Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Cultivated in Plains"
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Distribution

"Karnataka: Shimoga Kerala: Idukki, Kannur, Kollam, Kozhikode, Malapuram, Palakkad, Pathanamthitta,Thiruvananthapuram Tamil Nadu: All districts"
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr.:
Burma (Asia)
Bangladesh (Asia)
Cambodia (Asia)
India (Asia)
Laos (Asia)
Philippines (Asia)
Sri Lanka (Asia)
Thailand (Asia)
Vietnam (Asia)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan [Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
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India, Himalaya (Nepal, Sikkim), Ceylon, Tndo-China, S. China, W. Malaysia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs 1-3 m tall, erect, monoecious, glabrous throughout; branchlets angular when young, terete with age, slender, green. Stipules lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 1.5-3 mm; petiole 2-4 mm; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, or lanceolate, 3-10 × 1.5-3.5 cm, submembranous or thinly papery, base cuneate, rounded, or truncate, apex acuminate; venation pinnate, lateral veins 5-7 pairs, elevated abaxially, flattened adaxially, reticulate veins obscure. Inflorescence axillary, 1- or 2-flowered, or several male and female per cluster. Male flowers: pedicels slender, 5-7.5 mm; calyx shallowly disk-shaped, 5-12 mm in diam., shallowly 6-fid; sepals obovate; disk segments 6, opposite to sepals, incurved distally, covering anthers; stamens 3; fila-ments connate; anthers extrorse. Female flowers usually solitary, axillary; pedicel 6-8 mm; calyx red, 6-lobed; sepals obovate or obovate-triangular, 5-6 × 3-5.5 mm, base attenuate into a short claw; disk absent; ovary depressed globose, ca. 0.7 × 1.5 mm, 3-locular; styles 3, bifid. Fruiting pedicel 0.5-1 cm; persistent calyx red; capsule white, depressed globose or globose, ca. 1.2 × 1.7 cm, thinly crustaceous. Seeds black, triquetrous, ca. 7 × 5 mm. Fl. Apr-Jul, fr. Jul-Dec.
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Elevation Range

4500-900 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Synonym

Clutia androgyna Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 1: 128. 1767; Aalius androgyna (Linnaeus) Kuntze; A. retroversa (Wight) Kuntze; A. sumatrana (Miquel) Kuntze; Agyneia ovata Poiret; Andrachne ovata Lamarck ex Poiret; Phyllanthus strictus Roxburgh; Sauropus albicans Blume; S. albicans var. gardnerianus (Wight) Müller Argoviensis; S. albicans var. intermedius Müller Argoviensis; S. albicans var. zeylanicus (Wight) Müller Argoviensis; S. convexus J. J. Smith; S. gardnerianus Wight; S. indicus Wight; S. parviflorus Pax & K. Hoffmann; S. retroversus Wight; S. scandens C. B. Robinson; S. sumatranus Miquel; S. zeylanicus Wight.
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Ecology

Habitat

Slopes with brushwood, sunny forest margins; 100-400 m.
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Wikipedia

Sauropus androgynus

"Katuk" redirects here; for the place in Afghanistan, see Katok; for the place in Azerbaijan, see Ağgədik.

Sauropus androgynus, also known as katuk, star gooseberry, or sweet leaf, is a shrub grown in some tropical regions as a leaf vegetable. In Chinese it is called mani cai (马尼菜); in Japan it is called Amame Shiba(アマメシバ);in Malay it is called cekur manis, sayur manis, or asin-asin;[4][5] in Thai it is called pak waan; and in Vietnamese, it is called rau ngót. In Kerala -India it is called Malay Cheera.

Its multiple upright stems can reach 2.5 meters high and bear dark green oval leaves 5–6 cm long.

It is one of the most popular leaf vegetables in South Asia and Southeast Asia and is notable for high yields and palatability.[6] The shoot tips have been sold as tropical asparagus. In Vietnam, the locals cook it with crab meat, minced pork or dried shrimp to make soup. In Malaysia, it is commonly stir-fried with egg or dried anchovies. The flowers and small purplish fruits of the plant have also be eaten In Indonesia, the leaves of the plant are used to make infusion, believed to improve the flow of breast milk for breastfeeding mothers.

It is a good source of vitamin K.[citation needed] However, a study has suggested that excessive consumption of juiced Katuk leaves (due to its popularity for body weight control in Taiwan in the mid '90s) can cause lung damage, due to its high concentrations of the alkaloid papaverine.[7]

It also has high level of provita-min A carotenoids, especially in freshly picked leaves, as well as high levels of vitamins B and C, protein and minerals. The more mature leaves, the higher nutrient content of the leaves.[8] Latest studies indicate that Cekur manis encouraged rapid regeneration and multiplication through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.[9]

It is common in evergreen forest and cultivated up to 1,300 m [10]

Nutrition[edit]

Sauropus androgynus is rich in Vitamin C and polyphenols, such as tannin.

Sauropus androgynus
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy245 kJ (59 kcal)
Carbohydrates11 g
Fat1 g
Protein4.8 g
Water91.4 g
Vitamin A10370 IU
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.1 mg (9%)
Vitamin C239 mg (288%)
Calcium204 mg (20%)
Iron3 mg (23%)
Phosphorus98 mg (14%)
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Under its currently accepted name of Sauropus androgynus (from its basionym Clutia androgyna) this species was published in Bulletin of the Bureau of Forestry, Philippine Islands. Manila 1: 30. 1903. "Name - Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr.". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved November 18, 2012. "Basionym: Clutia androgyna L." 
  2. ^ The basionym of S. androgynus (Clutia androgyna) was originally described and published in Mantissa Plantarum 1: 128. 1767. "Name - Clutia androgyna L.". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved November 18, 2012. 
  3. ^ "TPL, treatment of Sauropus androgynus". The Plant List; Version 1. (published on the internet). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden. 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2012. 
  4. ^ Coope, A.E. (1993). Malay-English, English-Malay Dictionary (Rev. ed.). New York: Hippocrene Books. pp. 18, 61. ISBN 0-7818-0103-6. 
  5. ^ Bangchik (2009-10-08). "Cups in the air. asin-asin". Retrieved 2010-05-18. 
  6. ^ Nutritive value of Sauropus androgynus
  7. ^ Kao CH; Ho YJ, Wu CL, ChangLai SP (1999). "Using 99mTc-DTPA Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scintigraphies to Detect the Lung Injury Induced by Consuming Sauropus androgynus Vegetable and Comparison with Conventional Pulmonary Function Tests". Respiration (Karger AG) 66 (1): 46–51. doi:10.1159/000029336. PMID 9973690. Retrieved 2010-05-18. 
  8. ^ 19.1 Sauropus androgynus (sweet leaf bush)
  9. ^ Faculty of Science Research Seminar: Elicitors Effect on in vitro Cultures of Sauropus Androgynus, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus
  10. ^ Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr
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Notes

Comments

Sauropus androgynus is widely cultivated. The leaves are used as a medicine for coughs and to soothe the lungs, as a tonic, and as a febrifugal to relieve internal fever; they are also used as a vegetable ("Sweet Leaf Bush").
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