Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Reynoldsia sandwicensis is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. It has been recorded from the islands of Niihau, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai, and Hawaii. It has not been recorded on Kauai and Kahoolawe.

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Range Description

Niihau, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui and Hawaii Islands.
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Physical Description

Type Information

Holotype for Reynoldsia sandwicensis A. Gray
Catalog Number: US 62431
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Wilkes Explor. Exped.
Year Collected: 1838
Locality: Honolulu, O`ahu, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Holotype: Gray, A. 1854 . Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 3: 129.
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Syntype for Reynoldsia sandwicensis var. intercedens Sherff
Catalog Number: US 1599731
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): O. Degener, K. Parls & Y. Nitta
Year Collected: 1932
Locality: Keawaula Valley., Honolulu, O`ahu, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Syntype: Sherff, E. E. 1952. Bot. Leafl. 6: 10.
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Isotype for Reynoldsia degeneri Sherff
Catalog Number: US 1599804
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): O. Degener
Year Collected: 1928
Locality: East Ohia Ridge, Kaunakakai., Maui, Moloka`i, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Isotype: Sherff, E. E. 1952. Bot. Leafl. 6: 15.
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Isotype for Reynoldsia mauiensis Sherff
Catalog Number: US 1655655
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. F. Rock
Year Collected: 1910
Locality: Auahi., Maui, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Isotype: Sherff, E. E. 1952. Bot. Leafl. 6: 16.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Dry (or sometimes moist) forests. Most often on gulch slopes or in gulch bottoms.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A variable species of dry to occasionally moist forest up to 800 m.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Reynoldsia sandwicensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Reynoldsia sandwicensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G2 - Imperiled

Reasons: Reynoldsia sandwicensis is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. It has been recorded from the islands of Niihau, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai, and Hawaii. It has not been recorded on Kauai and Kahoolawe. Reynoldsia sandwicensis is deciduous during the summer dry season. The trees become very conspicuous from afar when at the onset of summer their leaves turn lemon yellow. So it is not likely that any large concentrations of the species remain undiscovered. The following population estimates for the various islands are by Lau (Lau 2000) except where otherwise noted. It is in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu where the species is most common, especially in the north. The estimate for the Waianae Mountains is 2,000 trees. In the other Oahu mountain range, the Koolau Mountains, there appear to be fewer than 200 trees. Molokai might have fewer than 200 trees; West Maui fewer than 100; East Maui maybe about 200 (A. Medeiros pers. comm., 2000); Lanai perhaps fewer than 50; Hawaii fewer than 200. Like other Hawaiian lowland dry forest trees, R. sandwicensis has a wide array of threat factors affecting it: human-caused fires, farming, ranching, development, feral goats and pigs, deer, and alien plants. In some parts of its range regeneration is not occurring, or is occuring at a very low level.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LR/nt
Lower Risk/near threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1998
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
World Conservation Monitoring Centre

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s

History
  • 1997
    Rare
    (Walter and Gillett 1998)
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Threats

Comments: Like other Hawaiian lowland dry forest trees, R. sandwicensis has a wide array of threat factors affecting it: human-caused fires, farming, ranching, development, feral goats and pigs, deer, and alien plants. In some parts of its range regeneration is not occurring, or is occuring at a very low level.

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Wikipedia

Reynoldsia sandwicensis

Polyscias sandwicensis, known as ʻOhe kukuluāeʻo in Hawaiian, is a species of flowering plant in the ivy family, Araliaceae, that is endemic to Hawaii. It is a tree, reaching a height of 4.6–15 m (15–49 ft) high with a trunk diameter of 0.5–0.6 m (1.6–2.0 ft).[3] It can be found at elevations of 30–800 m (98–2,625 ft) on most main islands. Polyscias sandwicensis generally inhabits lowland dry forests, but is occasionally seen in coastal mesic and mixed mesic forests.[4] It is threatened by habitat loss.

References[edit]

  1. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. Reynoldsia sandwicensis. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 31 March 2014.
  2. ^ "Polyscias sandwicensis (A.Gray) Lowry & G.M.Plunkett". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden. 
  3. ^ Little Jr., Elbert L.; Roger G. Skolmen (1989). "ʻOhe makai, Hawaiian reynoldsia" (PDF). Common Forest Trees of Hawaii. United States Forest Service. Retrieved 2009-11-23. 
  4. ^ "ohe makai". Hawaii Ethnobotany Online Database. Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Retrieved 2009-11-23. 
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