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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Large deciduous tree to 30 m. Leaves 10-25 cm, oblong-lanceolate; margin serrate-dentate with aristate teeth; glabrous above, pubescent beneath, also becoming glabrous. Catkins 12-20 cm, with conspicuous white anthers; male flowers numerous; female few. Fruit 2-3.5 cm, brown, shiny. Cupule green, bearing dense branched spines.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Derivation of specific name

sativa: cultivated, not wild
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, High Altitudes, Cultivated, Native of Malaysian Region"
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© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Native from the Mediterranean to the Caucasus; widely planted and naturalised elsewhere.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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"Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Nilgiri"
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© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

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Distribution: Europe, Turkey, N. Africa, Himalayas, China and Japan.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Tree up to 15 m tall. Young shoots tomentose. Leaves elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, 14-22.5 x 5-9 cm, nerves 11-14 pairs, rarely more, prominent on the under surface, ending in serrations at the margin, coriaceous, glabrous, acuminate, pale green and puberulous on the under surfaces; leaf-base often oblique. Male spikes 14-19 cm long, lax, pubescent. Female flowers solitary or in clusters of 3. Nut enclosed in a dense spiny involucre.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

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Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
effuse colony of Acrospeira dematiaceous anamorph of Acrospeira mirabilis infects and damages fruit of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Amanita virosa is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Anavirga dematiaceous anamorph of Anavirga laxa is saprobic on decaying cupule spine of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, clypeate perithecium of Apiosporopsis carpinea is saprobic on overwintered, dead leaf of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
subiculate apothecium of Arachnopeziza aranea is saprobic on decaying cupule (inner surface) of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / saprobe
subiculate apothecium of Arachnopeziza eriobasis is saprobic on dead leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 7-10
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / resting place / among
nymph of Aradus aterrimus may be found among wood-chips of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Castanea sativa

Foodplant / roller
larva of Attelabus nitens rolls leaf of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Betulina fuscostipitata is saprobic on cupule of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 7-10

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent through bark stroma of Biscogniauxia mediterranea is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 3

Foodplant / saprobe
punctiform or effuse colony of Bispora dematiaceous anamorph of Bispora betulina is saprobic on dead wood of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Bjerkandera fumosa is saprobic on decayed wood of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus calopus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus legaliae is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus luridiformis is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus luridiformis var. luridiformis is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus luridus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus regius is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus reticulatus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
sclerotium of Botryotinia fuckeliana is saprobic on inside cupule of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium bloxamii is saprobic on rotten bark of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium britannicum is saprobic on rotten wood of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium masonii is saprobic on rotten wood of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium nigrum is saprobic on rotten wood of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Bulgaria inquinans is saprobic on fallen branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 10-4
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Byssocorticium efibulatum is saprobic on decayed, fallen wood of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Calocera pallidospathulata is saprobic on decayed wood of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Candelabrum anamorph of Candelabrum spinulosum is saprobic on decaying cupule of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Ceratosporella dematiaceous anamorph of Ceratosporella stipitata is saprobic on dead branch of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Ceriporia excelsa is saprobic on large, decayed, fallen trunk of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Ceriporia metamorphosa is saprobic on decayed wood of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Ceriporiopsis gilvescens is saprobic on decayed wood of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Codinaea anamorph of Chaetosphaeria callimorpha is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 10-5
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Catenularia dematiaceous anamorph of Chaetosphaeria innumera is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Chaetosphaeria myriocarpa is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Menispora dematiaceous anamorph of Chaetosphaeria pulviscula is saprobic on dead, often rotten wood of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 10-4

