Data about <i>Betula pendula</i>

TraitBank assembles data records from many providers. Select a row for more details about the record, or search TraitBank.

Distribution

 
introduced range includes
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Canada
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
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Lower 48 United States of America
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  

Physical Description

 
flower color
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brown
  • brown
    A color consisting of dark orange, red, of very low intensity.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000952
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
leaf color
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green
  • green
    A color hue with medium-low wavelength of that portion of the visible spectrum lying between yellow and blue, evoked in the human observer by radiant energy with wavelengths of approximately 490 to 570 nanometers.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000320
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
plant height median
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60 ft mature
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
plant height average
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18.67 m adult
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
 
plant height max
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40 ft base age
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
fruit or seed color
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brown
  • brown
    A color consisting of dark orange, red, of very low intensity.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000952
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
wood density
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0.5 g/cm³
Global Wood Density Database  
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0.53 g/cm³
Global Wood Density Database  
 
growth habit
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tree
  • tree
    Perennial, woody plant with a single stem (trunk), normally greater than 4 to 5 meters (13 to 16 feet) in height; under certain environmental conditions, some tree species may develop a multi-stemmed or short growth form (less than 4 meters or 13 feet in height).
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/tree
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
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tree
  • tree
    Perennial, woody plant with a single stem (trunk), normally greater than 4 to 5 meters (13 to 16 feet) in height; under certain environmental conditions, some tree species may develop a multi-stemmed or short growth form (less than 4 meters or 13 feet in height).
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/tree
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
shape
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erect
  • erect
    A positional quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's being upright in position or posture.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000622
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
primary growth form
  • primary growth form
    The primary growth form on the landscape in relation to soil stabilization on slopes and streamsides. Each plant species is assigned the single growth form that most enhances its ability to stabilize soil.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/PrimaryGrowthForm
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thicket forming
  • thicket forming
    A plant that is likely to develop thickets when planted to stabilize soil.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/thicketForming
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
fruit type
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dry fruit
Chen and Moles, 2015  
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dry fruit
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
 
carbon-to-nitrogen ratio
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medium (23 – 59)
  • medium (23 – 59)
    The percentage of organic carbon divided by the percentage of total nitrogen in organic material is 23–59.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/mediumCNRatio
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
foliage texture
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smooth
  • smooth
    A texture quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's processing a surface free of roughness or irregularities.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000701
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
seed volume
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0.25 mm³
Chen and Moles, 2015  

Ecology

 
frost free days min
  • frost free days
    The average number of frost-free days within the plant’s known geographical range. For cultivars, the geographical range is defined as the area to which the cultivar is well adapted rather than marginally adapted.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/FrostFreeDays
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90 days
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
precipitation tolerance min
  • precipitation tolerance
    Minimum tolerable rainfall (in inches), expressed as the average annual minimum precipitation that occurs 20% of the time (i.e., the probability of it being this dry in any given year is 20%) at the driest climate station within the known geographical range of the plant. geographical range of the plant. For cultivars, the geographical range is defined as the area to which the cultivar is well adapted rather than marginally adapted.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/PrecipitationTolerance
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30 inch
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
precipitation tolerance max
  • precipitation tolerance
    Minimum tolerable rainfall (in inches), expressed as the average annual minimum precipitation that occurs 20% of the time (i.e., the probability of it being this dry in any given year is 20%) at the driest climate station within the known geographical range of the plant. geographical range of the plant. For cultivars, the geographical range is defined as the area to which the cultivar is well adapted rather than marginally adapted.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/PrecipitationTolerance
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55 inch
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
soil depth min
  • soil depth
    The minimum depth of soil required for good growth. Plants that do not have roots such as rootless aquatic plants (floating or submerged) and epiphytes are assigned a minimum root depth value of zero.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/SoilDepth
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24 inch
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
low temperature tolerance min
  • low temperature tolerance
    The minimum tolerable temperature is the lowest temperature recorded in the plant’s historical range. If this is not available, the record low January temperature recorded at climate stations within the current geographical range of the plant is used. This definition does not apply to summer annuals.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/TemperatureTolerance
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-33 degrees Fahrenheit
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
habitat
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arenosol
  • arenosol
    Arenosols are sandy soils, including both soils developed in residual sands after in situ weathering of usually quartz-rich sediments or rock, and soils developed in recently deposited sands such as dunes in deserts and beach lands.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002229
Environments - EOL project  
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canopy
Environments - EOL project  
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forest
  • forest
    An area with a high density of trees. A small forest may be called a wood.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000111
Environments - EOL project  
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forest
  • forest
    An area with a high density of trees. A small forest may be called a wood.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000111
Environments - EOL project  
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garden
  • garden
    An enclosure for displaying selected plant or animal life.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000011
Environments - EOL project  
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heath
  • heath
    An upland moor or sandy area dominated by low shrubby vegetation including heather.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000107
Environments - EOL project  
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mount
  • mount
    A mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. Typically formed from volcanoes that rise abruptly and are usually found rising from a seafloor of 1,000 - 4,000 meters depth. Independent features that rise to at least 1,000 meters above the seafloor.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000264
Environments - EOL project  
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mountain
  • mountain
    A landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill, but there is no universally accepted standard definition for the height of a mountain or a hill although a mountain usually has an identifiable summit and a local relief of more than 300m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000081
Environments - EOL project  
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scrubland
  • scrubland
    Area covered with low-growing or stunted perennial vegetation and usually not mixed with trees.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000300
Environments - EOL project  
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sea
  • sea
    A large expanse of saline water usually connected with an ocean.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000016
Environments - EOL project  
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soil
  • soil
    Any material within 2 m from the Earth's surface that is in contact with the atmosphere, with the exclusion of living organisms, areas with continuous ice not covered by other material, and water bodies deeper than 2 m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00001998
Environments - EOL project  
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soil
  • soil
    Any material within 2 m from the Earth's surface that is in contact with the atmosphere, with the exclusion of living organisms, areas with continuous ice not covered by other material, and water bodies deeper than 2 m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00001998
Environments - EOL project  
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temperate
Environments - EOL project  
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terrestrial habitat
  • terrestrial habitat
    A habitat that is on or at the boundary of the surface of the Earth.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002009
IUCN  
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waste
Environments - EOL project  
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woodland
Environments - EOL project  
 
