Data about <i>Betula pendula</i>

TraitBank assembles data records from many providers. Select a row for more details about the record, or search within Betula pendula.

Distribution

Data about <i>Betula pendula</i>
introduced range includes
Additional detail Canada USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail Lower 48 United States of America USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  

Physical Description

Data about <i>Betula pendula</i>
flower color
Additional detail brown
  • brown
    A color consisting of dark orange, red, of very low intensity.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000952
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
leaf color
Additional detail green
  • green
    A color hue with medium-low wavelength of that portion of the visible spectrum lying between yellow and blue, evoked in the human observer by radiant energy with wavelengths of approximately 490 to 570 nanometers.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000320
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
fruit or seed color
Additional detail brown
  • brown
    A color consisting of dark orange, red, of very low intensity.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000952
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
wood density
Additional detail 0.5 g/cm^3 Global Wood Density Database  
Additional detail 0.53 g/cm^3 Global Wood Density Database  
  • plant growth habit
    The general growth form of a plant - its size and branching - also its woodiness. Some plants have different growth habits depending on environment or location, so a plant can have more than one value.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/PlantHabit
plant growth habit
Additional detail tree
  • tree
    Perennial, woody plant with a single stem (trunk), normally greater than 4 to 5 meters (13 to 16 feet) in height; under certain environmental conditions, some tree species may develop a multi-stemmed or short growth form (less than 4 meters or 13 feet in height).
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/tree
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
Additional detail tree
  • tree
    Perennial, woody plant with a single stem (trunk), normally greater than 4 to 5 meters (13 to 16 feet) in height; under certain environmental conditions, some tree species may develop a multi-stemmed or short growth form (less than 4 meters or 13 feet in height).
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/tree
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
plant height average
Additional detail 18.67 m adult BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
max Additional detail 12.19 m base age USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
median Additional detail 18.29 m mature USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
shape
Additional detail erect
  • erect
    A positional quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's being upright in position or posture.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000622
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
  • primary growth form
    The primary growth form on the landscape in relation to soil stabilization on slopes and streamsides. Each plant species is assigned the single growth form that most enhances its ability to stabilize soil.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/PrimaryGrowthForm
primary growth form
Additional detail thicket forming
  • thicket forming
    A plant that is likely to develop thickets when planted to stabilize soil.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/thicketForming
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
fruit type
Additional detail dry fruit BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
carbon-to-nitrogen ratio
Additional detail medium (23 – 59)
  • medium (23 – 59)
    The percentage of organic carbon divided by the percentage of total nitrogen in organic material is 23–59.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/mediumCNRatio
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
foliage texture
Additional detail smooth
  • smooth
    A texture quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's processing a surface free of roughness or irregularities.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000701
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  