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara is saprobic on decaying cupule of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara aurea is saprobic on old cupule of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara cylindrica is saprobic on old cupule of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
long-stalked apothecium of Ciboria americana is saprobic on old fallen fruit of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / saprobe
sclerotioid apothecium of Ciborinia hirtella is saprobic on dead leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 3-6
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
embedded apothecium of Coccomyces dentatus is saprobic on dead leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 11-4
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
fruitbody of Collybia fusipes infects and damages live root of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza
fruitbody of Coltricia perennis is mycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed or partly immersed pycnidium of Coniella coelomycetous anamorph of Coniella castaneicola is saprobic on dead leaf of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Cordana dematiaceous anamorph of Cordana pauciseptata is saprobic on dead wood of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius cinnamomeoluteus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius delibutus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius infractus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius lucorum is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius pearsonii is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius semisanguineus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius stillatitius is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Plant / associate
superficial, scattered or gregarious perithecium of Cosmospora wegeliniana is associated with Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 2

Foodplant / saprobe
short-stalked apothecium of Crocicreas subhyalinum is saprobic on dead leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 10-11

Foodplant / pathogen
Cryptodiaporthe castanea infects and damages live, cankered branch of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Cylindrium anamorph of Cylindrium aeruginosum is saprobic on newly dead leaf of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / feeds on
erumpent, wart-like, surrounded by torn peridium, pseudolocellate stroma of Cytodiplospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytodiplospora castaneae feeds on Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
densely scattered, covered then erumpent stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora ceratophora is saprobic on dead bark of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
bracket of Daedalea quercina is saprobic on hard, barely decayed wood of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
bracket of Daedaleopsis confragosa is saprobic on dead wood of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Haplographium dematiaceous anamorph of Dematioscypha dematiicola is saprobic on dead branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, immersed perithecium of Diatrype stigma is saprobic on dead, decorticate or with bark rolling back branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Dictyosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Dictyosporium toruloides is saprobic on rotten wood of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / feeds on
subcutaneous pycnidium of Diplodina coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodina castaneae feeds on bark (young shoot) of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
hypophyllous apothecium of Discohainesia oenotherae is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 9-10

Foodplant / saprobe
amphigenous conidioma of Discosia coelomycetous anamorph of Discosia artocreas is saprobic on dead leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 10-4

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, becoming slightly erumpent through small slits pseudothecium of Discosphaerina fagi is saprobic on dead leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / saprobe
solitary, erumpent pseudothecium of Dothidotthia celtidis is saprobic on dead branch of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Dryocoetinus villosus feeds within cambium of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza
fruitbody of Elaphomyces granulatus is mycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Endophragmiella dematiaceous anamorph of Endophragmiella biseptata is saprobic on fallen twig of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Endophragmiella dematiaceous anamorph of Endophragmiella ovoidea is saprobic on dead wood of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 9-4

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Entoloma euchroum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe alphitoides parasitises Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stroma of Eutypa maura is saprobic on dead branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 3-4
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
mycelium of Fistulina hepatica parasitises moribund wood of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Flammulaster granulosus is associated with Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes is saprobic on dead wood of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
pulvinate or conical, erumpent, reddish-brown stroma of Fusicoccum coelomycetous anamorph of Fusicoccum castaneum is saprobic on dead twig of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 5-10

Foodplant / saprobe
pulvinate, 0.5-1mm wide, scattered or subgregarious, placed longidudinally on the twig with only the flat oval disc protruding through the epidermis, blackish olive stroma of Fusicoccum coelomycetous anamorph of Fusicoccum cinctum is saprobic on dead twig (bark) of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 9-10

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Fusidium anamorph of Fusidium griseum is saprobic on dead leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 11-1
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Gloiothele lactescens is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Gorgoniceps charnwoodensis is saprobic on old, fallen cupule of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Graddonidiscus coruscatus is saprobic on dead leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 10-12
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Grifola frondosa parasitises live root of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Gyroporus castaneus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Gyroporus cyanescens is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hapalopilus nidulans is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Hebeloma aestivale is associated with Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
short stalked apothecium of Hyalopeziza spinicola is saprobic on dead cupule spine of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 11

