The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2015). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Sep 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • L. 1753. In: Sp. Pl. : 982
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
    1. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Betula L. Birch. In  Seeds of woody plants in the United States. p. 252-257.  C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    3. Clausen, Knud E. 1970. Interspecific crossability test in  Betula. Proceedings, IUFRO Section 22, Working Group  Meeting on the Sexual Reproduction of Forest Trees, May  20-June 5, 1970, Varparanta, Finland. 10 p.
    5. Collingwood, G. H., and Warren D. Brush. 1974. Knowing your  trees. Rev. by Devereaux Butcher. American Forestry  Association, Washington, DC. 374 p.
    7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    9. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    11. Hicks, Ray R., Jr., Durrel W. Jones, and Robert C. Wendling.  1974. Specific gravity variations of young river birch  trees. Wood Science 7(2):169-172.
    13. Koevenig, James L. 1976. Effect of climate, soil  physiography and seed germination on the distribution of  river birch (Betula nigra). Rhodora 78:420-437. 
    15. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of United States trees,  vol. 1. Conifers and important hardwoods. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1146. Washington, DC.  9 p., 313 maps.
    17. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washing-ton, DC. 375  p.
    19. McClelland, Mark K., and Irwin A. Ungar. 1970. The influence  of edaphic factors on Betula nigra L. distribution  in southeastern Ohio. Castanea 35:99-117.
    21. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. 1974.  River birch. Secrest Arboretum Notes (Wooster, OH) Autumn:1. 
    23. Roth, Paul L. 1970. Phenotypic variation in river birch (Betula  nigra L.). In Proceedings, Eightieth Indiana  Academy of Science. p. 225-229.
    25. Steyermark, Julian A. 1963. Flora of Missouri. Iowa State  University Press, Ames. 1725 p.
    27. Teskey, Robert 0., and Thomas M. Hinckley. 1977. Impact of  water level changes on woody riparian and wetland  communities. vol. II: The Southern Forest Region. U.S.  Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service,  FSW/OBS-77/59. Washington, DC. 46 p.
    29. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the  southwest. University of Texas Press, Austin. 1104 p.
    31. Voight, John W., and Robert H. Mohlenbrock. 1964. Plant  communities of southern Illinois. Southern Illinois  University Press, Carbondale. 202 p.
    33. Wolfe, Carl B., Jr., and J. Dan Pittillo. 1977. Some  ecological factors influenced the distribution of Betula  nigra L. in western North Carolina. Castanea 42:18-30. 


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