Ecology

Data about <i>Betula pendula</i>
  • frost free days
    The average number of frost-free days within the plant’s known geographical range. For cultivars, the geographical range is defined as the area to which the cultivar is well adapted rather than marginally adapted.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/FrostFreeDays
frost free days min
Additional detail 90 days USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
  • precipitation tolerance
    Minimum tolerable rainfall (in inches), expressed as the average annual minimum precipitation that occurs 20% of the time (i.e., the probability of it being this dry in any given year is 20%) at the driest climate station within the known geographical range of the plant. geographical range of the plant. For cultivars, the geographical range is defined as the area to which the cultivar is well adapted rather than marginally adapted.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/PrecipitationTolerance
precipitation tolerance min
Additional detail 76.2 cm USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
max Additional detail 1.4 m USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
  • soil depth
    The minimum depth of soil required for good growth. Plants that do not have roots such as rootless aquatic plants (floating or submerged) and epiphytes are assigned a minimum root depth value of zero.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/SoilDepth
soil depth min
Additional detail 60.96 cm USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
  • low temperature tolerance
    The minimum tolerable temperature is the lowest temperature recorded in the plant’s historical range. If this is not available, the record low January temperature recorded at climate stations within the current geographical range of the plant is used. This definition does not apply to summer annuals.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/TemperatureTolerance
low temperature tolerance min
Additional detail -36.1 degrees Celsius USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
habitat
Additional detail arenosol
  • arenosol
    Arenosols are sandy soils, including both soils developed in residual sands after in situ weathering of usually quartz-rich sediments or rock, and soils developed in recently deposited sands such as dunes in deserts and beach lands.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002229
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail canopy Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail clay soil Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail elevation
  • elevation
    A landform elevated above the surrounding area.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000176
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail forest
  • forest
    An area with a high density of trees. A small forest may be called a wood.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000111
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail forest
  • forest
    An area with a high density of trees. A small forest may be called a wood.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000111
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail garden
  • garden
    An enclosure for displaying selected plant or animal life.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000011
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail heath
  • heath
    An upland moor or sandy area dominated by low shrubby vegetation including heather.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000107
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail mount
  • mount
    A mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. Typically formed from volcanoes that rise abruptly and are usually found rising from a seafloor of 1,000 - 4,000 meters depth. Independent features that rise to at least 1,000 meters above the seafloor.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000264
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail mountain
  • mountain
    A landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill, but there is no universally accepted standard definition for the height of a mountain or a hill although a mountain usually has an identifiable summit and a local relief of more than 300m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000081
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail non-marine IRMNG - Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera.  
Additional detail oil
  • oil
    A viscous liquid state at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic and lipophilic.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002985
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail peatland
  • peatland
    A wetland type that accumulates acidic peat, a deposit of dead plant material.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000044
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail scrubland
  • scrubland
    Area covered with low-growing or stunted perennial vegetation and usually not mixed with trees.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000300
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail scrubland
  • scrubland
    Area covered with low-growing or stunted perennial vegetation and usually not mixed with trees.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000300
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail soil
  • soil
    Any material within 2 m from the Earth's surface that is in contact with the atmosphere, with the exclusion of living organisms, areas with continuous ice not covered by other material, and water bodies deeper than 2 m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00001998
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail soil
  • soil
    Any material within 2 m from the Earth's surface that is in contact with the atmosphere, with the exclusion of living organisms, areas with continuous ice not covered by other material, and water bodies deeper than 2 m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00001998
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail temperate Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail terrestrial habitat
  • terrestrial habitat
    A habitat that is on or at the boundary of the surface of the Earth.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002009
IUCN  
Additional detail waste Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail wetland
  • wetland
    An area that is inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000043
