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Overview

Brief Summary

Birch trees are common in the Netherlands. Silver birch is no exception, particularly on sandy soils. Birch woods in this country are native and provide a home to many animals. Like all birch species, the bark is generally smooth and white. Sometimes it peels off like a sheet of paper. Silver birch closely resembles downy birch. In fact, they often cross-pollinate, creating hybrids. Silver birch can withstand difficult conditions, such as lengthy dryness and somewhat acidic soil. Therefore, it is one of the species of trees used on Texel to protect pine trees from from the salty sea wind. It also serves as a fire belt in production forests. You don't want to trim this tree in the spring or summer. Due to the sap stream, the tree will literally bleed to death.
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Biology

One of the reasons why birch managed to colonise the newly emerging lands following the retreat of the glaciers lies in its abundantly-produced seed, as fine as powder. Even today, it remains what botanists call a 'pioneer' species, one of the first trees to occupy suitable ground. That said, it is not a long-lived tree; most specimens die or succumb to fungal attack by the age of 70. However, they do offer protection to slower-growing, longer-lived tree species such as oaks, and where left to regenerate birches can play an important role in helping to nurture a wood. The catkins appear early in spring and release their pollen in clouds during April. The leaves emerge shortly after, a bright emerald green at first and finally turning golden in autumn. Birches produce an abundance of sap in spring and a cut stump will continue to 'bleed' for weeks. In North America, a species of woodpecker called the sapsucker taps birch trees in spring by cutting small wells in the bark and drinking the sap which oozes out. In the UK, a similar technique is employed by makers of birch tree wine, a drink once believed to have medicinal properties, including those of curing kidney stones and skin complaints.
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Description

One of the most familiar trees in the British countryside, the graceful silver birch is a genuine native, having been an early coloniser at the end of the Ice Age. Its papery-white bark – almost pink in young trees – distinguishes it from the downy birch Betula pubescens which has reddish bark that turns grey with age and is usually found in wetter habitats in the uplands. The leaves of silver birch are small and roughly diamond in shape. They are toothed on both sides and borne on slender warty twigs that shiver in the slightest breeze. Saplings also share this tendency to sway in the wind and, traditionally, foresters would remove young birches from plantations to avoid them flaying more valuable trees. As silver birch ages, its bark darkens and becomes rougher and more fissured and prone to attack by the birch polypore fungus Piptoporus betulinus. Birch wood has little strength as a timber although in the past it was used extensively in the Highlands of Scotland. The Highlanders made almost anything from it, including their furniture and houses. Traditionally, the suppleness of the branches and twigs was exploited for making besoms or 'witches' brooms. Smaller versions of this implement, stripped of bark, are still popular as kitchen whisks. Besoms were also used as fire beaters but, today, the Forestry Commission uses a less flammable material. Hardly surprising when you consider that birch bark and twigs are one of the best materials for starting a fire!
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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N Xinjiang (Altay Shan) [Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia (W Siberia); Europe]
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B.C., Man., Ont.; Conn., Mass., N.H., N.Y., Ohio, Pa., Vt., Wash.; Europe; Asia.
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Range

Birch is found throughout most of the UK and Europe and across Asia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 25 m tall; bark grayish white, exfoliating in sheets. Branches usually pendulous, dark brown, slender, glabrous, shiny; branchlets brown, slender, glabrous, sparsely resinous glandular or not. Petiole slender, 2-3 cm; leaf blade triangular-ovate or rhombic-ovate, 3-7.5 × 1.5-6 cm, abaxially densely resinous punctate, adaxially glabrous, base truncate, broadly cuneate, or cuneate, margin coarsely or incised doubly serrate, apex acuminate or caudate-acuminate; lateral veins 6-8 on each side of midvein. Female inflorescence oblong or oblong-cylindric, 1-3.3 cm × 8-10 mm; peduncle pendulous, 1-2 cm; bracts 5-6 mm, densely pubescent, ciliate, 3-lobed, middle lobe ovate or triangular-ovate, lateral lobes recurved, slightly longer than middle lobe. Nutlet obovate-elliptic, ca. 2 × 1 mm, sparsely pubescent, with membranous wings slightly longer than and ca. 2 × as wide as nutlet. Fl. Jun-Jul, fr. Jul-Aug. 2n = 28, (42), 56.
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Description

