors as soon as ripe. Best growth is from seed sown in situ. Young trees from deep pots are relatively easily transplanted, but those left in a nursery bed for more than two growing seasons without being moved will have problems because of the deep taproot.

Reforestation of agricultural lands to bottomland hardwoods has been successful with Shumard oak direct-seeded to otherwise unprepared sites. Soil fertilization does not improve success in early establishment.

Shumard oak is probably moderately resistant to immediate fire damage, because it persists in some communities that are maintained by periodic fire. Young trees, however, are relatively thin-barked and basal wounding by fire usually results in at least top-kill of such trees, either by girdling the tree or by creating avenues for infection by wood-rotting fungi. Top-killed Shumard oak produces root sprouts.

Initial pruning to develop a central leader will provide better shaped street trees. Pruning in the dormant season or in summer is best, but pruning should be avoided in late spring and early summer in areas where oak wilt is present.

Oak wilt

Shumard oak is highly susceptible to oak wilt infection, a fungal disease that invades the water-conducting vessels and plugs them. As water movement is slowed, the leaves wilt and rapidly drop off the tree. The disease begins with a crinkling and paling of the leaves, followed by wilting and browning from the margins inward. Necrosis may be strongest along the veins or between them. The symptoms move down branches toward the center of the tree and the tree may die within 1–3 months, although some diseased trees may survive up to a year. The disease may be spread by insects (primarily beetles) or pruning tools, but most of the tree loss in oak wilt centers results from transmission through root spread between adjoining trees. A trench (dug and then immediately filled) between neighboring trees severs the roots and prevents fungus spread. Dead and infected trees must be destroyed – once a tree has become infected, there is little chance to save it. The wood may be used for firewood provided it is debarked or covered and sealed during the spring and summer (Johnson and Appel 2000; Roberts 2000; Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources 2000; City of Austin 2000).

Oak wilt most seriously infects species of the red oak group (including black and live oaks). Overcup oak, bur oak, white oak, and other members of the white oak group are not as susceptible and can be planted in oak wilt centers. This disease has reached epidemic proportions in Texas and in the mid-West from Iowa and Minnesota through Michigan and Wisconsin into Ohio, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

Shumard oak had one of the highest survival rates of nine oak species
planted on minespoils in Illinois [4]. It exhibited outstanding growth
on cast overburden in Illinois and Indiana [37]. In Mississippi,
reforestation of agricultural lands to bottomland hardwoods was
successful with direct-seeded Shumard oak (in addition to other
species). Sites were seeded without preparation. Weeds were controlled
on one site, where Shumard oak had better growth and survivorship than
at the other sites [1].

Shumard oak seedlings have been planted successfully in reforestation
projects on eroded ridgetops in Mississippi [14].
  • 1. Allen, James A. 1990. Establishment of bottomland oak plantations on the Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge Complex. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 14(4): 206-210. [14615]
  • 4. Ashby, W. Clark. 1990. Growth of oaks on topsoiled mined lands. In: Van Sambeek, J. W.; Larson, M. M., eds. Proceedings, 4th workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings; 1989 March 1-2; Columbus, OH. (Abstracts). Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-139. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 20. Abstract. [13147]
  • 14. Francis, John K. 1983. Cherrybark and Shumard oaks successfully planted on eroded ridges. Tree Planters' Notes. 34(2): 28-30. [21958]
  • 37. Vogel, Willis G. 1990. Results of planting oaks on coal surface-mined lands. In: Van Sambeek, J. W.; Larson, M. M., eds. Proceedings, 4th workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings; 1989 March 1-2; Columbus, OH. (Abstracts). Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-139. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 19. Abstract. [13146]

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Other uses and values

Shumard oak is planted as an ornamental [38].

Shumard oak acorns are bitter, but are edible if the tannins are leached
out. They can be ground and used as flour, roasted and ground to make
coffee, or eaten whole [12,22]. Native Americans had many uses for the
bark and acorns of oaks, probably including Shumard oak [22].
  • 12. Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. 1982. Field guide to North American edible wild plants. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 22. Krochmal, Arnold; Krochmal, Connie. 1982. Uncultivated nuts of the United States. Agriculture Information Bulletin 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 89 p. [1377]
  • 38. Waldron, Gerald E.; Aboud, Steven W.; Ambrose, John D.; Meyers, George A. 1987. Shumard oak, Quercus shumardii, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 101(4): 532-538. [5731]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

In Texas, Shumard oak is preferred browse for white-tailed deer in Ashe
juniper (Juniperus ashei) woodlands [3].

