The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner
  • Gaertn. 1790. In: Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 54
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2015). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Sep 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
    1. Akkermans, A. D. L., and C. van Dijk. 1976. The formation  and nitrogen-fixing activity of the root nodules of Alnus  glutinosa under field conditions. In Symbiotic  nitrogen fixation in plants. p. 511-520. P. S. Nutman, ed.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.
    3. Badenoch, C. 0., J. A. Nicholson, and G. R. Miller. 1970.  Survey of damage by deer in plantation woodland. Nature  Conservancy Research Scotland, Report, 1968-1970. p. 40-41. 
    5. Baertsche, S. R., M. T. Yokoyama, and J. W. Hanover. 1986.  Short rotation, hardwood tree biomass as potential ruminant  feed-chemical composition, nylon bag ruminal degradation and  ensilement of selected species. Journal of Animal Science  63:2028-2043.
    7. Bajuk, Lawrence A., John C. Gordon, and Lawrence C.  Promnitz. 1978. Greenhouse evaluation of the growth  potential of Alnus glutinosa clones. Iowa State  Journal of Research 52 (3):341-349.
    9. Bair, Larry K., and Thomas C. Hennessey. 1982. Variation in  moisture stress tolerance for three Alnus species.  In Proceedings Seventh North American Forest Biology  Workshop. p. 446-449.
    11. Becking, J. H. 1961. A requirement of molybdenum for the  symbiotic nitrogen fixation in alder (Alnus glutinosa  Gaertn.). Plant and Soil 15 (3):217-227.
    13. Berry, Alison M., and John G. Torrey. 1985. Seed  germination, seedling inoculation and establishment of Alnus  spp. in containers in greenhouse trials. Plant and Soil  87:161-173.
    15. Bond, G., W. W. Fletcher, and T. P. Ferguson. 1954. The  development and function of the root nodules of Alnus,  Myrica, and Hippophae. Plant and Soil  5(4):309-323.
    17. Boyette, Warren G., and Dwight L. Brenneman. 1978. Apparent  winter damage to European black alder in North Carolina.  North Carolina Division of Forestry Research, Forest Note  33. Raleigh. 5 p.
    19. Braun, H. J. 1974. Rhythmus und Grosse von Wachstum  Wasserverbrauch und Produktivitat des Wasserverbrauches bei  Holzpflanzen. 1. Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. and  Salix alba (L.) "Liempde." Allgemeine  Forst- und Jagdzeitung 145(5):81-86.
    21. Cerstvin, V. A. 1963. (Dependence of Alnus glutinosa  seed yield and quality on the time of 'cone'  collection.) Lesnoe Zhurnal Archangel'sk 6(l):163-164. ( In  Russian.)
    23. Chalupa, Vladimir. 1972. Vytvareni letokruhu u drevin v  horskych oblastech. (Annual ring formation in forest trees.)  Lesnicka Prace 51(4):165-168. (In Czech.)
    25. Chauvet, Eric. 1987. Changes in the chemical composition of  alder, poplar, and willow leaves during decomposition in a  river. Hydrobiologia 148:35-44.
    27. Clark, Paul M., and Robert D. Williams. 1979. Black walnut  growth increased when interplanted with nitrogen-fixing  trees and shrubs. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of  Science 88:88-91.
    29. Cote, B., and C. Camire. 1984. Growth, nitrogen  accumulation, and symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in pure and  mixed plantings of hybrid poplar and black alder. Plant and  Soil 78:209-220.
    31. Cote, B., and C. Camire. 1987. Tree growth and nutrient  cycling in dense plantings of hybrid poplar and black alder.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17(6):516-523.
    33. Cote, Benoit, and Jeffrey 0. Dawson. 1986. Autumnal changes  in total nitrogen, salt-extracted proteins and amino acids  in leaves and adjacent bark of black alder, eastern  cottonwood and white basswood. Physiologia Plantarum  67:102-108.
    35. Cramer, Wolfgang. 1985. The effect of seashore displacement  on population age structure of coastal Alnus glutinosa  (L.) Gaertn. Holarctic Ecology 8:265-272.
    37. Dawson, Jeffrey. 1975. Containerized nursery stock for park  and roadside planting. Tree Planters'Notes 26 (1):14-15. 
    39. Dawson, Jeffrey. 1979. Nitrogen-fixing trees and shrubs.  Illinois Research 21(4):8-9.
    41. Dawson, Jeffrey 0., and David T. Funk. 1981. Seasonal  changes in foliar nitrogen concentration of Alnus  glutinosa. Forest Science 27(2):239-243.
    43. deSouza Goncalves, Paulo, and Robert C. Kellison. 1980.  Potential of black alder in the South. North Carolina State  University, School of Forest Resources, Technical Report 62.  Raleigh. 31 p.
    45. DeWald, L. E., and K. C. Steiner. 1986. Phenology, height  increment, and cold tolerances of Alnus glutinosa populations  in a common environment. Silvae Genetica 35(5-6):205-211. 
    47. Dimitrovsky, Konstantin. 1976. Forestry reclamation of  anthropoginous soils in the area of Sokolov lignite  district. Research Institute Land Reclamation and  Improvement, Scientific Monographs 7. Prague. 220 p.
    49. Dormling, Ingegard, Carin Ehrenberg, and Dag Lindgren. 1976.  Vegetative propagation and tissue culture. Royal College of  Forestry, Department of Forest Genetics, Research Note 22.  Stockholm. 18 p.
    51. Fala, Robert A., and R. J. Hutnik. 1975. Seedling  performance following burning and planting of a  nonregenerating mixed-oak clearcut. Research Briefs  9(2):5-9. (Pennsylvania State University, School of Forest  Resources.)
    53. Ferguson, T. P., and G. Bond. 1953. Observations on the  formation and function of root nodules of Alnus  glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. Annals of Botany (New Series)  16:175-188.
    55. Funk, David T. 1973. Growth and development of alder  plantings on Ohio strip-mine banks. In Ecology and  reclamation of devastated land, vol. 1. p. 483-491. Russell  J. Hutnik and Grant Davis, eds. Gordon and Breach, New York. 