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Clathrosphaerina anamorph of Hyaloscypha zalewskii is saprobic on cupule spine of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hydnellum concrescens is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hydnellum scrobiculatum is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hydnellum spongiosipes is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Hydnum repandum is associated with Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hymenochaete rubiginosa is saprobic on dead, large, hard, decorticate log of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
hypogeous fruitbody of Hymenogaster vulgaris is associated with Castanea sativa
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Hymenoscyphus calyculus is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 6-12

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Hymenoscyphus caudatus is saprobic on decaying petiole of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 6-12

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile or subsessile apothecium of Hymenoscyphus epiphyllus is saprobic on litter of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Hymenoscyphus humuli is saprobic on dead, fallen cupule (stalk) of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 11

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Hymenoscyphus phyllogenus is saprobic on litter of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 10-11

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial stroma of Hypocrea argillacea is saprobic on rotten wood of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 10-3

Foodplant / saprobe
Geniculosporium anamorph of Hypoxylon howeanum is saprobic on dead branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 1-4
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Incrucipulum ciliare is saprobic on leaf-litter of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 7-10

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe obscurobadia is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe xanthomelas is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
caespitose fruitbody of Kuehneromyces mutabilis is saprobic on decayed, dead stump (large) of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Lachnum castaneicola is saprobic on decaying cupule (spine) of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 10-12

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Laetiporus sulphureus parasitises trunk of old tree of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Lanzia echinophila is saprobic on old fallen, locally blackened cupule of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 10-11

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Leccinum aurantiacum is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leucoagaricus georginae is saprobic on dead, decayed leaf of litter of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
epigeous fruitbody of Melanogaster ambiguus is saprobic on Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Chloridium dematiaceous anamorph of Melanopsammella preussii is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 11-5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Menispora dematiaceous anamorph of Menispora britannica is saprobic on cupule of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Meripilus giganteus is saprobic on dead trunk (large) of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
amphigenous thyriothecium of Microthyrium ilicinum is saprobic on dead, fallen, rotting, greyed leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 4-10

Foodplant / saprobe
mostly epiphyllous thyriothecium of Microthyrium microscopicum is saprobic on dead, fallen, rotting leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia cinerea is saprobic on dead wood of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia cinerella is saprobic on dead, decorticate wood of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 1-8

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia ligni is saprobic on dead branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, sessile apothecium of Mollisia nervicola is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 5-7

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia ramealis is saprobic on dead branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 5-12
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
clustered fruitbody of Mycena inclinata is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena maculata is saprobic on dead, decaying stump of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hypophyllous pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Mycosphaerella punctiformis is saprobic on dead leaf of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
partly immersed, weakly stromatic perithecium of Nemania confluens is saprobic on dead branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 10-4
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Geniculosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Nemania serpens is saprobic on dead branch of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
Oidiodendron dematiaceous anamorph of Oidiodendron tenuissimum is saprobic on bark of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Omphalotus illudens is saprobic on dead, decayed, fallen trunk of Castanea sativa
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Orbilia vinosa is saprobic on wood of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Pachytodes cerambyciformis feeds on exposed root of fallen of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Paxillus involutus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora reidii is saprobic on dead, attached branch of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Perenniporia medulla-panis is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Pezizella roburnea is saprobic on dead leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 9-2
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Phaeohelotium flexuosum is saprobic on cupule of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 10-7

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Phaeostalagmus dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeostalagmus cyclosporus is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Phaeostalagmus dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeostalagmus peregrinus is saprobic on wood or bark of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Phaeostalagmus dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeostalagmus tenuissimus is saprobic on litter of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Phaeotrichosphaeria dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeotrichosphaeria britannica is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 9-4

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Phellinus torulosus parasitises live trunk (esp. base) of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Phellodon confluens is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Phellodon melaleucus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Phellodon niger is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, sessile apothecium of Phialina pseudopuberula is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 9-1