Shumard oak acorns are excellent food for wildlife; they are consumed by
songbirds, wild turkeys, waterfowl, white-tailed deer, and various
species of squirrels [11].
  • 3. Armstrong, W. E. 1980. Impact of prescribed burning on wildlife. In: White, Larry D., ed. Prescribed range burning in the Edwards Plateau of Texas: Proceedings of a symposium; 1980 October 23; Junction, TX. College Station, TX: Texas Agricultural Extension Service, The Texas A&M University System: 22-26. [11430]
  • 11. Edwards, M. B. 1990. Quercus shumardii Buckl. Shumard oak. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 734-737. [21823]

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Wood Products Value

Shumard oak wood is close-grained, hard, strong, and heavy [45]. This
wood is superior to that of other red oaks; it is marketed as "red oak",
and is not distinguished commercially from red oak species. The wood is
used for veneer, cabinets, furniture, flooring, interior trim, and
lumber [11,45].
  • 45. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 11. Edwards, M. B. 1990. Quercus shumardii Buckl. Shumard oak. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 734-737. [21823]

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Nutritional Value

Nutritional values (percent dry weight) for Shumard oak acorns are as
follows [8]:

crude fat 9.8
total carbohydrates 29.3
total protein 3.8
phosphorus 0.06
calcium 0.27
magnesium 0.06
  • 8. Bonner, F. T.; Vozzo, J. A. 1987. Seed biology and technology of Quercus. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-66. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 21 p. [3248]

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Palatability

Shumard oak acorns were intermediate in palatability to fox squirrels
when compared with those of eight other southern oaks [30].
  • 30. Ofcarcik, R. P.; Burns, E. E.; Teer, J. G. 1973. Acceptance of selected acorns by captive fox squirrels. Southwestern Naturalist. 17(4): 349-355. [11365]

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Special Uses

The acorns of Shumard oak serve as mast for numerous species of  birds and mammals. In the Mohrs oak and Ashe juniper-redberry  juniper types, Shumard oak acorns are probably an important  source of food for the deer herd.

    Commercially, Shumard oak is marketed with other red oak lumber  for flooring, furniture, interior trim, and cabinetry.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

M B Edwards

Source: Silvics of North America

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Uses

Conservation: High survival rates and steady growth make Shumard oak a valuable contributor to rehabilitation and reforestation of bottomlands and upland sites, including minespoils. Shumard oak also provides an excellent shade or specimen tree – to be used in lawns, parks, along streets, and in buffer strips and median plantings. The leaves remain green long into the fall and then turn a deep orange-red. The trees are strong, long-lived, and grow relatively quickly. They potentially grow to a large size and should be planted with this in mind. The species has been successfully grown in urban areas where air pollution, poor drainage, compacted soil, and/or drought are common. Compared to the similar northern red oak (Q. rubra), Shumard oak tolerates a broader range of soil moisture, and its more southern distribution provides stock better suited for that area. Shumard also apparently is little affected by chlorosis, which often is a problem for other oaks in high pH soils.

Industry: The wood of Shumard oak is close-grained, hard, strong, and heavy. It is generally marketed with other red oak lumber for flooring, furniture, interior trim and veneer, cabinetry, and lumber. Numerous species of songbirds, wild turkeys, waterfowl, white-tailed deer, squirrels, and other mammals eat the acorns, which are produced in abundance.

Ethnobotanic: The acorns are bitter, but edible, if the tannins are leached out. They have been ground and used as flour, roasted and ground to make coffee, and eaten whole.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Wikipedia

Quercus shumardii

Quercus shumardii, the Shumard oak, spotted oak, Schneck oak, Shumard red oak, or swamp red oak, is one of the largest of the oak species in the red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae). It is closely related to Texas red oak (Quercus buckleyi), Nuttall's oak (Quercus texana), and Chisos red oak (Quercus gravesii).

Distribution[edit]

Shumard oak is native to the Atlantic Coastal Plain primarily from North Carolina to northern Florida and west to central Texas; it is also found north in the Mississippi River Valley to central Oklahoma, eastern Kansas, Missouri, southern Illinois, Indiana, western and southern Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. It is found locally north to southern Michigan, southern Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the extreme south of Ontario, Canada.

Description[edit]

Mature Shumard oak typically reach heights of 25 to 35 meters (82 to 115 ft), trunk diameter is typically 60 to 100 centimeters (24 to 39 in), and crown width typically reaches 12 to 18 meters (39 to 59 ft) in width. Typical size varies according to region, with larger specimens occurring in the southern portions of its native range in the United States. Record Shumard oaks have been measured at up to 42 meters (138 ft) tall, with crowns up to 27.5 meters (90 ft) in width. Young specimens generally exhibit conic or ovate crowns, with the upper crown filling in as the tree reaches maturity. Trunks are relatively straight and vertical.

