The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


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  • 15. Hodges, John D.; Switzer, George L. 1979. Some aspects of the ecology of southern bottomland hardwoods. In: North America's forests: gateway to opportunity: Proceedings, 1978 joint convention of the Society of American Foresters and the Canadian Institute of Forestry. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters: 360-365. [10028]
  • 17. Hupp, Cliff R. 1992. Riparian vegetation recovery patterns following stream channelization: a geomorphic perspective. Ecology. 73(4): 1209-1226. [19499]
  • 18. Jones, Robert H.; Sharitz, Rebecca R. 1991. Dynamics of advance regeneration in four South Carolina bottomland hardwood forests. In: Coleman, Sandra S.; Neary, Daniel G., compilers. Proceedings, 6th biennial southern silvicultural research conference: Vol. II; 1990 October 30 - November 1; Memphis, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-70. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 567-578. [17501]
  • 19. Krochmal, Arnold; Krochmal, Connie. 1982. Uncultivated nuts of the United States. Agriculture Information Bulletin 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 89 p. [1377]
  • 2. Bowling, Dale R.; Kellison, R. C. 1983. Bottomland hardwood stand development following clearcutting. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 7: 110-116. [23165]
  • 21. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376]
  • 22. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 23. Marquis, David A.; Johnson, Robert L. 1989. Silviculture of eastern hardwoods. In: Burns, Russell M., compiler. The scientific basis for silvicultural and management decisions in the National Forest System. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-55. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 9-15. [10242]
  • 24. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 500 p. [4021]
  • 25. Matlack, Glenn R. 1987. Diaspore size, shape, and fall behavior in wind-dispersed plant species. American Journal of Botany. 74(8): 1150-1160. [28]
  • 26. McGee, Charles E. 1980. The effect of fire on species dominance in young upland hardwood stands. In: Proceedings, mid-south upland hardwood symposium for the practicing forester and land manager; [Date of conference unknown]
  • 27. Metzger, F. T. 1990. Carpinus caroliniana Walt. American hornbeam. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 179-185. [21818]
  • 28. Moorhead, David J.; Hodges, John D.; Reinecke, Kenneth J. 1991. Silvicultural options for waterfowl management in bottomland hardwood stands and greentree reservoirs. In: Coleman, Sandra S.; Neary, Daniel G., compilers. Proceedings, 6th biennial southern silvicultural research conference: Volume 2; 1990 October 30 - November 1; Memphis, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-70. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 710-721. [17507]
  • 29. Oosting, Henry J. 1944. The comparative effect of surface and crown fire on the composition of a loblolly pine community. Ecology. 25(1): 61-69. [9919]
  • 3. Apsley, David K.; Leopold, Donald J.; Parker, George R. 1985. Tree species response to release from domestic livestock grazing. Proceedings, Indiana Academy of Science. 94: 215-226. [23164]
  • 30. Platt, William J.; Schwartz, Mark W. 1990. Temperate hardwood forests. In: Myers, Ronald L.; Ewel, John J., eds. Ecosystems of Florida. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida Press: 194-229. [17390]
  • 32. Rudolf, Paul O.; Phipps, Howard. 1974. Carpinus L. horbeam. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 266-268. [7570]
  • 33. Shankman, David. 1990. Forest regeneration on abandoned agricultural fields in western Tennessee. Southeastern Geographer. 30(1): 36-47. [17640]
  • 34. Silker, T. H. 1961. Prescribed burning to control undesirable hardwoods in southern pine stands. Bulletin No. 51. Kirbyville, TX: Texas Forest Service. 44 p. [16898]
  • 36. Streng, Donna R.; Glitzenstein, Jeff S.; Harcombe, P. A. 1989. Woody seedling dynamics in an east Texas floodplain forest. Ecological Monographs. 59(2): 177-204. [6894]
  • 38. Vaitkus, Milda R.; Ciravolo, Thomas G.; McLeod, Kenneth W.; [and others]
  • 39. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 4. Brown, Russell G.; Brown, Melvin L. 1972. Woody plants of Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Port City Press. 347 p. [21844]
  • 40. Ward, Jeffrey S. 1992. Response of woody regeneration to thinning mature upland oak stands in Connecticut, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 49(3-4): 219-231. [19264]
  • 41. Hook, D. D. 1984. Waterlogging tolerance of lowland tree species of the South. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 8: 136-149. [19808]
  • 42. May, Dennis M. 1990. Big trees of the midsouth forest survey. Res. Note SO-359. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 17 p. [10556]
  • 5. Curtis, J. T.; McIntosh, R. P. 1951. An upland forest continuum in the prairie-forest border region of Wisconsin. Ecology. 32: 476-496. [6927]
  • 6. Donohoe, Robert W. 1974. American hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana Walt. In: Gill, John D.; Healy, William M., eds. Shrubs and vines for northeastern wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-9. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 86-88. [13714]
  • 7. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • 8. Ewel, Katherine C. 1990. Swamps. In: Myers, Ronald L.; Ewel, John J., eds. Ecosystems of Florida. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida Press: 281-322. [17392]
  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. External link.
