Parmotrema perforatum (Wulfen) A. Massal. 1860 — Overview

Perforated Parmotrema Lichen learn more about names for this taxon

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 Thallus: foliose, loosely adnate, 3-15 cm in diam., lobate; lobes: subirregular, elongate, slightly imbricate, plane, separate, 10-20 mm wide, margin becoming lacerate to lacinate with age; apices: rotund, ciliate; cilia: up to 4 mm wide; upper surface: gray with some blackened areas, smooth to rugulose, shiny, epruinose, strongly white maculate, becoming reticulately cracked with age; soredia, isidia and pustulae: absent; medulla: white with continuous algal layer; lower surface: black with brown with a mottled ivory (rarely tan) naked zone peripherally, centrally rhizinate; rhizines: scattered, simple; Apothecia: common, substipitate, up to 20 mm in diam.; margin: rugose, white maculate; disc: brown, perforate; ascospores: broadly ellipsoid, 12-16 x 7-9 µm; Pycnidia: not seen; Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K+ yellow turning orange, C-, KC-, P+ orange; Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with norstictic acid (major) and connorstictic acid (minor).; Substrate and ecology: usually on trees in open habitats, rarely on rocks; World distribution: Mexico, eastern USA, southern Africa and Ireland; Sonoran distribution: Sierra Madre Occidental region of Chihuahua. 


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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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