Trees , to 25 m; trunks usually several, crowns spreading. Bark of mature trunks and branches creamy to silvery white, smooth, exfoliating as long strands; lenticels dark, horizontally expanded. Branches pendulous; twigs glabrous, usually dotted with small resinous glands. Leaf blade broadly ovate to rhombic with 5--18 pairs of lateral veins, 3--7 × 2.5--5 cm, base cuneate, rarely truncate, margins coarsely and sharply doubly serrate, apex acuminate; surfaces abaxially glabrous to sparsely pubescent, covered with minute, resinous glands. Infructescences erect to nearly pendulous, cylindric, 2--3.5 × 0.6--1 cm, shattering with fruits in fall; scales adaxially sparsely pubescent, lobes diverging at middle, central lobe obtuse, much shorter than lateral lobes, lateral lobes broad, rounded, extended. Samaras with wings much broader than body, broadest near center, extended beyond body apically. 2 n = 28, 56.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Betula verrucosa Ehrhart.
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Synonym

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Ecology

Habitat

Abandoned plantings, roadsides, edges of bogs, waste places; 0--350m.
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Temperate broad-leaved forests; 500-2300 m.
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This species favours dry heaths, downs and woods, but it will also grow in fens and marshes. It has been planted extensively as a show tree in parks and gardens.
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / miner
larva of Anoplus plantaris mines leaf of Betula pendula x pubescens (B. x aurata)

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Foodplant / gall
solitary larva of Anisostephus betulinum causes gall of live leaf of Betula pendula
Remarks: season: -8 or 9
Other: minor host/prey

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / miner
larva of Anoplus plantaris mines leaf of Betula pendula

Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Betula pendula

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius armillatus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Betula pendula

Foodplant / mobile cased feeder
larva of Cryptocephalus coryli grazes in mobile case on fallen catkin of Betula pendula
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Cryptocephalus frontalis may be found on Betula pendula
Remarks: season: 5-8

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Cryptocephalus nitidulus grazes on live pollen of sapling of Betula pendula
Remarks: season: early 5-9
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial stroma of Daldinia loculata is saprobic on burnt wood of Betula pendula

Foodplant / parasite
live leaf of Erysiphe ornata var. europaea parasitises sparse conidial anamorph of Betula pendula

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Ganoderma resinaceum parasitises live trunk of Betula pendula
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leptosporomyces fuscostratus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed bark of Betula pendula
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / gall
larva of Oligotrophus betulae causes gall of reduced-winged fruit of Betula pendula
Remarks: season: -6(7)
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
larva of Oligotrophus skuhravae causes gall of fruit pedicel of Betula pendula
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / gall
larva of Oligotrophus tarda causes gall of live, wingless or with reduced wings fruit of Betula pendula
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora polygonia is saprobic on dead wood of Betula pendula

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile, clustered, erumpent through cracks in bark, sessile apothecium of Pezicula carnea is saprobic on fallen twig of Betula pendula

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Phellodon confluens is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Betula pendula
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota alnicola var. alnicola is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Betula pendula

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous Phyllactinia guttata parasitises live leaf of Betula pendula
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Pisolithus arrhizus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Betula pendula

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pleurotus pulmonarius is saprobic on dead wood of Betula pendula
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Steccherinum ochraceum is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed twig of Betula pendula
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / gall
Taphrina betulina causes gall of twig of Betula pendula
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Thelephora palmata is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Betula pendula
Remarks: Other: uncertain

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Known predators

Betula pendula is prey of:
Symydobius oblongus
Euceraphis betulae
Betulaphis quadrituberculata
Calaphis betulicola
Betulaphis brevipilosa
Hamamelistes betulinus

Based on studies in:
Europe: Central Europe (Plant substrate)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • M. Rejmanek and P. Stary, 1979. Connectance in real biotic communities and critical values for stability of model ecosystems. Nature 280:311-313, from p. 312.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering late spring.
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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Leaves deter herbivory: birch trees
 

The leaves of some birch trees may help deter herbivory by adsorbing arthropod-repelling chemical compounds emitted from neighboring plants.

