The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

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  • 11. Golden, Michael S. 1979. Forest vegetation of the lower Alabama Piedmont. Ecology. 60(4): 770-782. [9643]
  • 12. Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Twery, Mark J. 1989. Gypsy moth impacts in pine-hardwood mixtures. In: Waldrop, Thomas A., ed. Proceedings of pine-hardwood mixtures: a symposium on management and ecology of the type; 1989 April 18-19; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-58. Asheville, SC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 50-58. [10257]
  • 13. Grelen, H. E. 1990. Betula nigra L. river birch. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 153-157. [21817]
  • 14. Hare, Robert C. 1965. Contribution of bark to fire resistance of southern trees. Journal of Forestry. 63(4): 248-251. [9915]
  • 15. Hodges, John D.; Switzer, George L. 1979. Some aspects of the ecology of southern bottomland hardwoods. In: North America's forests: gateway to opportunity: Proceedings, 1978 joint convention of the Society of American Foresters and the Canadian Institute of Forestry. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters: 360-365. [10028]
  • 16. Hook, D. D. 1984. Waterlogging tolerance of lowland tree species of the South. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 8: 136-149. [19808]
  • 17. Hotchkiss, Neil; Stewart, Robert E. 1947. Vegetation of the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland. American Midland Naturalist. 38(1): 1-75. [22000]
  • 18. Hupp, Cliff R. 1992. Riparian vegetation recovery patterns following stream channelization: a geomorphic perspective. Ecology. 73(4): 1209-1226. [19499]
  • 19. Jones, Robert H.; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; McLeod, Kenneth W. 1989. Effects of flooding and root competition on growth of shaded bottomland hardwood seedlings. American Midland Naturalist. 121(1): 165-175. [10906]
  • 2. Barnes, W. J. 1985. Population dynamics of woody plants on a river island. Canadian Journal of Botany. 63: 647-655. [2855]
  • 21. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of the United States trees. Volume 1. Conifers and important hardwoods. Misc. Publ. 1146. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 320 p. [1462]
  • 22. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 23. McNab, W. Henry. 1991. Land classification in the Blue Ridge province: state-of-the-science report. In: Mengel, Dennis L.; Tew, D. Thompson, eds. Ecological land classification: applications to identify the productive potential of southern forests: Proc. of a symp; 1991 January 7-9; Charlotte, NC. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-68. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 37-47. [15708]
  • 24. Myers, Charles C.; Buchman, Roland G. 1984. Manager's handbook for elm-ash-cottonwood in the North Central States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-98. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 11 p. [8919]
  • 25. Penfound, William T. 1952. Southern swamps and marshes. The Botanical Review. 18: 413-446. [11477]
  • 26. Pollio, Carol A.; Davidson, Walter H. 1992. Native seed bank Brooklyn Reclamation Project. Park Science. 12(1): 10-11. [17787]
  • 27. Putnam, John A. 1951. Management of bottomland hardwoods. Occasional Paper 116. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 60 p. [6748]
  • 29. Smalley, Glendon W. 1984. Classification and evaluation of forest sites in the Cumberland Mountains. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-50. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 84 p. [9831]
  • 3. Brush, Grace S.; Lenk, Cecilia; Smith, Joanne. 1980. The natural forests of Maryland: an explanation of the vegetation map of Maryland. Ecological Monographs. 50(1): 77-92. [19035]
  • 30. Smalley, Glendon W. 1991. Classification & evaluation of forest sites on the Natchez Trace State Forest, State Resort Park, and Wildlife Management Area in w. Tennessee. SO-85. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 73 p. [17980]
  • 32. Tripepi, R. R.; Mitchell, C. A. 1984. Stem hypoxia and root respiration of flooded maple and birch seedlings. Physiologia Plantarum. 60(4): 567-571. [12543]
  • 34. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 35. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 36. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minespoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15577]
  • 37. Ware, Stewart; Redfearn, Paul L., Jr.; Pyrah, Grant L.; Weber, Wallace R. 1992. Soil pH, topography and forest vegetation in the central Ozarks. American Midland Naturalist. 128(1): 40-52. [19722]