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail wood Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail woodland Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail woodland Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail woodland Environments - EOL project  
  • dispersal vector
    A dispersal vector is an agent transporting seeds or other dispersal units. Dispersal vectors may include biotic factors, such as animals, or abiotic factors, such as the wind or the ocean.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/DispersalVector
dispersal vector
Additional detail anemochory
  • anemochory
    Seed dispersal by wind (with wind dispersal adaptations, such as pappus or wings).
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/anemochory
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
Additional detail anemochory
  • anemochory
    Seed dispersal by wind (with wind dispersal adaptations, such as pappus or wings).
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/anemochory
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
  • wetland indicator status (NWPL)
    Five indicator statuses, or ratings, are used in the United States National Wetland Plant List to designate a plant species’ preference for occurrence in a wetland or upland: Upland (UPL), Facultative Upland (FACU), Facultative (FAC), Facultative Wetland (FACW), and Obligate Wetland (OBL). The statuses represent the estimated probability of a species occurring in wetlands versus nonwetlands in a region.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/WetlandIndicatorStatus
wetland indicator status (NWPL)
Additional detail facultative upland
  • facultative upland
    Nonhydrophyte. Usually occur in non-wetlands, but may occur in wetlands.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/nwpl_facu
National Wetland Plant List  
Additional detail facultative upland
  • facultative upland
    Nonhydrophyte. Usually occur in non-wetlands, but may occur in wetlands.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/nwpl_facu
National Wetland Plant List  
  • interacts with
    an organism has an effect on another organism in the community.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/interactsWith
interacts with
Additional detail Alder Scalycap GloBI  
Additional detail Anoplus plantaris GloBI  
Additional detail Betulaphis brevipilosa GloBI  
Additional detail Birch Besom GloBI  
Additional detail Bohemian Truffle GloBI  
Additional detail Calaphis betulicola GloBI  
Additional detail Cryptocephalus frontalis GloBI  
Additional detail Daldinia loculata GloBI  
Additional detail Erysiphe ornata var. europaea GloBI  
Additional detail European Birch Aphid GloBI  
Additional detail Fused Tooth GloBI  
Additional detail Ganoderma Resinaceum GloBI  
Additional detail Hamamelistes betulinus GloBI  
Additional detail Hazel Pot Beetle GloBI  
Additional detail Honey Fungus GloBI  
Additional detail Leptosporomyces fuscostratus GloBI  
Additional detail Oligotrophus skuhravae GloBI  
Additional detail Oligotrophus tarda GloBI  
Additional detail Pale Oyster GloBI  
Additional detail Peniophora polygonia GloBI  
Additional detail Pezicula carnea GloBI  
Additional detail Phyllactinia guttata GloBI  
Additional detail Red Banded Webcap GloBI  
Additional detail Shining Pot Beetle GloBI  
Additional detail Silver Birch Aphid GloBI  
Additional detail Steccherinum ochraceum GloBI  
Additional detail Stinking Earthfan GloBI  
Additional detail Symydobius oblongus GloBI  
  • has parasite
    non-mutual relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/hasParasite
has parasite
Additional detail Erysiphe ornata var. europaea GloBI  
Additional detail Ganoderma Resinaceum GloBI  
Additional detail Phyllactinia guttata GloBI  
  • interacts with
    an organism has an effect on another organism in the community.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/interactsWithreverse
interacts with
Additional detail Anisostephus betulinus GloBI  
Additional detail Anoplus plantaris GloBI  
Additional detail Anoplus plantaris GloBI  
Additional detail Betulaphis brevipilosa GloBI  
Additional detail Birch Besom GloBI  
Additional detail Birch Besom GloBI  
Additional detail Bohemian Truffle GloBI  
Additional detail Bohemian Truffle GloBI  
Additional detail Calaphis betulicola GloBI  
Additional detail Cornucopia Mushroom GloBI  
Additional detail Cryptocephalus frontalis GloBI  
Additional detail Daldinia loculata GloBI  
Additional detail Daldinia loculata GloBI  
Additional detail European Birch Aphid GloBI  
Additional detail European Black Pine GloBI  
Additional detail Fused Tooth GloBI  
Additional detail Fused Tooth GloBI  
Additional detail Fusicladium scribnerianum GloBI  
Additional detail Ganoderma Resinaceum GloBI  
Additional detail Gibberella pulicaris GloBI  
Additional detail Hamamelistes betulinus GloBI  
Additional detail Hazel Pot Beetle GloBI  
Additional detail Hazel Pot Beetle GloBI  
Additional detail Honey Fungus GloBI  
Additional detail Honey Fungus GloBI  
Additional detail Leptosporomyces fuscostratus GloBI  
Additional detail Leptosporomyces fuscostratus GloBI  
Additional detail Olearia Gall Midge GloBI  
Additional detail Oligotrophus skuhravae GloBI  
Additional detail Oligotrophus skuhravae GloBI  
Additional detail Oligotrophus tarda GloBI  
Additional detail Oligotrophus tarda GloBI  
Additional detail Pale Oyster GloBI  
Additional detail Peniophora polygonia GloBI  
Additional detail Peniophora polygonia GloBI  
Additional detail Pezicula carnea GloBI  
Additional detail Pezicula carnea GloBI  
Additional detail Pholiota alnicola GloBI  
Additional detail Phyllactinia guttata GloBI  
Additional detail Red Banded Webcap GloBI  
Additional detail Red Banded Webcap GloBI  
Additional detail Shining Pot Beetle GloBI  
Additional detail Shining Pot Beetle GloBI  
Additional detail Silver Birch GloBI  
Additional detail Silver Birch GloBI  
Additional detail Silver Birch Aphid GloBI  
Additional detail Steccherinum ochraceum GloBI  
Additional detail Steccherinum ochraceum GloBI  
Additional detail Stinking Earthfan GloBI  
Additional detail Stinking Earthfan GloBI  
Additional detail Symydobius oblongus GloBI  
Additional detail Venturia ditricha GloBI  
  • has predator
    is consumed for energetic or other nutritional needs (by another organism)
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/HasPredator
has predator
Additional detail Acantholybas brunneus GloBI  
Additional detail Arge ustulata GloBI  
Additional detail Betulaphis brevipilosa GloBI  
Additional detail Calaphis betulicola GloBI  
