The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • Britton. 1904. In: Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 31: 166
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/compilersReviewers.do (2013). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Oct 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
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    1. Arnold, Ruth Horner. 1967. A canker and foliage disease of  yellow birch. 1. Description of the# causal fungus, Diaporthe  alleghaniensis sp. nov., and the symptoms on the host.  Canadian Journal of Botany 45(6):783-801.

       

    2. Arnold, Ruth Horner. 1970. A canker and foliage  disease of yellow birch. 11. Artificial infection studies with  Diaporthe alleghaniensis. Canadian Journal of Botany  48(9):1525-1540.

       

    3. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest  insects. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous  Publication 1175. Washington, DC. 642 p.

       

    4. Barnes, Burton V., and Bruce P. Dancik. 1985.  Characteristics and origin of a new birch species, Betula  murrayana from southeastern Michigan. Canadian Journal of  Botany 63:223-226.

       

    5. Barnes, Burton V., Bruce P. Dancik, and Terry  L. Sharik. 1974. Natural hybridization of yellow birch and paper  birch. Forest Science 20(3):215-221.

       

    6. Bicknell, Susan H., and William H. Smith. 1975.  Influence of soil salt at levels characteristic of some roadside  environments, on the germination of certain tree seeds. Plant  Soil 43(3):719-722.

       

    7. Brandt, R. W. 1964. Nectria canker of hardwoods. USDA  Forest Service, Forest Pest Leaflet 84. Washington, DC. 7 p.

       

    8. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Betula L.  Birch. In Seeds of woody plants in the United States. C.  S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. p. 252-257. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.

       

    9. Brisbin, R. L., and D. L. Sonderman. 1973.  Birch an American wood. USDA Forest Service, FS-221. Washington,  DC. 11 p.

       

    10. Burton, D. H., H. W. Anderson, and L. F.  Riley. 1969. Natural regeneration of yellow birch in Canada. In  Proceedings, Birch Symposium. p. 55-73. USDA Forest Service,  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA.

       

    11. Canavera, Dave. 1978. Effects of various  growing media on container-grown yellow birch. Tree Planters'  Notes 29(l):12-14.

       

    12. Carmean, Willard H. 1978. Site index curves  for northern hardwoods in northern Wisconsin and Upper Michigan.  USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NC-160. North Central Forest  Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 16 p.

       

    13. Carmean, Willard H. 1979. Site index  comparisons among northern hardwoods in northern Wisconsin and  Upper Michigan. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NC-169. North  Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 17 p.

       

    14. Clausen, Knud E. 1966. Studies of  compatibility in Betula. In Joint Proceedings, Second  Genetics Workshop of Society of American Foresters and Seventh  Lake States Forest Tree Improvement Conference. p. 48-52.  USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper NC-6. North Central Forest Experiment  Station, St. Paul, MN.

       

    15. Clausen, Knud E. 1968. Natural variation in  catkin and fruit characteristics of yellow birch. In Proceedings,  Fifteenth Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference. p.  2-7. USDA Forest  Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby,  PA.

       

    16. Clausen, Knud E. 1968. Variation in  height growth and growth cessation of 55 yellow birch seed  sources. In Proceedings, Eighth Lake States Forest Tree  Improvement Conference. p. 1-4. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper NC-23.  North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN.

       

    17. Clausen, Knud E. 1973. Genetics of yellow  birch. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper WO-18. Washington, DC.  28P.

       

    18. Clausen, Knud E. 1973. Within-provenance  variation of yellow birch. In Proceedings, Twentieth  Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference. p. 90-98. USDA  Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper  Darby, PA.

       

    19. Clausen, Knud E. 1975. Long-term storage of  yellow birch and paper birch seed. USDA Forest Service,  Research Note NC-183. North Central Forest Experiment Station,  St. Paul, MN. 3 p.

       

    20. Clausen, Knud E. 1975. Variation in early  growth and survival of yellow birch provenances. In  Proceedings, Twenty-second Northeastern Forest Tree  Improvement Conference. p. 138-148. USDA Forest Service,  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA.