     
  "Plant-emitted semi-volatile compounds have low vaporization rates at  20–25°C and may therefore persist on surfaces such as plant foliage. The  passive adsorption of arthropod-repellent semi-volatiles to  neighbouring foliage could convey associational resistance, whereby a  plant's neighbours reduce damage caused by herbivores.

"We found that birch (Betula spp.) leaves adsorb  and re-release the specific arthropod-repelling C15  semi-volatiles ledene, ledol and palustrol produced by Rhododendron  tomentosum when grown in mixed association in a field setup
 

  "In assessments for associational resistance, we found that  the polyphagous green leaf weevils (Polydrusus flavipes)  and autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) larvae  both preferred B. pendula to R.  tomentosum. P. flavipes also preferred  birch leaves not exposed to R. tomentosum to  leaves from mixed associations. In the field, a reduction in Euceraphis betulae aphid density occurred in mixed  associations.

 

"Our results suggest that plant/tree species may be protected by  semi-volatile compounds emitted by a more herbivore-resistant  heterospecific neighbour." (Himanen et al. 2010:722)


  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Himanen SJ; Blande JD; Klemola T; Pulkkinen J; Heijari J; Holopainen JK. 2010. Birch (Betula spp.) leaves adsorb and re-release volatiles specific to neighbouring plants – a mechanism for associational herbivore resistance?. New Phytologist. 186(3): 722-732.
  • 2010. Plants discover the benefits of good neighbors in strategy against herbivores. Science Daily [Internet],
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Betula pendula

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Betula pendula

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 23
Specimens with Barcodes: 40
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Status

Common in the UK.
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Threats

There are currently no threats to silver birch in the UK.
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Management

Conservation

Due to its invasive nature, silver birch scrub is often the reason why conservation work is carried out on some nature reserve sites. Birch colonises open areas quickly and, when left unchecked, can reduce the conservation value of habitats such as heathland. In consequence, there are no specific projects for conserving the species.
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Wikipedia

Betula pendula

"Silver Birch" redirects here. For the racehorse, see Silver Birch (horse).

Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch or warty birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe, though in southern Europe it is only found at higher altitudes. Its range extends into Siberia and southwest Asia in the mountains of northern Turkey, the Caucasus and northern Iran. It has been introduced into North America, where it is known as the European white birch, and is considered invasive in some states in USA and in parts of Canada.

The silver birch is a medium-sized deciduous tree that owes its common name to the white peeling bark on the trunk. The twigs are slender and often pendulous and the leaves are roughly triangular with doubly serrate margins and turn yellow in autumn before they fall. The flowers are catkins and the light, winged seed get widely scattered by the wind. The silver birch is a hardy tree, a pioneer species, and one of the first trees to appear on bare or fire-swept land. Many species of birds and animals are found in birch woodland, the tree supports a wide range of insects and the light shade it casts allows shrubby and other plants to grow beneath its canopy. It is planted decoratively in parks and gardens and is used for forest products such as joinery timber, firewood, tanning, racecourse jumps and brooms. Various parts of the tree are used in traditional medicine and the bark contains triterpenes which have been shown to have medicinal properties.

Description[edit]

Silver birch

The silver birch is a medium-sized deciduous tree, typically reaching 15 to 25 m (49 to 82 ft) tall (exceptionally up to 39 metres (128 ft)),[1] with a slender trunk usually under 40 cm (16 in) diameter. The bark on the trunk and branches is golden-brown at first but later turns white as papery tissue develops on the surface which peels off in flakes. The bark remains smooth until the tree gets quite large, but in older trees, the bark thickens, becomes irregular, dark and rugged. Young branches have whitish resin warts and the twigs are slender, hairless and often pendulous. The buds are small and sticky, and development is sympodial, that is to say the terminal bud dies away and growth continues from a lateral bud. Some shoots are long and bear the male catkins at the tip in the autumn while others are short and bear female catkins that develop soon after the leaves unfurl in the spring.[2]