Additional detail European Birch Aphid GloBI  
Additional detail European Birch Aphid GloBI  
Additional detail Hamamelistes betulinus GloBI  
Additional detail Hazel Pot Beetle GloBI  
Additional detail Mourning Cloak GloBI  
Additional detail Shining Pot Beetle GloBI  
Additional detail Silver Birch Aphid GloBI  
Additional detail Symydobius oblongus GloBI  
fire resistance
Additional detail is not fire resistant USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
  • allelopathic effect
    This is an assay of any direct or indirect, harmful or beneficial effect of one plant on another through the production of chemical compounds (allelochemicals) that escape in the environment.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/TO_0000624
allelopathic effect
Additional detail no known allelopathy
  • no known allelopathy
    There is no evidence that the organism produces compounds (allelochemicals) that influence the growth, survival, and reproduction of other organisms.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/allelopathyUnknown
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
soil requirements
Additional detail adapted to coarse textured soils
  • adapted to coarse textured soils
    This plan can establish and grow in soil with a coarse textured surface layer. Includes: Sand, Coarse sand, Fine sand, Loamy coarse sand, Loamy fine sand, Loamy very fine sand, Very fine sand, Loamy sand.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/coarseSoilYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail adapted to fine textured soils
  • adapted to fine textured soils
    This plan can establish and grow in soil with a fine textured surface layer. Includes: Sandy clay, Silty clay, Clay.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/fineSoilYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail adapted to medium textured soils
  • adapted to medium textured soils
    This plan can establish and grow in soil with a medium textured surface layer. Includes: Silt, Sandy clay loam, Very fine sandy loam, Silty clay loam, Silt loam, Loam, Fine sandy loam, Sandy loam, Coarse sandy loam.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/mediumSoilYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
anaerobic soil tolerance
Additional detail none USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
drought tolerance
Additional detail low tolerance
  • low tolerance
    decreased tolerance to: A tolerance quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's decreased ability to endure a stimulus.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0002394
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
  • calcareous soil tolerance
    The relative tolerance of the plant to calcareous soil. Calcareous soil is defined as soil containing sufficient free CaCO3 and other carbonates to effervesce visibly or audibly when treated with cold 0.1M HCl. These soils usually contain from 10 to almost 1000g/kg CaCO3 equivalent.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/CalcareousSoilTolerance
calcareous soil tolerance
Additional detail low tolerance
  • low tolerance
    decreased tolerance to: A tolerance quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's decreased ability to endure a stimulus.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0002394
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
moisture use
Additional detail high
  • high
    An elevated level or position or degree; greater than normal in degree or intensity or amount.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C25227
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
salt tolerance
Additional detail low tolerance
  • low tolerance
    decreased tolerance to: A tolerance quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's decreased ability to endure a stimulus.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0002394
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
shade tolerance
Additional detail low tolerance
  • low tolerance
    decreased tolerance to: A tolerance quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's decreased ability to endure a stimulus.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0002394
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
  • germinative response to heat stimuli
    The most intense heat treatment (i.e., seed exposition to dry heat >= 50ºC), of those tested (see Measurement Method), that significantly increases the seed germination response of the plant versus the control. For studies where differences were not statistically tested, the criteria in Paula & Pausas (2008) are used. Three heat intensities are considered: Low (<100ºC for <= 5min), Moderate (<100ºC for > 5min or >= 100ºC for <= 5min), High (>= 100ºC for >5min) or unknown (unk). Note that in many studies, post-treatment seed viability is not considered or not specified in the original reference, and thus it can lead to misinterpretation of treatment effects.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/HeatStimGerm
germinative response to heat stimuli
Additional detail germination unaffected
  • germination unaffected
    Germination is not affected by the treatment, i.e., germination of treated seeds equals the control. In the case of heat treatments, germination is not stimulated after any heat intensity tested, and at least one of the treatments does not affect seed germination.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/germinationUnaffected
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
Additional detail germination unaffected
  • germination unaffected
    Germination is not affected by the treatment, i.e., germination of treated seeds equals the control. In the case of heat treatments, germination is not stimulated after any heat intensity tested, and at least one of the treatments does not affect seed germination.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/germinationUnaffected
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
resprout ability after fire
Additional detail yes BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
germinative response to ash
Additional detail germination unaffected
  • germination unaffected
    Germination is not affected by the treatment, i.e., germination of treated seeds equals the control. In the case of heat treatments, germination is not stimulated after any heat intensity tested, and at least one of the treatments does not affect seed germination.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/germinationUnaffected
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  