  • González-Villarreal, L.M. 2000. La familia Betulaceae en el Estado de Jalisco. Universidad de Guadalajara. 8. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2013). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Oct 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication., version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Nee, M. 1981. Betulaceae. INIREB. (20). Xalapa, Veracruz, México.
  • Walter. 1788. In: Fl. Carol. : 236
    1. Bailey, Robert A. 1960. Summer frosts: a factor in plant  range and timber succession. Wisconsin Academy Review of  Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Fall  1960:153- 156.
    3. Bard, G. E. 1946. The mineral nutrient content of the  foliage of forest trees on three soil types of varying  limestone content. Soil Science Society of America  Proceedings 10:419-422.
    5. Barnes, Burton V. 1976. Succession in deciduous swamp  communities of southeastern Michigan formerly dominated by  American elm. Canadian Journal of Botany 54:19-24.
    7. Beals, Edward H., and James B. Cope. 1964. Vegetation and  soils in an eastern Indiana woods. Ecology 45:777-792.
    9. Beschel, R. E., P. J. Webber, and R. Tippett. 1962. Woodland  transects of the Frontenac Axis region, Ontario. Ecology  43:386-396.
    11. Blair, Robert M., and Louis E. Brunett. 1976.  Phytosociological changes after timber harvest in a southern  pine ecosystem. Ecology 57:18-32.
    13. Bramble, W. C., and M. K. Goddard. 1953. Seasonal browsing  of woody plants by white-tailed deer in the ridge and valley  section of central Pennsylvania. Journal of Forestry  51:815-819.
    15. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Ohio State  University Press, Columbus. 362 p.
    17. Bretzloff, L. V., and N. E. Pellett. 1979. Effect of  stratification and gibberellic acid on the germination of  Carpinus caroliniana Walt. HortScience 14:621-622. 
    19. Brown, James H., Jr. 1960. The role of fire in altering the  species composition of forests in Rhode Island. Ecology  41:310-316.
    21. Buell, Murray F., Arthur N. Langford, Donald W. Davidson,  and Lewis F. Ohmann. 1966. The upland forest continuum in  northern New Jersey. Ecology 47:416-432.
    23. Cain, Stanley A. 1935. Studies on virgin hardwood forest:  111. Warren's Woods, a beech-maple climax forest in Berrien  County, Michigan. Ecology 16:500-513.
    25. Caplenor, Donald. 1968. Forest composition on loessial and  non-loessial soils in west-central Mississippi. Ecology  49:322-331.
    27. Chambless, L. F., and E. S. Nixon. 1975. Woody  vegetation-soil relations in a bottomland forest of east  Texas. Texas Journal of Science 26:407-416.
    29. Colvin, Walter S., and Walter S. Eisenmenger. 1943.  Relationships of natural vegetation to the water-holding  capacity of soils of New England. Soil Science 55:433-446. 
    31. Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin.  University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 657 p.