The young bark of the Shumard oak is light grey, very smooth, and very reflective. Shumard oak bark darkens and develops ridges and furrows as it ages. There are occasionally white splotches on the bark.

Shumard oak twigs terminate in a cluster of buds. The buds are lighter in color than the olive-green twigs. The young twig is highly reflective.

The leaves are arranged alternately and are broadly obovate with 5–9 lobes, each of which are terminated by bristle tipped teeth. The leaves mature to between 10 to 21 centimeters (4 to 8 in) in length. The surfaces are glabrous, except for the tufted vein axils. They are dark green on the top, while the bottom is a slightly lighter shade of green. The leaves turn brown to red in the fall, and sometime have hues of yellow mixed in. Fall colors are relatively late; specimens in central Texas may be at their most red in early December, while Florida specimens may not color substantially until February.

Shumard oak bears relatively large acorns, which typically reach up to 3 centimeters (1 in) in diameter. Acorns take between 1.5 and 3 years to fully mature, and may go unnoticed during their early stages of development.

The acorns of the Shumard oak provide food for various songbirds, game birds such as wild turkey and quail, waterfowl, white-tail deer, feral hogs, and various rodents such as squirrels. The leaves and twigs can also provide browse for white-tail deer.

Diseases[edit]

Oak wilt can attack all red oaks, including the Shumard oak. Other diseases that attack Shumard oaks are various fungi that can grow on the leaves, powdery mildew, canker diseases, and shoestring root.

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Shumard oak is valued for commercial use, as a shade tree, and as a food source for various birds and mammals. It is cultivated at least as far north as Ottawa, Ontario and as far south as Lake Worth, Florida. It is tolerant of wide ranges of pH levels in soil. It is drought-resistant, and prefers partial to full sunlight. Shumard oaks begin to bear seeds at a minimum of 25 years of age, and the optimum age for seed development is 50 years of age. Shumard oaks are known to have reached at least 480 years of age. The roots are intolerant to disturbance, so the tree should be planted in its permanent position at an early age.

Shumard oak lumber is grouped with other red oak lumber for use in flooring, furniture, interior trim, decorative molding, paneling, and cabinetry.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Quercus shumardii", NatureServe Explorer (NatureServe), retrieved 2010-03-02 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

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Notes

Comments

Trees with shallow cups covering ca. one-fourth of the nut are treated as Quercus shumardii var. shumardii ; those with more deeply rounded cups covering ca. one-third of the nut are treated as Q . shumardii var. schneckii (Britton) Sargent. Quercus shumardii var. stenocarpa Laughlin was described from several trees in Missouri and Illinois having ellipsoid acorns that were covered less than one-third their length by very small (5.5-7 mm high × 12.5-18 mm wide), shallow cups (K. Laughlin 1969). 

 Quercus shumardii reportedly hybridizes with Q . buckleyi , Q . falcata (= Q . × joori Trelease), Q . hemisphaerica , Q . imbricaria (= Q . × egglestoni Trelease), Q . laevis , Q . laurifolia , Q . marilandica , Q . nigra , Q . palustris (= Q . × mutabilis E. J. Palmer & Steyermark), Q . phellos (= Q . × moultonensis Ashe), Q . rubra , and Q . velutina (= Q . × discreta Laughlin).

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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The currently accepted scientific name for Shumard oak is Quercus
shumardii Buckl. (Fagaceae). It is a member of the red oak group (subgenus
Erythrobalanus) [11,25,38].
Shumard oak forms hybrids with at least nine other species of oaks [11,25,45]. It
is most closely related to blackjack oak (Q. marilandica) and black oak
(Q. velutina), as determined by electrophoresis [17].
  • 25. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 45. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 11. Edwards, M. B. 1990. Quercus shumardii Buckl. Shumard oak. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 734-737. [21823]
  • 38. Waldron, Gerald E.; Aboud, Steven W.; Ambrose, John D.; Meyers, George A. 1987. Shumard oak, Quercus shumardii, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 101(4): 532-538. [5731]
  • 17. Guttman, Sheldon I.; Weigt, Lee A. 1989. Electrophoretic evidence of relationships among Quercus (oaks) of eastern North America. Canadian Journal of Botany. 67(2): 339-351. [10401]
  • 24. Laughlin, Kendall. 1969. Quercus shumardii var. stenocarpa Laughlin: Stenocarp Shumard oak. Phytologia. 19(2): 57-64. [21959]
  • 34. Stoynoff, Nick; Hess, William J. 1990. A new status for Quercus shumardii var. acerifolia (Fagaceae). SIDA. 14(2): 267-271. [21955]
  • 50. Kartesz, John T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II--thesaurus. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 816 p. [23878]

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Common Names

Shumard oak
Shumard's red oak
Shumard red oak

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