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Phialocephala dematiaceous anamorph of Phialocephala fumosa is saprobic on cupule spine of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Phialocephala dematiaceous anamorph of Phialocephala truncata is saprobic on cupule spine of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebiella pseudotsugae is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Castanea sativa
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous Phyllactinia guttata parasitises live leaf of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Phylloporus pelletieri is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / pathogen
Phytophthora cambivora infects and damages necrotic collar of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / pathogen
Phytophthora cinnamomi infects and damages necrotic collar of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / pathogen
mycelium of Phytophthora ramorum infects and damages shoot of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
conidioma of Pilidium coelomycetous anamorph of Pilidium acerinum is saprobic on fallen, dead leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Platypus cylindrus feeds within wood of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pleurotheciopsis dematiaceous anamorph of Pleurotheciopsis pusilla is saprobic on rotting cupule spine of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Polyporus durus is saprobic on dead, fallen, very decayed trunk (large) of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Polyscytalum dematiaceous anamorph of Polyscytalum fecundissimum is saprobic on rotting cupule of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
clumped fruitbody of Psathyrella cotonea is saprobic on dead, decayed, buried wood of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
Pseudomicrodochium anamorph of Pseudomicrodochium aciculare is saprobic on rotting cupule of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 7-10
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Pseudomicrodochium anamorph of Pseudomicrodochium cylindricum is saprobic on rotting cupule of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pseudospiropes dematiaceous anamorph of Pseudospiropes obclavatus is saprobic on fallen branch of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pseudotomentella mucidula is saprobic on dead, decayed (very) wood of Castanea sativa
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, grouped, stromatic perithecium of Pseudovalsa modonia is saprobic on dead branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 2-3

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, stromatic, in groups of 20-30 perithecium of Pseudovalsaria foedans is saprobic on dead branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Psilachnum auranticolor is saprobic on wood of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 2

Foodplant / feeds on
Rhabdospora coelomycetous anamorph of Rhabdospora acantophila feeds on cupule of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
Roscoepoundia coelomycetous anamorph of Roscoepoundia croceola is saprobic on dead wood of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula cyanoxantha is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula melzeri is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula pungens is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Rutstroemia sydowiana is saprobic on dead leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 8-12
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Sarcodon regalis is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Sarcodon scabrosus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked, soon disintegrating apothecium of Sclerophora pallida is saprobic on dead root bark of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 10-3

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Scolecobasidium anamorph of Scolecobasidium echinophilum is saprobic on rotting cupule spine of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Scolytus intricatus feeds within cambium of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / spot causer
hypophyllous, partly immersed, numerous, brownish-black pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria castaneicola causes spots on fading leaf of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 9-10

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Simocybe sumptuosa is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed branch (large) of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / resting place / within
ovum of Sinodendron cylindricum may be found in sawdust-packed tunnel in dead wood of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Skeletocutis nivea is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed stick of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Sparassis spathulata parasitises live root of Castanea sativa
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, becoming superficial apothecium of Stictis friabilis is saprobic on dead bark of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 6-9

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Thaumetopoea processionea grazes on Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trametes gibbosa is saprobic on dead, decayed stump (large) of Castanea sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Trichocladium dematiaceous anamorph of Trichocladium opacum is saprobic on bark of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Tricholoma acerbum is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Trichosphaeria notabilis is saprobic on rotten wood of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 4-8

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Tricladium anamorph of Tricladium castaneicola is saprobic on rotting cupule of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Tylopilus felleus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
subgregarious to densely scattered, covered then erumpent, blackish grey with paler roundish flat disc stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Valsa ambiens is saprobic on twig of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 10-5

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, in groups of about 10 perithecium of Valsa ceratosperma is saprobic on branch of Castanea sativa
Remarks: season: 11-3