    57. Funk, David T. 1980. Alnus glutinosa provenance  trials on Ohio strip mines: sixteen-year results. In  Proceedings, First North Central Tree Improvement  Conference. p. 28-32.
    59. Funk, David T., and Martin E. Dale. 1961. European alder: a  promising tree for strip-mine planting. USDA Forest Service,  Station Note 151. Central States Forest Experiment Station,  Columbus, OH. 2 p.
    61. Gill, Christopher J. 1975. The ecological significance of  adventitious rooting as a response to flooding in woody  species, with special reference to Alnus glutinosa (L.)  Gaertn. Flora (Jena) 164:85-97.
    63. Glavac, Vjekoslav. 1962. 0. visinskom rastu erne johe do  dobi od 20 godina. (On the height growth rate of black alder  up to 20 years of age.) Sumarskj List 88 (11/12):408-414.  (In Serbo-Croatian. English summary.)
    65. Glavac, Vjekoslav. 1972. Uber Hohenwuchsleistung and  Wachstumsoptimum der Schwarzerle auf vergleichbaren  Standorten in Nord-, Mittel-, and Sudeuropa. Mitteilung  Niedersachsen Forstliche Versuchsanstalt 45. 61 p.
    67. Gray, N. 1977. The economy shelter belt. Game Conservancy,  United E ingdom Annual Report (1976). 90 p.
    69. Griffiths, A. P., and L. H. McCormick. 1984. Effects of soil  acidity on nodulation of Alnus glutinosa and  viability of Frankia. Plant and Soil 79:429-434. 
    71. Groszman, A., and I. H. Melzer. 1933. Die Schwarzerle in  Lungau. Zentralblatt fur das Gesamte Forstwesen  59(5/6):147-152.
    73. Hall, Richard B., and C. A. Maynard. 1979. Considerations in  the genetic improvement of alder. In Symbiotic  nitrogen fixation in the management of temperate forests. p.  322-344. J. C. Gordon, et al., eds. Oregon State University,  Corvallis.
    75. Hall, Richard B., H. S. McNabb, Jr., C. A. Maynard, and T.  L. Green. 1979. Toward development of optimal Alnus  glutinosa symbioses. Botanical Gazette 140  (Supplement):S120-S126.
    77. Hansen, Edward A., and Jeffrey 0. Dawson. 1982. Effect of  Alnus glutinosa on hybrid Populus height growth in a  short-rotation intensively cultured plantation. Forest  Science 28(l):49-59.
    79. Hennessey, T. C., L. K. Bair, and R. W. McNew. 1985.  Variation in response among three Alnus spp. clones  to progressive water stress. Plant and Soil 87:135-141. 
    81. Hensley, D. L., and P. L. Carpenter. 1984. Effect of lime  additions to acid strip-mine spoil on survival, growth and  nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) of several woody  legume and actinomycete-nodulated species. Plant and Soil  79:353-367.
    83. Hewitt, E. J., and G. Bond. 1961. Molybdenum and the  fixation of nitrogen in Casuarina and Alnus root  nodules. Plant and Soil 14(2):159-175.
    85. Hughes, Malcolm K. 1971. Seasonal calorific values from a  deciduous woodland in England. Ecology 52(5):923-926.
    87. Janiesch, P. 1978. (Eco-physiological research on an Alnus  glutinosa forest. 1. Soil factors.) Oecologia  Plantarum 13(l):43-57. (In German.)
    89. Jensen, K. F. 1973. Response of nine forest tree species to  chronic ozone fumigation. Plant Disease Reporter  57(11):914-917.
    91. Knabe, Wilhelm. 1965. Observations on world-wide efforts to  reclaim industrial waste land. In Ecology and the  industrial society. p. 263-296. G. T. Goodman, R. W.  Edwards, and J. M. Lambert, eds. Blackwell Scientific,  Oxford, England.
    93. Kobendza, Roman. 1956. Mieszance natualne olszy szarej i  czarne j w Polsce. (Natural hybrids of the gray and black  alder in Poland.) Rocznik Sekcji Dendrologicznej Polskiego  Towarzystwa Botanicznego (Warszawa) 11:133-149. (In Polish.  English summary.)
    95. Krussman, G. 1956. Alnus elliptica 'Itolanda.'  Deutsche Baumschule 8:224-226.
    97. Larson, M. M., and E. L. Schwarz. 1980. Allelopathic  inhibition of black locust, red clover, and black alder by  six common herbaceous species. Forest Science 26:511-520. 
    99. Leibundgut, Hans. 1963. Baumartenwahl. Schweizerische  Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen 56:268-284.
    101. Leibundgut, Hans, S. P. Dafis, and F. Richard. 1962.  Untersuchungen uber das Wurzelwachstum verschiedener  Baumarten. (Studies on root growth of various tree species.  11. Root growth in some clayey soils.) Schweizerische  Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen 114(11):621-646.
    103. Limstrom, G. A. 1960. Forestation of strip-mined land in  the Central States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 166. Washington, DC. 74 p.
    105. Ljunger, A. 1959. Al-och Alfordling (Alder and alder  breeding.) Skogen 46:115-117. (In Swedish.)
    107. Loffier, Jochen. 1976. Bisherige Erfahrungen mit  Plantagen-Saatgut. Mitteilungen Vereins Forstliche  Standortskunde und Forstpflanzenzunchtung 25:53-58.
    109. Lowry, G. L., F. C. Brokaw, and C. H. J. Breeding. 1962.  Alder for reforesting coal spoils in Ohio. Journal of  Forestry 60:196-199.
    111. Loycke, H. J., ed. 1963. Die Technik der Forstkultur.  Bayerisch Landwirtschaft, Munich. 484 p.
    113. MacConnell, J. T. 1959. The oxygen factor in the  development and function of the root nodules of alder.  Annals of Botany (New Series) 23(90):261-268.
    115. Maynard, C. A. 1980. Host-symbiont interactions among Frankia  strains and Alnus open-pollinated families. Thesis  (Ph.D.), Iowa State University, Ames. 94 p. Library of  Congress Microfilm 80-19647.
    117. Maynard, C. A., and R. B. Hall. 1981. Early results of a  range-wide provenance trial of Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.  In Proceedings, Twenty-seventh Northeastern Forest Tree  Improvement Conference. p. 184-201.
    119. McVean, D. N. 1953. Biological flora of the British Isles:  Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. (A. rotundifolia Stokes).  Journal of Ecology 41(2):447-466.
    • 61. McVean, D. N, 1955. Ecology of Alnus glutinosa (L.)  Gaertn. Fruit formation. Journal of Ecology 43:46-60.   