habitat includes
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non-marine
IRMNG - Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera.  
 
dispersal vector
  • dispersal vector
    A dispersal vector is an agent transporting seeds or other dispersal units. Dispersal vectors may include biotic factors, such as animals, or abiotic factors, such as the wind or the ocean.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/DispersalVector
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anemochory
  • anemochory
    Seed dispersal by wind (with wind dispersal adaptations, such as pappus or wings).
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/anemochory
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
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anemochory
  • anemochory
    Seed dispersal by wind (with wind dispersal adaptations, such as pappus or wings).
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/anemochory
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
 
wetland indicator status (NWPL)
  • wetland indicator status (NWPL)
    Five indicator statuses, or ratings, are used in the United States National Wetland Plant List to designate a plant species’ preference for occurrence in a wetland or upland: Upland (UPL), Facultative Upland (FACU), Facultative (FAC), Facultative Wetland (FACW), and Obligate Wetland (OBL). The statuses represent the estimated probability of a species occurring in wetlands versus nonwetlands in a region.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/WetlandIndicatorStatus
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facultative upland
  • facultative upland
    Nonhydrophyte. Usually occur in non-wetlands, but may occur in wetlands.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/nwpl_facu
National Wetland Plant List  
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facultative upland
  • facultative upland
    Nonhydrophyte. Usually occur in non-wetlands, but may occur in wetlands.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/nwpl_facu
National Wetland Plant List  
 
interacts with
  • interacts with
    an organism has an effect on another organism in the community.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/interactsWith
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elevation median
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93.4 m
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)  
 
elevation mean
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133.1 m
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)  
 
elevation min
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-4 m
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)  
 
elevation max
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645.5 m
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)  
 
elevation measurement
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1,000 m
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany  
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1,285 m
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany  
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1,400 m
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany  
 