    33. Delcourt, Hazel R., and Paul A. Delcourt. 1977.  Presettlement magnolia-beech climax of the Gulf Coastal  Plain: quantitative evidence from the Appalachicola River  bluffs, north-central Florida. Ecology 58:1085-1093.
    35. Donohoe, Robert W. 1974. American hornbeam. In Shrubs  and vines for northeastern wildlife. p. 86-88. John D. Gill,  and William M. Healy, comp. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report NE-9. Northeastern Forest Experiment  Station, Upper Darby, PA.
    37. Dunn, Christopher P., and Marion T. Jackson. 1978.  Phytosociological and ordination analyses of the tree  stratum of the beech-maple forest type. In Proceedings,  Second Central Hardwood Forest Conference. p. 2-21.
    39. Egler, F. E. 1940. Berkshire plateau vegetation,  Massachusetts. Ecological Monographs 10: 145-192.
    41. Enterline, David M., and Irwin A. Ungar. 1971. A  phytosociological comparison of a thirty-seven year old and  a mature hardwood stand. Castanea 36:123-137.
    43. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    45. Golden, Michael S. 1979. Forest vegetation of the lower  Alabama Piedmont. Ecology 60:770-782.
    47. Hall, T. F., and G. E. Smith. 1955. Effects of flooding on  woody plants, West Sandy Dewatering Project, Kentucky  Reservoir. Journal of Forestry 53:281-285.
    49. Halls, Lowell K., ed. 1977. Southern fruit-producing woody  plants used by wildlife. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report SO-16. Southern Forest Experiment Station,  New Orleans, IA. 235 p.
    51. Hanks, Jess Paul. 1971. Secondary succession and soils on  the inner coastal plain of New Jersey. Bulletin of the  Torrey Botanical Club 98:315-321.
    53. Harcombe, P. A., and P. L. Marks. 1978. Tree diameter  distributions and replacement processes in southeast Texas  forests. Forest Science 24:153-166.
    55. Harlow, Richard F., Paul A. Shrauder, and Monte E. Seehorn.  1975. Deer browse resources of the Chattahoochee National  Forest. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper SE-136.  Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, NC. 16 p. 
    57. Hartman, Kay. 1970. American Forestry Association national  register of big trees. American Forests 88(4):17-48.
    59. Johnson, Robert L. 1970. Renewing hardwood stands on  bottomlands and loess. In Silviculture and management of  southern hardwoods. p. 113-121. Thomas Hansbrough, ed.  Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge.
    61. Johnson, R. L., and R. M. Krinard. 1976. Hardwood  regeneration after seed tree cutting. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper SO-123. Southern Forest Experiment Station,  New Orleans, IA. 9 p.
    63. Kurmis, Vilis, Alvin Fedkenheuer, Myron Grafstrom, and  Richard A. Hesse. 1970. Tree reproduction and shrubs in  relation to stand and site conditions in St. Croix State  Park, Minnesota. Minnesota Forestry Research Notes 217.  University of Minnesota School of Forestry, St. Paul. 4 p. 
    65. Lewin, David C. 1974. The vegetation of the ravines of the  southern Finger Lakes, New York region. American Midland  Naturalist 91:315-342.
    67. Lutz, Harold J. 1928. Trends and silvicultural significance  of upland forest successions in southern New England. Yale  University School of Forestry, Bulletin 22. New Haven, CT.  68 p.
    69. Maycock, Paul F. 1963. The photosociology of the deciduous  forests of extreme southern Ontario. Canadian Journal of  Botany 41:379-438.
    71. Monk, Carl D. 1965. Southern mixed hardwood forest of  north-central Florida. Ecological Monographs 35(4):335-354. 
    73. Monk, Carl D. 1966. An ecological study of hardwood swamps  in north-central Florida. Ecology 47:649-654.
    75. Nixon, C. M., and J. Ely. 1969. Foods eaten by a beaver  colony in southeast Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science  69:313-319.
    77. Nixon, Elroy S., and J. A. Raines. 1976. Woody creekside  vegetation of Nacogdoches County, Texas. Texas Journal of  Science 27:443-452.