       

    21. Clausen, Knud E. 1979. The relation between  tree size and flowering in yellow birch saplings. In Proceedings,  Flowering and Seed Development in Forest Trees: a IUFRO  Symposium, Frank Bonner, ed. p. 77-82. USDA Forest Service,  Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.

       

    22. Clausen, Knud E. 1979. The yellow x paper  birch hybrid-a potential substitute for yellow birch on problem  sites. In Proceedings, Thirteenth Lake States Forest Tree  Improvement Conference. p. 166-171. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report NC-50. North Central Forest Experiment Station,  St. Paul, MN.

       

    23. Clausen, Knud E. 1981. Survival, growth, and  flowering of yellow birch progenies in an open-field test. Silvae  Genetica 29:108-114.

       

    24. Clausen, Knud E., and Peter W. Garrett. 1969.  Progress in birch genetics and tree improvement. In Proceedings,  Birch Symposium. p. 86-94. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA.

       

    25. Conklin, James G. 1969. Insect enemies of birch. In Proceedings,  Birch Symposium. p. 151-154. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA.

       

    26. Curtis, R 0., and B. W. Post. 1962. Site-index curves for  even-aged northern hardwoods in the Green Mountains of Vermont.  Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 629.  Burlington, VT. 11 p.

       

    27. Dancik, Bruce P. 1969. Dark-barked birches of southern  Michigan. The Michigan Botanist 8(l):38-41.

       

    28. Dancik, Bruce P., and Burton V. Barnes. 1971.  Variability in bark morphology of yellow birch in an even-aged  stand. The Michigan Botanist 10:34-38.

       

    29. Dancik, Bruce P., and Burton V. Barnes. 1972.  Natural variation and hybridization of yellow birch and bog birch  in southeastern Michigan. Silvae Genetica 21:1-9.

       

    30. Dancik, Bruce P., and Burton V. Barnes. 1975.  Leaf variability in yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) in  relation to environment. Canadian, Journal of Forest Research  5(2):149-159.

       

    31. Dansereau, P., and G. Pageau. 1966.  Distribution geographique et ecologique du Betula  alleghaniensis. Memoires du Jardin Botanique de Montreal 58.  56 p.

       

    32. Davidson, Jean-Guy E. 1972. Early  discoloration and decay processes in yellow birch following  artificial inoculations. Dissertation Abstracts International B  33(5):1884.

       

    33. Davidson, Jean-Guy, and Marcel Lortie. 1970.  Relevé de microorganisms dans le bois de quelques abres  feuillus porteurs dé fauts sur le tronc. Le Naturaliste  Canadien 97(l):43-50.

       

    34. Donnelly, J. R. 1973. Duration of cold storage  alters time required for seedling bud-break. Tree Planters' Notes  24(4):25-26.

       

    35. Erdmann, Gayne G., and Robert R. Oberg. 1973.  Fifteen-year results from six cutting methods in second-growth  northern hardwoods. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NC-100.  North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 12 p.

       

    36. Erdmann, Gayne G., and Ralph M. Peterson, Jr.  1972. Crown release increases diameter growth and bole sprouting  of pole-size yellow birch. USDA Forest Service, Research Note  NC-130. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 4  p.

       

    37. Erdmann, Gayne G., Richard M. Godman, and  Gilbert A. Mattson. 1975. Effects of crown release and fertilizer  on small sawlog-size yellow birch. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper NC-119. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul,  MN. 6 p.

       

    38. Erdmann, Gayne G., Richard M. Godman, and  Ralph M. Peterson, Jr. 1982. How to release yellow birch in the  Lake States. USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment  Station, St. Paul, MN. 6 p.

       

    39. Erdmann, Gayne G., Richard M. Godman, and  Robert R. Oberg. 1975. Crown release accelerates diameter growth  and crown development of yellow birch saplings. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper NC-117. North Central Forest Experiment  Station, St. Paul, MN. 9 p.

       

    40. Erdmann, Gayne G., Ralph M. Peterson, Jr., and  R. M. Godman. 1981. Cleaning yellow birch seedling stands to  increase survival, growth, and crown development. Canadian  Journal of Forest Research 11(1):62-68.

       

    41. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of  the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.