  • 38. Wells, B. W. 1928. Plant communities of the Coastal Plain of North Carolina and their successional relations. Ecology. 9(2): 230-242. [9307]
  • 39. Whitford, Philip Clason. 1990. River birch in central Wisconsin: a case study of colonization. Michigan Botanist. 29(4): 115-120. [21951]
  • 4. Carlsmith, Anne. 1983. The river birch. Arnoldia. 44(1): 28-31. [21954]
  • 40. Wolfe, Carl B., Jr.; Pittillo, J. Dan. 1977. Some ecological factors influencing the distribution of Betula nigra L. in western North Carolina. Castanea. 42(1): 18-30. [21952]
  • 41. McGarity, R. W. 1979. Young sweetgum responds to early merchantable thinning. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 3(4): 157-160. [10617]
  • 42. Koevenig, James L. 1976. Effect of climate, soil physiography and seed germination on the distribution of river birch (Betula nigra). Rhodora. 78(815): 420-437. [21950]
  • 5. Coyle, B. F.; Sharik, T. L.; Feret, P. P. 1983. The utility of range-wide maps for identifying disjunct populations of river birch (Betula nigra L.). Castanea. 48(4): 285-288. [21953]
  • 6. Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p. [7116]
  • 7. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/compilersReviewers.do (2013). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Oct 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication. flowervisitors.info, version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Image metadata at Bioimages (http://bioimages.vanderbilt.edu/)   http://bioimages.vanderbilt.edu/baskauf/00000 External link.
  • L. 1753. In: Sp. Pl. : 982
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  •    
    1. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Betula L. Birch. In  Seeds of woody plants in the United States. p. 252-257.  C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    2.  
    3. Clausen, Knud E. 1970. Interspecific crossability test in  Betula. Proceedings, IUFRO Section 22, Working Group  Meeting on the Sexual Reproduction of Forest Trees, May  20-June 5, 1970, Varparanta, Finland. 10 p.
    4.  
    5. Collingwood, G. H., and Warren D. Brush. 1974. Knowing your  trees. Rev. by Devereaux Butcher. American Forestry  Association, Washington, DC. 374 p.
    6.  
    7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    8.  
    9. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    10.  
    11. Hicks, Ray R., Jr., Durrel W. Jones, and Robert C. Wendling.  1974. Specific gravity variations of young river birch  trees. Wood Science 7(2):169-172.
    12.  
    13. Koevenig, James L. 1976. Effect of climate, soil  physiography and seed germination on the distribution of  river birch (Betula nigra). Rhodora 78:420-437. 
    14.  
    15. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of United States trees,  vol. 1. Conifers and important hardwoods. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1146. Washington, DC.  9 p., 313 maps.
    16.  
    17. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washing-ton, DC. 375  p.
    18.  
    19. McClelland, Mark K., and Irwin A. Ungar. 1970. The influence  of edaphic factors on Betula nigra L. distribution  in southeastern Ohio. Castanea 35:99-117.
    20.  
    21. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. 1974.  River birch. Secrest Arboretum Notes (Wooster, OH) Autumn:1. 
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    23. Roth, Paul L. 1970. Phenotypic variation in river birch (Betula  nigra L.). In Proceedings, Eightieth Indiana  Academy of Science. p. 225-229.
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    25. Steyermark, Julian A. 1963. Flora of Missouri. Iowa State  University Press, Ames. 1725 p.
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    27. Teskey, Robert 0., and Thomas M. Hinckley. 1977. Impact of  water level changes on woody riparian and wetland  communities. vol. II: The Southern Forest Region. U.S.  Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service,  FSW/OBS-77/59. Washington, DC. 46 p.
    28.  
    29. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the  southwest. University of Texas Press, Austin. 1104 p.
    30.  
    31. Voight, John W., and Robert H. Mohlenbrock. 1964. Plant  communities of southern Illinois. Southern Illinois  University Press, Carbondale. 202 p.
    32.  
    33. Wolfe, Carl B., Jr., and J. Dan Pittillo. 1977. Some  ecological factors influenced the distribution of Betula  nigra L. in western North Carolina. Castanea 42:18-30. 
    34.  
     

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