The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2015). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Sep 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • L. 1753. In: Sp. Pl. : 983
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
    1. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Betula L. Birch. In Seeds  of woody plants in the United States. p. 252-257. C. S.  Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    3. Brisbin, Robert L., and David L. Sonderman. 1973. Birch ...  an American wood. USDA Forest Service, FS-221. Washington,  DC. 11 p.
    5. Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    7. Fernow Experimental Forest. 1980. Unpublished data on file,  Timber and Watershed Laboratory, Parsons, WV.
    9. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    11. Johnson, Warren T., and Howard H. Lyon. 1976. Insects that  feed on trees and shrubs. Comstock Publishing, Cornell  University Press, Ithaca, NY, and London. 464 p.
    13. Leak, William B. 1965. Sweet birch (Betula lenta L.).  In Silvics of forest trees of the United States. p.  99-109. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC.
    15. Lorimer, Craig G. 1980. Age structure and disturbance  history of a southern Appalachian virgin forest. Ecology  6(5):1160-1184.
    17. Niering, W. A., R. Godwin, and S. Taylor. 1970. Prescribed  burning in southern New England: introduction of long-range  studies. In Proceedings, Tenth Tall Timbers Fire  Ecology Conference. p. 267-286.
    19. Ogle, Douglas W., and Peter M. Mazzeo. 1976. Betula  uber, the Virginia round-leaf birch, rediscovered in  southwest Virginia. Castanea 41:248-256.
    21. Sharik, Terry L., and Burton V. Barnes. 1971. Hybridization  in Betula alleghaniensis Britt. and B. lenta  L.: a comparative analysis of controlled crosses. Forest  Science 17(4):415-424.
    23. Stephens, George R., and Paul E. Waggoner. 1970. The forests  anticipated from 40 years of natural transitions in mixed  hardwoods. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station,  Bulletin 707. New Haven. 58 p.
    25. Trimble, George R., Jr. 1970. 20 years of intensive  even-aged management: effect on growth, yield, and species  composition in two hardwood stands in West Virginia. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper NE-154. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 12 p.



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