       

    42. Fayle, D. C. F. 1965. Rooting habit of sugar  maple and yellow birch. Canadian Department of Forestry,  Publication 1120. Ottawa, ON. 31 p.

       

    43. Filip, Stanley M. 1969. Natural regeneration  of birch in New England. In Proceedings, Birch Symposium.  p. 50-54. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment  Station, Upper Darby, PA.

       

    44. George, Milon F., Sunk Gak Hong, and Michael  J. Burke. 1977. Cold hardiness and deep supercooling of  hardwoods: its occurrence in provenance collections of red oak,  yellow birch, black walnut, and black cherry. Ecology 58:674-680.

       

    45. Gilbert, Adrian M. 1965. Yellow birch (Betula  alleghaniensis Britton). In Silvics of forest trees  of the United States. H. A. Fowells, comp. p. 104-109. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington,  DC.

       

    46. Godman, R. M., and G. G. Erdmann. 1981. How to  regenerate yellow birch in the Lake States. USDA Forest Service,  North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 4 p.

       

    47. Godman, R. M., and G. A. Mattson. 1976. Seed  crops and regeneration problems of 19 species in northeastern  Wisconsin. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NC-123. North  Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 5 p.

       

    48. Godman, Richard M., and Carl H. Tubbs. 1973.  Establishing even-age northern hardwood regeneration by the  shelterwood method-a preliminary guide. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper NC-99. North Central Forest Experiment Station,  St. Paul, MN. 9 p.

       

    49. Gottlieb, A. R., and J. G. Berbee. 1973. Line  pattern of birch caused by apple mosaic virus. Phytopathology  63(12):1470-1477.

       

    50. Graber, Raymond. 1978. Summer planting of  container-grown northern hardwoods. USDA Forest Service, Research  Note NE-263. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby,  PA. 5 p.

       

    51. Gross, H. L. 1972. Crown deterioration and  reduced growth associated with excessive seed production by  birch. Canadian Journal of Botany 50(12):2431-2437.

       

    52. Gross, H. L., and A. A. Harnden. 1968. Dieback  and abnormal growth of yellow birch induced by heavy fruiting.  Canadian Department of Forestry, Information Report O-X-79.  Forest Research Laboratory, Ontario Region, Sault Ste. Marie, ON.  7 p.

       

    53. Hannah, P. R. 1972. Yellow birch root  occupancy related to stump and breast height diameters. Vermont  Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 669. University of  Vermont, Burlington. 9 p.

       

    54. Hannah, P. R. 1974. Crop tree thinning  increases availability of soil water to small yellow birch poles.  Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 38(4):672-675.

       

    55. Hannah, P. R. 1974. Thinning yellow birch  saplings to increase main leader growth. Vermont Agricultural  Experiment Station, Research Paper MP 80. University of Vermont,  Burlington. 9 p.

       

    56. Hannah, P. R. 1976. Planting and intensive  culture of yellow birch to improve timber quality and production.  The Maine Forest Review 10:17-21.

       

    57. Hannah, P. R. 1978. Growth of large yellow  birch saplings following crop tree thinning. Journal of Forestry  76(4):222-223.

       

    58. Hartman, Kay. 1982. American Forestry  Association. National register of big trees. American Forests  88(4):17-48.

       

    59. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest  and shade trees of the United States. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.

       

    60. Houston, D. R. 1971. Discoloration and decay  in red maple and yellow birch: reduction through wound treatment.  Forest Science 17(4):402-406.

       

    61. Hoyle, M. C. 1965. Addition of phosphorus to  subsoil promotes root development of yellow birch. USDA Forest  Service, Research Note NE-41 Northeastern Forest Experiment  Station, Upper Darby, PA. 7 p.

       

    62. Hoyle, M. C. 1969. Response of yellow birch in acid subsoil to  macronutrient additions. Soil Science 108(5):354-358.

       

    63. Hoyle, M. C. 1969. Variation in content of  microelements in yellow birch foliage due to season and soil  drainage. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings  33(3):458-459.

       

    64. Hoyle, M. C. 1972. Manganese toxicity in  yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) seedlings. Plant and  Soil 37(l):229-232.