The leaves have short slender stalks and are 3 to 7 cm (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, triangular with broad, entire, wedge-shaped bases, slender pointed tips and coarsely double-toothed serrated margins. They are sticky with resin at first but this dries as they age leaving small white scales. The foliage is a pale to medium green and turns yellow early in the autumn before the leaves fall. The male catkins expand and release pollen and the female catkins mature in mid-summer and wind-pollination takes place. The small 1-2mm winged seeds ripen in late summer on pendulous, cylindrical catkins 2 to 4 cm (0.8 to 1.6 in) long and 7 mm broad. The seeds are very numerous and are separated by scales, and when ripe, the whole catkin disintegrates and the seeds are spread widely by the wind.[2][3][4]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The silver birch grows naturally from western Europe to the Sakha Republic in Siberia and to the mountains of the Caucasus and northern Iran. There is also an occurrence in northern Morocco.[5] In the southern parts of its range it is mainly found in mountainous regions. Its light seeds are easily blown by the wind and it is a pioneer species, one of the first trees to sprout on bare land or after a forest fire. It needs plenty of light and does best on dry, acid soils and is found on heathland, mountainsides and clinging to crags.[2] Its tolerance to pollution make it suitable for planting in industrial areas and exposed sites.[6] It has been introduced into North America where it is known as the European white birch, and is considered invasive in the states of Kentucky, Maryland, Washington and Wisconsin.[7] It is naturalised and locally invasive in parts of Canada.[8]

Taxonomy[edit]

Tree in winter

The closely related Betula platyphylla in northern Asia and Betula szechuanica of central Asia are also treated as varieties of silver birch by some botanists, as B. pendula var. platyphylla and B. pendula var. szechuanica respectively (see birch classification).[3][9]

B. pendula is distinguished from the related downy birch (B. pubescens, the other common European birch) in having hairless, warty shoots (hairy and without warts in downy birch), more triangular leaves with double serration on the margins (more ovoid and with single serrations in downy birch), and whiter bark often with scattered black fissures (greyer, less fissured, in downy birch). It is also distinguished cytologically, silver birch being diploid (with two sets of chromosomes), whereas downy birch is tetraploid (four sets of chromosomes). Hybrids between the two are known, but are very rare, and being triploid, are sterile.[3] The two have differences in habitat requirements, with silver birch found mainly on dry, sandy soils, and downy birch more common on wet, poorly drained sites such as clay soils and peat bogs. Silver birch also demands slightly more summer warmth than does downy birch, which is significant in the cooler parts of Europe. Many North American texts treat the two species as conspecific (and cause confusion by combining the downy birch's alternative vernacular name 'white birch', with the scientific name B. pendula of the other species), but they are regarded as distinct species throughout Europe.[3][4]

Synonyms include Betula pendula var. carelica (Merckl.) Hämet-Ahti, B. pendula var. laciniata (Wahlenb.) Tidestr., B. pendula var. lapponica (Lindq.) Hämet-Ahti, B. aetnensis Raf., B. montana V.N.Vassil, B. talassica Poljakov, B. verrucosa Ehrh., B. verrucosa var. lapponica Lindq., and B. fontqueri Rothm.[10][11] The rejected name Betula alba L. also applied in part to B. pendula, though also to B. pubescens.[12]

Ecology[edit]

The silver birch has an open canopy which allows plenty of light to reach the ground. This allows a variety of mosses, grasses and flowering plants to grow beneath which in turn attract insects. Flowering plants often found in birch woods include primroses (Primula vulgaris), violets (Viola riviniana), bluebells (Hyacinthoides non-scripta), wood anemones (Anemone nemorosa) and wood sorrel (Oxalis acetosella). Small shrubs that grow on the forest floor include blaeberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and cowberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea).[4] Birds found in birch woodland include the chaffinch, tree pipit, willow warbler, nightingale, robin, woodcock, redpoll and woodpecker.[6]