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Vuilleminia comedens is saprobic on dead, decorticate, attached branch of Castanea sativa
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Xerocomellus engelii is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / saprobe
thread-like stroma of Xylaria filiformis is saprobic on rotting leaf of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Xyleborus dispar feeds within live cambium of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Xyleborus dryographus feeds within cambium of Castanea sativa

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Xyleborus saxeseni feeds within cambium of Castanea sativa

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl.Per.: April-May; Fr. Per.: August.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Castanea sativa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Castanea sativa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 12
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Castanea sativa

Castanea sativa or sweet chestnut is a species of flowering plant in the family Fagaceae, native to Europe and Asia Minor, and widely cultivated throughout the temperate world. A substantial, long-lived deciduous tree, it produces an edible seed, the chestnut, which has been used in cooking since ancient times.

For a more detailed description of the chestnut as a food, see under the main article, chestnut.

Names[edit]

The tree is commonly called the "chestnut", or "sweet chestnut" to distinguish it from the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum, to which it is only distantly related. Other common names include "Spanish chestnut",[2] "Portuguese chestnut" and "marron" (French for "chestnut"). The Latin sativa means "cultivated by humans".[3] Some selected varieties are smaller and more compact in growth yelding earlier in life with different ripening time: the Marigoule, the Marisol and the Maraval.

Description[edit]

C. sativa attains a height of 20–35 m (66–115 ft) with a trunk often 2 m (7 ft) in diameter. The bark often has a net-shaped (retiform) pattern with deep furrows or fissures running spirally in both directions up the trunk. The oblong-lanceolate, boldly toothed leaves are 16–28 cm (6–11 in) long and 5–9 cm (2–4 in) broad.

The flowers of both sexes are borne in 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long, upright catkins, the male flowers in the upper part and female flowers in the lower part. In the northern hemisphere, they appear in late June to July, and by autumn, the female flowers develop into spiny cupules containing 3-7 brownish nuts that are shed during October. The female flowers eventually form a spiky sheath that deters predators from the seed.[4] Some cultivars ('Marron de Lyon', 'Paragon' and some hybrids) produce only one large nut per cupule, rather than the usual two to four nuts of edible, though smaller, size.

The tree requires a mild climate and adequate moisture for good growth and a good nut harvest. Its year-growth (but not the rest of the tree)[5] is sensitive to late spring and early autumn frosts, and is intolerant of lime. Under forest conditions, it will tolerate moderate shade well.

See also List of Lepidoptera that feed on chestnut trees

The leaves provide food for some animals, including Lepidoptera such as the case-bearer moth Coleophora anatipennella.

Uses[edit]

Sweet chestnut a thousand years old in Levie (Corsica)
Roasted chestnuts

The species is widely cultivated for its edible seeds (also called nuts) and for its wood. As early as Roman times, it was introduced into more northerly regions, and later was also cultivated in monastery gardens by monks. Today, centuries-old specimens may be found in Great Britain and the whole of central, western and southern Europe.

The tree was a popular choice for landscaping in England, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries. C. sativa was probably introduced to the region during the Roman occupation, and many ancient examples are recorded.[4] More recently, the tree has been planted as a street tree in England, and examples can be seen particularly in the London Borough of Islington.

A tree grown from seed may take 20 years or more before it bears fruits, but a grafted cultivar such as 'Marron de Lyon' or 'Paragon' may start production within five years of being planted. Both cultivars bear fruits with a single large kernel, rather than the usual two to four smaller kernels.[5]

The ornamental cultivar C. sativa 'Albomarginata'[6] has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Sweet chestnut has been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare Bach flower remedies,[7] a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its effect on health. However according to Cancer Research UK, "there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer".[8]

Food[edit]

Street vendors in Istanbul

The raw nuts, though edible, have a skin which is astringent and unpleasant to eat when still moist; after drying for a time the thin skin loses its astringency but is still better removed to reach the white fruit underneath. Cooking dry in an oven or fire normally helps remove this skin. Chestnuts are traditionally roasted in their tough brown husks after removing the spiny cupules in which they grow on the tree, the husks being peeled off and discarded and the hot chestnuts dipped in salt before eating them. Roast chestnuts are traditionally sold in streets, markets and fairs by street vendors with mobile or static braziers.