       

    65. Hoyle, M. C. 1979. Response of yellow birch  (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) in acid subsoil to  micronutrient additions. Plant and Soil  51(3):453-455.

       

    66. Jensen, K. F., and T. T. Kozlowski. 1975.  Absorption and translocation of sulfur dioxide by seedlings of  four forest tree species. Journal of Environmental Quality  4(3):379-382.

       

    67. Jensen, Keith F., and Roberta G. Masters.  1975. Growth of six woody species fumigated with ozone. Plant  Disease Reporter 59(9):760-762.

       

    68. Johnsson, Helge. 1974. The hybrid Betula  lutea, sect. Costatae x Betula occidentalis, sect.  Albae. Silvae Genetica 23(1-3):14-17.

       

    69. Ker, M. F. 1980. Tree biomass equations for  seven species in southwestern New Brunswick. Environment Canada,  Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report M-X-114. Maritimes  Forest Research Centre, Fredericton, NB. 14 p.

       

    70. Kessler, K. J., Jr. 1970. A survey of diseases affecting  yellow birch seedlings. Plant Disease Reporter 54(l):16-18.

       

    71. Kessler, K. J., Jr. 1978. Gnomonia canker,  shoot blight, and leaf spot of yellow birch. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper NC-152. North Central Forest Experiment Station,  St. Paul, MN. 12 p.

       

    72. Konovalov, N. A., and N. P. Pitchugina. 1976.  Cytological peculiarities of interspecific birch hybrids. In  Proceedings, Division 2, Sixteenth IUFRO World Congress, June  20-July 2,1976, Olso, Norway. p. 298-301. As, Norway.

       

    73. Kozlowski, T. T., and J. Johanna Clausen.  1966. Shoot growth characteristics of heterophyllous  woody plants. Canadian Journal of Botany 44(6):827-843.

       

    74. Kujawski, R. F., and Paul C. Lemon. 1969.  Ecological effectiveness of yellow birch in several Adirondack  forest types. In Vegetation-environment relations at Whiteface  Mountain in the Adirondacks. p. 162-191. J. Gary Holway and Jon  T. Scott, co-investigators. Report 92. State University of New  York, Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, Albany.

       

    75. Lavallee, Andre, and Marcel Lortie. 1968.  Relationships between external features and trunk rot in living  yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis, Nectria galligena, Poria  obliqua). The Forestry Chronicle 44(2):5-10.

       

    76. Lavallee, A., and M. Lortie. 1971. Some  observations on the germination and viability of basidiospores of  Pholiota aurivella. Phytoprotection 52(3):112-118.

       

    77. Lea, R., W. C. Tierson, and A. L. Leaf. 1979.  Growth responses of northern hardwoods to fertilization. Forest  Science 25(4):597-604.

       

    78. Leak, W. B., S. M. Filip, and D. S. Solomon.  1968. Rates of value increase for yellow birch in New England.  USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-120. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 11 p.

       

    79. Leak, W. B., D. S. Solomon, and S. M. Filip.  1969. A silviculture guide for northern hardwoods in the  Northeast. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-143.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 34 p.

       

    80. Lee, Jeffrey J., and David E. Weber. 1979. The  effect of simulated acid rain on seedling emergence and growth of  11 woody species. Forest Science 25(3):393-398. 81.

       

    81. Logan, K. T. 1965. Growth of tree seedlings as  affected by light intensity: I. White birch, yellow birch, sugar  maple, silver maple. Canadian Department of Forestry, Publication  1121. Ottawa, ON. 16 p.

       

    82. Logan, K. T. 1970. Adaptations of the  photosynthetic apparatus of sun- and shade-grown yellow birch.  (Betula alleghaniensis). Canadian Journal of Botany  48(9):1681-1688.

       

    83. MacAloney, H. J. 1968. The bronze birch borer.  USDA Forest Service, Forest Pest Leaflet 109. Washington, DC. 4  p.

       

    84. McCormick, L. H., and K. C. Steiner, 1978.  Variation in aluminum tolerance among six genera of trees. Forest  Science 24(4):565-568.