    79. Nixon, Elroy S., R. Larry Willett, and Paul W. Cox. 1977.  Woody vegetation of a virgin forest in an eastern Texas  river bottom. Castanea 42:227-236.
    81. Oosting, Henry J. 1942. An ecological analysis of the plant  communities of Piedmont, North Carolina. The American  Midland Naturalist 28:1-126.
    83. Oosting, Henry J. 1944. The comparative effect of surface  and crown fire on the composition of a loblolly pine  community. Ecology 25:61-69.
    85. Peevy, Fred A. 1972. Injection treatments for controlling  resistant hardwood species. In Proceedings, Twenty-fifth  Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society. p. 252-256. 
    87. Peevy, Fred A. 1972. Injection treatments for killing  bottom-land hardwoods. Weed Science 20:566-568.
    89. Putnam, John A., George M. Furnival, and J. S. McKnight.  1960. Management and inventory of southern hardwoods. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 181.  Washington, DC. 102 p.
    91. Quarterman, Elsie, and Catherine Keever. 1962. Southern  mixed hardwood forest: climax in the southeastern Coastal  Plain, U.S.A. Ecological Monographs 32:167-185.
    93. Ripley, Thomas H. 1962. Tree and shrub response to  recreation use. USDA Forest Service, Research Note 171.  Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, NC. 2 p. 
    95. Rudolph, Paul 0., and Howard Phipps. 1974. Carpinus L.  Hornbeam. In Seeds of woody plants in the United States. p.  266-268. C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    97. Schmalzer, P. A., C. R. Hinkle, and H. R. de Selm. 1978.  Discriminant analysis of cove forests of the Cumberland  Plateau of Tennessee. In Proceedings, Second Central  Hardwood Forest Conference. p. 62-86.
    99. Skeen, J. N. 1973. A quantitative assessment of forest  composition in an east Tennessee mesic slope forest.  Castanea 38:322-327.
    101. Smalley, Glendon W. 1980. Classification and evaluation of  forested sites on the Western Highland Rim and Pennyroyal.  USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report SO-30.  Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA. 120 p. 
    103. Smith, H. Clay, and George R. Trimble, Jr. 1970. Mistblowing  a hardwood understory in West Virginia with "D-T"  herbicide. USDA Forest Service, Research Note NE-115.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 6  p.
    105. Stephens, George R., and Paul E. Waggoner. 1980. A half  century of natural transitions in mixed hardwood forests.  Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 783.  New Haven. 43 p.
    107. Titus, Gerald R. 1940. So-called 2-year seeds germinated  first year. American Nurseryman 72(11):22.
    109. Wardell, Gordon 1. 1976. Autecological and populational  investigations of Carpinus caroliniana Walt. Thesis  (M.S.), Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green. 31 p. 
    111. Wardell, Gordon I., and Joe E. Winstead. 1978. Population  differences in bud bursting of Carpinus caroliniana Walt.  Transactions Kentucky Academy of Science 39:127-130.
    113. Wells, Carol, Dennis Whigham, and Helmut Lieth. 1972.  Investigation of mineral nutrient cycling in upland Piedmont  forest. Journal Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 8:66-78. 
    115. Wells, P. V. 1976. A climax index for broadleaf forest: an  n-dimensional, ecomorphological. model of  succession. In Proceedings, First Central Hardwood Forest  Conference. p. 131-176.
    117. Whittaker, R. H. 1956. Vegetation of the Great Smoky  Mountains. Ecological Monographs 26:1-80.
    119. Wigginton, Brooks E. 1963. Trees and shrubs for the  southeast. University of Georgia Press, Athens. 280 p.
    121. Wilm, H. G. 1936. The relation of successional development  to the silviculture of forest burn communities in southern  New York. Ecology 17:283-291.
    123. Winstead, Joe E., Burton J. Smith, and Gordon I. Wardell.  1977. Fruit weight clines in populations of ash, ironwood,  cherry, dogwood, and maple. Castanea 42:56-60.
    125. Woodworth, Robert H. 1931. Polyploidy in Betulaceace.  Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 12:206-217.


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