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Betula pendula

Betula pendula (silver birch) is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe, though in southern Europe it is only found at higher altitudes.[citation needed] Its range extends into southwest Asia in the mountains of northern Turkey and the Caucasus.

Description[edit]

It is a medium-sized deciduous tree, typically reaching 15–25 metres (49–82 ft) tall (exceptionally up to 39 metres (128 ft)[1]), with a slender trunk usually under 40 centimetres (16 in) diameter, but exceptionally to 1 metre (3.3 ft) diameter, and a crown of arched branches with drooping branchlets. The bark is white, often with black diamond-shaped marks or larger patches, particularly at the base. The shoots are rough with small warts, and hairless, and the leaves 3–7 centimetres (1.2–2.8 in) long, triangular with a broad base and pointed tip, and coarsely double-toothed serrated margins. The flowers are wind-pollinated catkins, produced before the leaves in early spring, the small 1-2mm winged seeds ripening in late summer on pendulous, cylindrical catkins 2–4 centimetres (0.79–1.57 in) long and 7 mm broad.[2][3]

Taxonomy[edit]

The closely related Betula platyphylla in northern Asia and Betula szechuanica of central Asia are also treated as varieties of silver birch by some botanists, as B. pendula var. platyphylla and B. pendula var. szechuanica respectively (see birch classification).[2][4][5]

B. pendula is distinguished from the related downy birch (B. pubescens, the other common European birch) in having hairless, warty shoots (hairy and without warts in downy birch), more triangular leaves with double serration on the margins (more ovoid and with single serrations in downy birch), and whiter bark often with scattered black fissures (greyer, less fissured, in downy birch). It is also distinguished cytologically, silver birch being diploid (with two sets of chromosomes), whereas downy birch is tetraploid (four sets of chromosomes). Hybrids between the two are known, but are very rare, and being triploid, are sterile.[2] The two have differences in habitat requirements, with silver birch found mainly on dry, sandy soils, and downy birch more common on wet, poorly drained sites such as clay soils and peat bogs. Silver birch also demands slightly more summer warmth than does downy birch, which is significant in the cooler parts of Europe. Many North American texts treat the two species as conspecific (and cause confusion by combining the downy birch's alternative vernacular name 'white birch', with the scientific name B. pendula of the other species), but they are regarded as distinct species throughout Europe.[2][3]

Ecology[edit]

B. pendula commonly grows with the mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria in a mutualistic relationship. This applies particularly to acidic or nutrient poor soils. Other mycorrhizal associates include Leccinum scabrum and Cantharellus cibarius. Old trees are often killed by the decay fungus Piptoporus betulinus, and the branches often have witch's brooms caused by the fungus Taphrina betulina.[3]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Betula pendula 'Laciniata'

Silver birch is often planted in parks and gardens, grown for its white bark and gracefully drooping shoots, sometimes even in warmer-than-optimum places such as Los Angeles and Sydney. In Scandinavia and other regions of northern Europe, it is grown for forest products such as lumber and pulp, as well as for aesthetic purposes and ecosystem services. It is sometimes used as a pioneer and nurse tree elsewhere. It is naturalised and locally invasive in parts of Canada.[6][dead link] Birch brushwood is used for racecourse jumps, and the sap contains around 1% sugars and can be drunk or be brewed into a "wine". Historically, the bark was used for tanning.[7] Silver birch wood can make excellent timber for carving kitchen utensils such as wooden spoons and spatulas: its very mild, sweet flavour does not contaminate food, and it has an attractive pale colour. Bark can be heated and the resin collected; the resin is an excellent waterproof glue and firestarter.[8]

Successful birch cultivation requires a climate cool enough for at least the occasional winter snowfall. As they are shallow-rooted, they may require water during dry periods. They grow best in full sun planted in deep, well-drained soil.[9]

Cultivars[edit]

  • 'Carelica' is called "curly birch" in Finland; "curly" refers to grain of the wood.[10]
  • 'Laciniata'agm[11] (commonly misidentified as 'Darlecarlica') has deeply incised leaves and weeping branches.
  • 'Purpurea' has dark purple leaves.
  • 'Tristis'agm[12] has an erect trunk with weeping branchlets.
  • 'Youngii' has dense, twiggy weeping growth with no central leader, requiring grafting onto a standard stem of normal Silver Birch.

The cultivars marked agm above have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Chemistry[edit]

The outer part of the bark contains up to 20% betulin. The main components in the essential oil of the buds are α-copaene (~10%), germacrene D (~15%) and δ-cadinene (~13%).[13]

Synonyms[edit]

Synonyms include Betula pendula var. carelica (Merckl.) Hämet-Ahti, B. pendula var. laciniata (Wahlenb.) Tidestr., B. pendula var. lapponica (Lindq.) Hämet-Ahti, B. aetnensis Raf., B. montana V.N.Vassil, B. talassica Poljakov, B. verrucosa Ehrh., B. verrucosa var. lapponica Lindq., and B. fontqueri Rothm.[14][15] The rejected name Betula alba L. also applied in part to B. pendula, though also to B. pubescens.[16] Silver Birch has also sometimes been called Weeping Birch or European Weeping Birch.

Cultural significance[edit]

Silver Birch is Finland's national tree. Occasionally one uses leafy, fragrant boughs of Silver Birch to gently beat oneself in a sauna. The boughs are called vihta or vasta. This has a relaxing effect on the muscles.[citation needed]

In Sweden, the bark of birch trees was ground up and used to make bark bread, a form of famine food. The removal of bark was at one time so widespread that Carl Linnaeus expressed his concern for the survival of the woodlands.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Väre H., Kiuru H., Suomen puut ja pensaat (Trees and shrubs of Finland), Metsäkustannus Oy, 2006.
  2. ^ a b c d Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  3. ^ a b c Trees for Life Species Profile: Birch
  4. ^ Flora Europaea: Betula pendula
  5. ^ Hunt, D., ed. (1993). Betula. Proceedings of the IDS Betula Symposium 2–4 October 1992. International Dendrology Society ISBN 0-9504544-5-1.
  6. ^ Environment Canada: Minor Invasive Aliens
  7. ^ British-trees.com
  8. ^ Woodstovewizard.com
  9. ^ Botanicas' Trees & Shrubs, Random House, Sydney, 2005
  10. ^ Finnish Curly Birch Society
  11. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Betula pendula 'Laciniata'". Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  12. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Betula pendula 'Tristis'". Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  13. ^ "Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds". Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  14. ^ Den virtuella floran
  15. ^ Govaerts, R., & Frodin, D. G. (1998). World Checklist and Bibliography of Fagales. ISBN 1-900347-46-6 online search
  16. ^ Govaerts, R. (1996). "Proposal to reject the name Betula alba (Betulaceae)". Taxon 45: 697–698. 
  17. ^ Julie Lindahl (9 January 2011). "Bark Bread is back". Nordic Wellbeing. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 

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