The skin of raw peeled chestnuts can be relatively easily removed by quickly blanching the nuts after scoring them by a cross slit at the tufted end.[9] Once cooked, chestnuts acquire a sweet flavour and a floury texture not unlike sweet potato. The cooked nuts can be used for stuffing poultry, as a vegetable or in nut roasts. They can also be used in confections, puddings, desserts and cakes. They are used for flour, bread making, a cereal substitute, coffee substitute, a thickener in soups and other cookery uses, as well as for fattening stock. A sugar can be extracted from them.[5] The Corsican variety of polenta (called pulenta) is made with sweet chestnut flour. A local variety of Corsican beer also uses chestnuts. The product is sold as a sweetened paste mixed with vanilla, crème de marron, sweetened or unsweetened as chestnut purée or purée de marron, and candied chestnuts as marrons glacés.[10] In Switzerland, it is often served as Vermicelles.

Roman soldiers were given chestnut porridge before entering battle.[4]

Leaf infusions are used in respiratory diseases and are a popular remedy for whooping cough.[5] A hair shampoo can be made from infusing leaves and fruit husks.[5]

Wood[edit]

A Sweet Chestnut carved by English artist Steve Field to commemorate the English Civil War, and depicting Prince Rupert hiding from the Roundheads in the well at Wollescote Hall

This tree responds very well to coppicing, which is still practised in Britain, and produces a good crop of tannin-rich wood every 12 to 30 years, depending on intended use and local growth rate. The tannin renders the young growing wood durable and resistant to outdoor use, thus suitable for posts, fencing or stakes.[11] The wood is of light colour, hard and strong. It is used to make furniture, barrels (sometimes used to age balsamic vinegar), and roof beams notably in southern Europe (for example in houses of the Alpujarra, Spain, in southern France and elsewhere). The timber has a density of 560 kg per cubic meter,[12] and due to its durability in ground contact is often used for external purposes such as fencing.[12] It is also a good fuel, though not favoured for open fires as it tends to spit.[5]

Tannin is found in the following proportions on a 10% moisture basis: bark (6.8%), wood (13.4%), seed husks (10 - 13%). The leaves also contain tannin.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Miller. Gardeners Dictionary ed. 8 no. 1 (1768). Flora Europaea: Castanea sativa
  2. ^ Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney blooming calendar
  3. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315. 
  4. ^ a b c Kew Gardens - Rhizotron & Xstrata Treetop Walkway - Castanea sativa
  5. ^ a b c d e f g “Plants For A Future” (PFAF http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Castanea+sativa and book.
  6. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Castanea sativa 'Albomarginata'". Retrieved 26 June 2013. 
  7. ^ D. S. Vohra (1 June 2004). Bach Flower Remedies: A Comprehensive Study. B. Jain Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-7021-271-3. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  8. ^ "Flower remedies". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved September 2013. 
  9. ^ An easy way of peeling the pellicle, or pithy skin
  10. ^ Lori Alden. 2006 The Cook's Thesaurus. nut pastes
  11. ^ Oleg Polunin. Trees and Bushes of Britain and Europe. Ed Paladin, 1973, pp. 51, 188 and 195).
  12. ^ a b Chestnut. Niche Timbers. Accessed 19-08-2009.
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Notes

Comments

The ‘Spanish or Sweet-chestnut’ is indigenous to the Mediterranean region. It is sparsely cultivated in some hill stations in Pakistan (e.g. Abbottabad and Ghora Gali). The leaves and the bark yield a blackish-brown dye and also an oil which is medicinal. Tannin is also obtained from the bark. The wood is good for carpentry. The nuts can be eaten raw or when roasted.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Native of S. Europe and W. Asia, introduced elsewhere.

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