The branches of the silver birch often have tangled masses of twigs known as witch's brooms growing among them, caused by the fungus Taphrina betulina. Old trees are often killed by the decay fungus Piptoporus betulinus and dead wood rots rapidly on the forest floor. This tree commonly grows with the mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria in a mutualistic relationship. This applies particularly to acidic or nutrient poor soils. Other mycorrhizal associates include Leccinum scabrum and Cantharellus cibarius.[4] It has been shown that, as well as mycorrhiza, the presence of microfauna in the soil assists the growth of the tree, as it enhances the mobilization of nutrients.[13]

Sawfly larvae feeding on silver birch, West Wales, July 2014

The larvae of large numbers of butterflies, moths and other insects feed on the leaves and other parts of the silver birch.[14] In Germany, almost 500 species of insect have been found on silver and downy birch including 106 beetles and 105 lepidopterans, with 133 insect species feeding almost exclusively on birch.[15] In the United States, the wood is attacked by the bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius), an insect pest to which it has no natural resistance.[7]

Uses[edit]

Silver birch is often planted in parks and gardens, grown for its white bark and gracefully drooping shoots, sometimes even in warmer-than-optimum places such as Los Angeles and Sydney. In Scandinavia and other regions of northern Europe, it is grown for forest products such as lumber and pulp, as well as for aesthetic purposes and ecosystem services. It is sometimes used as a pioneer and nurse tree elsewhere.[2]

Silver birch wood is pale in colour with no distinct heartwood and is used in making furniture, plywood, veneers, parquet blocks, skis, kitchen utensils and in turnery. It makes a good firewood that produces a good heat when burnt but is quickly consumed by the flames. Slabs of bark are used for making roof shingles and wooden footwear.[2] Historically, the bark was used for tanning. Bark can be heated and the resin collected; the resin is an excellent waterproof glue and useful for starting fires. The thin sheets of bark that peel off young wood contain a waxy resin and are easy to ignite even when wet. The dead twigs are also useful as kindling for outdoor fires.[16]

Birch brushwood is used for racecourse jumps and besom brooms. In the spring, large quantities of sap rise up the trunk and this can be tapped. It contains around 1% sugars and can be used in a similar way to maple syrup, being drunk fresh, concentrated by evaporation or fermented into a "wine".[16] In Sweden, the bark of birch trees was ground up and used to make bark bread, a form of famine food. The removal of bark was at one time so widespread that Carl Linnaeus expressed his concern for the survival of the woodlands.[17]

Silver birch is used in traditional medicine as a diuretic and is reputed to be useful in the treatment of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, gout, kidney stones, nephritis, cystitis, digestive disturbances and respiratory diseases. For these purposes, a decoction of the bark or leaves is generally used. Externally silver birch is used to promote healing, relieve pain and treat imperfections of the skin.[18]

Cultivation[edit]

Betula pendula 'Laciniata'

Successful birch cultivation requires a climate cool enough for at least the occasional winter snowfall. As they are shallow-rooted, they may require water during dry periods. They grow best in full sun planted in deep, well-drained soil.[19]

Cultivars[edit]

  • 'Carelica' is called "curly birch" in Finland; "curly" refers to grain of the wood.
  • 'Laciniata'agm[20] (commonly misidentified as 'Darlecarlica') has deeply incised leaves and weeping branches.
  • 'Purpurea' has dark purple leaves.
  • 'Tristis'agm[21] has an erect trunk with weeping branchlets.
  • 'Youngii' has dense, twiggy weeping growth with no central leader, requiring grafting onto a standard stem of normal Silver Birch.