Life History and Behavior

Data about <i>Betula pendula</i>
life cycle habit
Additional detail perennial
  • perennial
    Of plant duration, a plant whose life span extends over more than two growing seasons, c.f. annual, biennial, ephemeral, of flowering with respect to architecture, hapaxanthic, monocarpic, pleonanthic
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/perennial
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
shedability
Additional detail deciduous
  • deciduous
    Deciduous (plant): A quality inhering in a plant by virtue of the bearer's disposition to shed foliage.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0001731
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
bloom period
Additional detail mid spring
  • mid spring
    The mid part of the season between the vernal equinox and the summer solstice.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/midSpring
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
active growth period
Additional detail spring and summer USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
age at maturity average
Additional detail 5 BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
growth rate
Additional detail fast USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
life span
Additional detail low life span
  • low life span
    Decreased life span: A life span which is relatively low.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0001604
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
grass growth type
Additional detail not a low growing grass
  • not a low growing grass
    The growing point (terminal meristem) of the vegetative grass tiller does not remain at or near the crown.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/lowGrowingGrassNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
resprout ability after clipping
Additional detail will resprout
  • will resprout
    The plant will resprout following top (above ground biomass) removal.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/ResproutYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
germination requirements
Additional detail cold stratification not required
  • cold stratification not required
    Cold stratification does not significantly increasesthe seed germination percentage of this plant.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/coldStratificationNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
fruit/seed abundance
Additional detail medium
  • medium
    Mid-way between small and large in number, quantity, magnitude or extent.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C49507
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
seed period end
Additional detail summer
  • summer
    The season between the summer solstice and the autumnal equinox.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C94732
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
seed period begin
Additional detail summer
  • summer
    The season between the summer solstice and the autumnal equinox.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C94732
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
fruit/seed persistence
Additional detail fruit/seed is not persistent
  • fruit/seed is not persistent
    The fruit or seed is not persistent on the plant.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/fruitPersistentNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
seeds per pound average
Additional detail 2,400,000 USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
seed spread rate
Additional detail slow USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
seedling survival
Additional detail medium
  • medium
    Mid-way between small and large in number, quantity, magnitude or extent.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C49507
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
vegetative spread rate
Additional detail none USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
seed mass average
Additional detail 0.17 mg BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  
propagule
Additional detail fruit
  • fruit
    A multi-tissue plant structure (PO:0025496) that develops from a gynoecium (PO:0009062) and may have as parts one or more seeds (PO:0009010).
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PO_0009001
BROT: plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species  