       

    85. Marquis, David A. 1965. Regeneration of birch  and associated hardwoods after patch cutting. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper NE-32. Northeastern Forest Experiment  Station, Upper Darby, PA. 13 p.

       

    86. Marquis, David A. 1966. Germination and growth  of paper and yellow birch in simulated strip cuttings. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper NE-54. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 19 p.

       

    87. Marquis, David A. 1967. Clearcutting in  northern hardwoods: results after 30 years. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper NE-85. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station,  Upper Darby, PA. 13 p.

       

    88. Marquis, David A. 1969. Silvical requirements  for natural birch regeneration. In Proceedings, Birch  Symposium. p. 40-49. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA.

       

    89. Metzger, Frederick T. 1980. Strip clearcutting  to regenerate northern hardwoods. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper NC-186. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul,  MN. 14 p.

       

    90. Metzger, Frederick T., and Carl H. Tubbs.  1971. The influence of cutting method on regeneration of  second-growth northern hardwoods. Journal of Forestry  69(9):559-564.

       

    91. Morsink, W. A. G. 1970. A suggested frost  injury rating system for clones of trees. Canadian Journal of  Botany 48(3):493-497.

       

    92. Ohman, J. H. 1970. Value loss from skidding  wounds in sugar maple and yellow birch. Journal of Forestry  68(4):226-230.

       

    93. Perala, Donald A. 1974. Growth and survival of  northern hardwood sprouts after burning. USDA Forest Service,  Research Note NC-176. North Central Forest Experiment Station,  St. Paul, MN. 4 p.

       

    94. Phipps, Howard M. 1969. The germination of  several tree species in plastic greenhouses. USDA Forest Service,  Research Note NC-83. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St.  Paul, MN. 2 p.

       

    95. Post, Boyd W., W. H. Carmean, and Robert 0.  Curtis. 1969. Birch soil-site requirements. In Proceedings,  Birch Symposium. p. 95-101. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, P

       

    96. Quigley, Kenneth L., and Harold M. Babcock. 1969. Birch timber  resources of North America. In Proceedings, Birch  Symposium. p. 6-14. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA.

       

    97. Roberge, M. R. 1977. Influence of cutting methods on natural  and artificial regeneration of yellow birch in Quebec northern  hardwoods. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 7(l):175-182.

       

    98. Safford, L. 0. 1973. Fertilization increases diameter growth  and birch-beech-maple trees in New Hampshire. USDA Forest  Service, Research Note NE-182. Northeastern Forest Experiment  Station, Upper Darby, PA. 4 p.

       

    99. Safford, L. 0. 1976. Seasonal variation in the growth and  nutrient content of yellow birch replacement roots. Plant and  Soil 44(2):439-444.

       

    100. Sharik, Terry L., and Burton V. Barnes. 1971. Hybridization  in Betula alleghaniensis Britt. and B. lenta L.:  a comparative analysis of controlled crosses. Forest Science  17(4):415-424.

       

    101. Sharik, Terry L., and Burton V. Barnes. 1976. Phenology of  shoot growth among diverse populations of yellow birch (Betula  alleghaniensis) and sweet birch (Betula lenta). Canadian  Journal of Botany 54(18):2122-2129.

       

    102. Sharik, Terry L., and Burton V. Barnes. 1979. Natural  variation in morphology among diverse populations of yellow birch  (Betula alleghaniensis) and sweet birch (Betula  lenta). Canadian Journal of Botany 57(18):1932-1939.

       

    103. Shigo, A. L. 1965. Organism interactions in decay and  discoloration in beech, birch and maple. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper NE-43. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station,  Upper Darby, PA. 23 p.

       

    104. Shigo, A. L. 1966. Decay and discoloration following logging  wounds on northern hardwoods. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper NE-47. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby,  PA. 43 p.

       

    105. Shigo, A. L. 1966. Defects in birth associated with injuries  made by Xyloterinus politus Say. USDA Forest Service,  Research Note NE-49. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station,  Upper Darby, PA. 7 p.

       

    106. Shigo, A. L., and Edwin vH. Larson. 1969. A photo guide to  the patterns of discoloration and decay in living northern  hardwood trees. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-127.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 100 p.