The cultivars marked agm above have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Chemistry[edit]

The outer part of the bark contains up to 20% betulin. The main components in the essential oil of the buds are α-copaene (~10%), germacrene D (~15%) and δ-cadinene (~13%).[22] Also present in the bark are other triterpene substances which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-cancer properties.[23]

Cultural significance[edit]

Silver Birch is Finland's national tree.[24] Leafy, fragrant boughs of Silver Birch (called vihta or vasta) are used to gently beat oneself in the Finnish sauna culture.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Väre H.; Kiuru H. Suomen puut ja pensaat (Trees and shrubs of Finland), Metsäkustannus Oy, 2006.
  2. ^ a b c d e Vedel, Helge; Lange, Johan (1960). Trees and Bushes. Methuen. pp. 141–143. ISBN 9780416617801. 
  3. ^ a b c d Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  4. ^ a b c d Featherstone, Alan Watson. "Silver birch, downy birch". Trees for Life. Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  5. ^ "GRIN Taxonomy for Plants - Betula pendula". USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2014-05-29. 
  6. ^ a b "Silver birch: Betula pendula". Forestry Commission. Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  7. ^ a b "European White Birch - Betula pendula". USDA Forest Service. 2006-09-01. Retrieved 2014-05-29. 
  8. ^ Diamond, Joshua; Browning, Mark; Williams, Andrew; Middleton, John (2003). "Lack of Evidence for Impact of the European White Birch, Betula pendula, on the Hydrology of Wainfleet Bog, Ontario". Canadian Field-Naturalist 117 (3). 
  9. ^ Hunt, D., ed. (1993). Betula. Proceedings of the IDS Betula Symposium 2–4 October 1992. International Dendrology Society ISBN 0-9504544-5-1.
  10. ^ Anderberg, Arne (1999-10-14). "Betula pendula Roth". Den virtuella floran. Naturhistoriska riksmuseet. Retrieved 2014-05-29. 
  11. ^ Govaerts, R.; Frodin, D. G. (1998). World Checklist and Bibliography of Fagales. ISBN 1-900347-46-6 online search
  12. ^ Govaerts, R. (1996). "Proposal to reject the name Betula alba (Betulaceae)". Taxon 45: 697–698. doi:10.2307/1224262. 
  13. ^ Setälä, Heikki; Huhta, Veikko (1991). "Soil Fauna Increase Betula pendula Growth: Laboratory Experiments With Coniferous Forest Floor". Ecology 72 (2): 665–671. JSTOR 2937206. 
  14. ^ "HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants". Natural History Museum. Retrieved 2014-05-29. 
  15. ^ Brändle, Martin; Brandl, Roland: Species richness of insects and mites on trees: expanding Southwood. Journal of Animal Ecology 70 (2001), 491–504
  16. ^ a b Cox, Michael O. "Firewood Types: Silver Birch". WoodstoveWizard.com. Retrieved 2014-05-29. 
  17. ^ Julie Lindahl (2011-01-09). "Bark Bread is back". Nordic Wellbeing. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 
  18. ^ "Medicinal properties of birch". The World of Plants. Botanical-online. Retrieved 2014-06-03. 
  19. ^ Botanica (1999). Botanica's Trees & Shrubs. Laurel Glen Publishing. ISBN 9781571456496. 
  20. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Betula pendula 'Laciniata'". Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  21. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Betula pendula 'Tristis'". Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  22. ^ "Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds". Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  23. ^ Kovac-Besović, E. E.; Durić, K.; Kalodera, Z.; Sofić, E (2009). "Identification and isolation of pharmacologically active triterpenes in Betuale cortex, Betula pendula Roth., Betulaceae". Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 9 (1): 31–38. PMID 19284392. 
  24. ^ "Suomen kansallistunnukset (Finland's national emblems)". Retrieved 2014-05-30. 
  25. ^ "Perinteinen saunavihta (Traditional sauna vihta)". Retrieved 2014-05-30. 
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May easily be confused with Betula platyphylla; however, in that species, the branches are not pendulous and the wings of the nutlet are about as wide as the nutlet. The name B. alba Linnaeus, nom. rej. prop., has been widely and persistently misapplied in the sense of B. pendula; the lectotype of B. alba belongs to the species currently known as B. pubescens Ehrhart, which does not occur in China.
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The Eurasian weeping birch ( Betula pendula ) is extensively cultivated throughout the temperate range of the flora, and it has been known to persist or to become locally naturalized in several areas, particularly in the Northeast. In vegetative features it resembles B . populifolia Marshall, to which it is closely allied; it can easily be distinguished from the latter by its peeling bark, as well as by its mostly pubescent leaves with somewhat shorter, acuminate apices.
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