fire resistance
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is not fire resistant
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
allelopathic effect
  • allelopathic effect
    This is an assay of any direct or indirect, harmful or beneficial effect of one plant on another through the production of chemical compounds (allelochemicals) that escape in the environment.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/TO_0000624
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no known allelopathy
  • no known allelopathy
    There is no evidence that the organism produces compounds (allelochemicals) that influence the growth, survival, and reproduction of other organisms.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/allelopathyUnknown
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
soil requirements
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adapted to coarse textured soils
  • adapted to coarse textured soils
    This plan can establish and grow in soil with a coarse textured surface layer. Includes: Sand, Coarse sand, Fine sand, Loamy coarse sand, Loamy fine sand, Loamy very fine sand, Very fine sand, Loamy sand.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/coarseSoilYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
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adapted to fine textured soils
  • adapted to fine textured soils
    This plan can establish and grow in soil with a fine textured surface layer. Includes: Sandy clay, Silty clay, Clay.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/fineSoilYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
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adapted to medium textured soils
  • adapted to medium textured soils
    This plan can establish and grow in soil with a medium textured surface layer. Includes: Silt, Sandy clay loam, Very fine sandy loam, Silty clay loam, Silt loam, Loam, Fine sandy loam, Sandy loam, Coarse sandy loam.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/mediumSoilYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
anaerobic soil tolerance
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none
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
drought tolerance
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low tolerance
  • low tolerance
    decreased tolerance to: A tolerance quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's decreased ability to endure a stimulus.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0002394
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
calcareous soil tolerance
  • calcareous soil tolerance
    The relative tolerance of the plant to calcareous soil. Calcareous soil is defined as soil containing sufficient free CaCO3 and other carbonates to effervesce visibly or audibly when treated with cold 0.1M HCl. These soils usually contain from 10 to almost 1000g/kg CaCO3 equivalent.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/CalcareousSoilTolerance
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low tolerance
  • low tolerance
    decreased tolerance to: A tolerance quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's decreased ability to endure a stimulus.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0002394
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
moisture use
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high
  • high
    An elevated level or position or degree; greater than normal in degree or intensity or amount.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C25227
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
salt tolerance
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low tolerance
  • low tolerance
    decreased tolerance to: A tolerance quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's decreased ability to endure a stimulus.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0002394
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
shade tolerance
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low tolerance
  • low tolerance
    decreased tolerance to: A tolerance quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's decreased ability to endure a stimulus.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0002394
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
germinative response to heat stimuli
  • germinative response to heat stimuli
    The most intense heat treatment (i.e., seed exposition to dry heat >= 50ºC), of those tested (see Measurement Method), that significantly increases the seed germination response of the plant versus the control. For studies where differences were not statistically tested, the criteria in Paula & Pausas (2008) are used. Three heat intensities are considered: Low (<100ºC for <= 5min), Moderate (<100ºC for > 5min or >= 100ºC for <= 5min), High (>= 100ºC for >5min) or unknown (unk). Note that in many studies, post-treatment seed viability is not considered or not specified in the original reference, and thus it can lead to misinterpretation of treatment effects.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/HeatStimGerm
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germination unaffected
  • germination unaffected
    Germination is not affected by the treatment, i.e., germination of treated seeds equals the control. In the case of heat treatments, germination is not stimulated after any heat intensity tested, and at least one of the treatments does not affect seed germination.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/germinationUnaffected
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
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germination unaffected
  • germination unaffected
    Germination is not affected by the treatment, i.e., germination of treated seeds equals the control. In the case of heat treatments, germination is not stimulated after any heat intensity tested, and at least one of the treatments does not affect seed germination.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/germinationUnaffected
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
 
resprout ability after fire
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yes
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
 
germinative response to ash
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germination unaffected
  • germination unaffected
    Germination is not affected by the treatment, i.e., germination of treated seeds equals the control. In the case of heat treatments, germination is not stimulated after any heat intensity tested, and at least one of the treatments does not affect seed germination.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/germinationUnaffected
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  

Life History and Behavior

 
life cycle habit
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perennial
  • perennial
    Of plant duration, a plant whose life span extends over more than two growing seasons, c.f. annual, biennial, ephemeral, of flowering with respect to architecture, hapaxanthic, monocarpic, pleonanthic
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/perennial
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
shedability
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deciduous
  • deciduous
    Deciduous (plant): A quality inhering in a plant by virtue of the bearer's disposition to shed foliage.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0001731
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
bloom period
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mid spring
  • mid spring
    The mid part of the season between the vernal equinox and the summer solstice.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/midSpring
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
active growth period
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spring and summer
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
age at maturity average
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5
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
 
growth rate
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fast
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
life span
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low life span
  • low life span
    Decreased life span: A life span which is relatively low.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0001604
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
grass growth type
Additional detail
not a low growing grass
  • not a low growing grass
    The growing point (terminal meristem) of the vegetative grass tiller does not remain at or near the crown.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/lowGrowingGrassNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
resprout ability after clipping
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will resprout
  • will resprout
    The plant will resprout following top (above ground biomass) removal.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/ResproutYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
germination requirements
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cold stratification not required
  • cold stratification not required
    Cold stratification does not significantly increase the seed germination percentage of this plant.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/coldStratificationNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
fruit/seed abundance
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medium
  • medium
    Mid-way between small and large in number, quantity, magnitude or extent.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C49507
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database