Physiology and Cell Biology

Data about <i>Betula pendula</i>
  • soil pH
    The soil pH, of the top 12 inches of soil, within the plant’s known geographical range. For cultivars, the geographical range is defined as the area to which the cultivar is well adapted rather than marginally adapted.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/SoilPH
soil pH min
Additional detail 5 USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
max Additional detail 7.5 USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
  • nitrogen fixation
    The process in which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds useful for other chemical processes, such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/GO_0009399
nitrogen fixation
Additional detail none USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
primary macronutrient requirements
Additional detail medium
  • medium
    Mid-way between small and large in number, quantity, magnitude or extent.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C49507
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  

Conservation

Data about <i>Betula pendula</i>
population trend
Additional detail Decreasing IUCN  
conservation status
Additional detail endangered
  • endangered
    A taxon is Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Endangered, and it is therefore considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/endangered
IUCN  
extinction status
Additional detail extant IRMNG - Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera.  

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Data about <i>Betula pendula</i>
livestock bloat potential
Additional detail none USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
horticulture
Additional detail flower is conspicuous
  • flower is conspicuous
    Flowers are conspicuous from a landscaping aesthetics standpoint.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/flowerConspicuousYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail fruit/seed is not conspicuous
  • fruit/seed is not conspicuous
    The fruit or seed is not conspicuous from a landscaping aesthetics standpoint.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/fruitSeedConspicuousNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail is fall conspicuous
  • is fall conspicuous
    The leaves or fruits are conspicuous during Autumn from a landscaping aesthetics standpoint.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/fallConspicuousYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail not suitable for the coppice method of silviculture
  • not suitable for the coppice method of silviculture
    The plant is not suitable for the coppice method of silviculture. Coppicing completely removes the canopy of woody plants, cutting them at or just above ground level.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/coppicePotentialNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
  • foliage porosity winter
    Indicates the porosity (coverage) of the foliage during the winter months. Foliage porosity is an important factor when trees or shrubs are used as windbreaks for the protection of crops and livestock shelters. Denser (or less porous) foliage allows more wind to pass through.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/FoliagePorosityWinter
foliage porosity winter
Additional detail porous
  • porous
    A porosity quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's being capable of admitting the passage of gas or liquid through pores or interstices.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000984
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
  • foliage porosity summer
    Indicates the porosity (coverage) of the foliage during the summer months. Foliage porosity is an important factor when trees or shrubs are used as windbreaks for the protection of crops and livestock shelters. Denser (or less porous) foliage allows more wind to pass through.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/FoliagePorositySummer
foliage porosity summer
Additional detail moderately porous
  • moderately porous
    A porosity quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's being incapable of admitting the passage of gas or liquid through pores or interstices.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/moderatePorosity
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
human/livestock toxicity
Additional detail none USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
hedge tolerance
Additional detail low tolerance
  • low tolerance
    decreased tolerance to: A tolerance quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's decreased ability to endure a stimulus.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0002394
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
planting density min
Additional detail 300 per acre USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
max Additional detail 700 per acre USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
commercial availability
Additional detail routinely available
  • routinely available
    The plant is routinely available commercially.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/routinelyAvailable
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
plant propagation method
Additional detail not propogated by bulbs
  • not propogated by bulbs
    It is not practical to propagate this plant as bulbs.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedByBulbsNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail not propogated by corms
  • not propogated by corms
    It is not practical to propagate this plant as corms.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedByCormsNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail not propogated by sod
  • not propogated by sod
    This plant does not lend itself to being developed as a sod product.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedBySodNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail not propogated by sprigs
  • not propogated by sprigs
    It is not practical to propagate this plant by sprigs.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedBySprigsNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail not propogated by tubers
  • not propogated by tubers
    It is not practical to propagate this plant by tubers.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedByTubersNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail propogated by bare root