       

    107. Shigo, A. L., and E. M. Sharon. 1968. Discoloration and decay  in hardwoods following inoculations with Hymenomycetes.  Phytopathology 58:1493-1498.

       

    108. Shigo, Alex L., and George Yelenosky. 1963. Fungus and insect  injury to yellow birch seeds and seedlings. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper NE-1 1. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station,  Upper Darby, PA. 11 p.

       

    109. Siccama, Thomas G. 1974. Vegetation, soil, and climate on the  Green Mountains of Vermont. Ecological Monograph 44(3):325-349.

       

    110. Solomon, D. S. 1968. Applying site-index curves to northern  hardwoods in New Hampshire. USDA Forest Service, Research Note  NE-79. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 5  p.

       

    111. Solomon, Dale S., and Barton M. Blum. 1967. Stump sprouting  of four northern hardwoods. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper  NE-59. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA.  13 p.

       

    112. Solomon, Dale S., and Barton M. Blum. 1977. Closure rates of  yellow birch pruning wounds. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  7(l):120-124.

       

    113. Solomon, Dale S., and William B. Leak. 1969. Stocking,  growth, and yield of birch stands. In Proceedings, Birch  Symposium. P. 106-118. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA.

       

    114. Solomon, Dale S., and Alex L. Shigo. 1976.  Discoloration and decay associated with pruning wounds on yellow  birch. Forest Science 22(4):391-392.

       

    115. Stanek, W. 1970. Growing yellow birch  seedlings in polyethylene bullet containers. The Forestry  Chronicle 46(4):329-331.

       

    116. Stone, D. M. 1977. Fertilizing and thinning  northern hardwoods in the Lake States. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper NC-141. North Central Forest Experiment Station,  St. Paul, MN. 7 p.

       

    117. Tubbs, C. H. 1969. The influence of light,  moisture, and seedbed on yellow birch regeneration. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper NC-27. North Central Forest Experiment  Station, St. Paul, MN. 12 p.

       

    118. Tubbs, C. H. 1973. Allelopathic relationship  between yellow birch and sugar maple seedlings. Forest Science  19(2):139-145.

       

    119. Tubbs, C. H. 1977. Manager's handbook for  northern hardwoods in North Central States. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report NC-39. North Central Forest Experiment  Station, St. Paul, MN. 29 p.

       

    120. Tubbs, C. H. 1977. Root-crown-relations of young sugar maple  and yellow birch. USDA Forest Service, Research Note NC-225.  North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 4 p.

       

    121. Tubbs, Carl H., and Frederick T. Metzger.  1969. Regeneration of northern hardwoods under shelterwood  cutting. The Forestry Chronicle 45(5):333-337.

       

    122. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest  Service. 1979. A guide to common insects and diseases of forest  trees in the northeastern United States. Forest Insect and  Disease Management, NA-FR-4. Northeastern Area State and Private  Forestry, Broomall, PA. 127 p.

       

    123. Wang, B. S. P. 1965. Seedbed canopy and  moisture effects on growth of yellow birch seedlings. The  Forestry Chronicle 41(l):106-107.

       

    124. Wang, B. S. P. 1968. The development of  yellow birch regeneration on scarified sites. Canadian Department  of Forestry and Rural Development, Forest Branch Department  Publication 1210. Ottawa, ON. 14 p.

       

    125. Winget, C. H., and T. T. Kozlowski. 1965.  Yellow birch germination and seedling growth. Forest Science  11(4):386-392.

       

    126. Winget, C. H., G. Cottam, and T. T.  Kozlowski. 1965. Species association and stand structure of  yellow birch in Wisconsin. Forest Science 11(3):369-383.

       

    127. Wood, Tim, and F. H. Bormann. 1974. The  effects of an artificial acid mist upon the growth of Betula  alleghaniensis Britt. Environmental Pollution 7(4):259-268.

       

    128. Young, Harold E., John H. Ribe, and Kevin  Wainwright. 1980. Weight tables for tree and shrub species in  Maine. Maine Life Sciences and Agricultural Experiment Station,  Miscellaneous Report 230. University of Maine, Orono. 84 p.

     

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