  • propogated by bare root
    It is practical to propagate this plant as a bare root product.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedByBareRootYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail propogated by container
  • propogated by container
    This plant lends itself to being developed as a container product.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedByContainerYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail propogated by cuttings
  • propogated by cuttings
    It is practical to propagate this plant as either stem or root cuttings.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedByCuttingsYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail propogated by seed
  • propogated by seed
    It is practical to propagate this plant by seed.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedBySeedYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
grain type
Additional detail is not a small grain
  • is not a small grain
    The plant is not a small grain. A small grain is a cereal (as wheat, oats, barley, rye, rice) having relatively small kernels or sometimes a relatively small plant as distinguished from a plant (as corn) with large kernels or sometimes from a cereal (as sorghum) with a large plant but small kernels or from a similarly cultured and used seed (as soybean) with a relatively small plant and large seeds.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/smallGrainNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
uses
Additional detail no berries, nuts, seeds, or fruits palatable to humans
  • no berries, nuts, seeds, or fruits palatable to humans
    The plant does not produce berries, nuts, seeds, or fruits that are palatable to humans.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/palatableHumansNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail not suitable as berry/nut/seed product
  • not suitable as berry/nut/seed product
    This woody perennial is not suitable for the commercial production of either berries, nuts, or seeds. Herbaceous plants are scored "not suitable” here by default.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/berryNutSeedNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail not suitable as Christmas tree product
  • not suitable as Christmas tree product
    The plant is not known to be suitable for the Christmas tree market.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/christmasTreeNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail not suitable as lumber product
  • not suitable as lumber product
    The plant is not suitable, and has no potential, for use as a commercial lumber producer.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/lumberNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail not suitable as post product
  • not suitable as post product
    The tree or shrub is not commonly used and does not have high potential for the production of posts, poles, mine timbers, or railroad ties. Plants other than trees and shrubs are scored “not suitable” here by default.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/postProductNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail not suitable as pulpwood product
  • not suitable as pulpwood product
    The woody perennial is not commonly used and does not have high potential to be used for the production of pulpwood. Herbaceous plants are scored "not suitable" here by default.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/pulpwoodNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail not suitable as veneer product
  • not suitable as veneer product
    The tree is not commonly used and does not have high potential to be used for commercial veneer or plywood. Plants other than trees are scored “not suitable” here by default.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/veneerNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail not suitable for naval store products
  • not suitable for naval store products
    This woody perennial is not suitable for production of naval store products. Navel Store Products are defined as tar, pitch, turpentine, pine oil, rosin, and terpenes obtained from pine and other coniferous trees. Herbaceous plants are scored "not suitable” here by default.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/navalStoreNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail not used as fodder product
  • not used as fodder product
    The plant is not known to be used as animal fodder material. The definition of fodder from the Crop Science Society of America is: Coarse grasses such as corn or sorghum harvested with the seed and leaves green or alive, then cured and fed in their entirety as forage.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/fodderNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail suitable as nursery stock product
  • suitable as nursery stock product
    This plant is suitable for production of nursery stock.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/nurseryStockYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
  • fuelwood suitability
    The relative suitability or potential of a tree or shrub to produce fuelwood. If suitability is unknown, fuelwood potential is expressed in terms of weight (in lbs) per cubic foot of green wood. Relative values correspond to these numerical ranges: Low: <28; Medium: 28-35; High: >35. Plants other than trees and shrubs are left blank here.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/FuelwoodSuitability
fuelwood suitability
Additional detail medium
  • medium
    Mid-way between small and large in number, quantity, magnitude or extent.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C49507
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
browse animal palatability
Additional detail low
  • low
    A minimum level or position or degree; less than normal in degree, intensity or amount.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C54722
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
graze animal palatability
Additional detail medium
  • medium
    Mid-way between small and large in number, quantity, magnitude or extent.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C49507
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  

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