      62. McVean, D. N. 1955. Ecology ofAlnus glutinosa (L.)  Gaertn. 11. Seed distribution and germination. Journal  of Ecology 43:61-71.


      63. McVean, D. N. 1956. Ecology of Alnus glutinosa (L.)  Gaertn. III. Seedling establishment. Journal of Ecology  44:195-218.


      64. MeVean, D. N. 1956. Ecology of Alnus glutinosa (L.)  Gaertn. IV. Root system. Journal of Ecology 44:219-225.


      65. McVean, D. N. 1956. Ecology of Alnus glutinosa (L.)  Gaertn. V. Notes on some British alder populations.  Journal of Ecology 44:321-330.


      66. Mejstrik, V. 1971. Ecology applied in reclamation of  Hedwigia 22:675-698.


      67. Mian, Salma, and G. Bond. 1978. The onset of  nitrogen fixation in young alder plants and its  relation to differentiation in the nodular endophyte.  New Phytologist 80:187-192.


      68. Mikola, Peitsa. 1958. Liberation of nitrogen from  alder leaf litter. Acta Forestalia Fennica 67:1-10.


      69. Mikola, Peitsa. 1966. The value of alder in adding  nitrogen in forest soils. Final report, University of  Helsinki, Department of Silviculture. 91 p. 86.


      70. Nykvist, Nils. 1962. Leaching and decomposition of  litter. V. Experiments on leaf litter of Alnus  glutinosa, Fagus syluatica and Quercus robur. Oikos  13:232-248.


      71. Oak, S. W., and R. D. Dorset. 1983. Phomopsis canker  of European black alder found in Kentucky  seed-production areas. Plant Disease 67:691-693.


      72. Phares, Robert E., Richard C. Schlesinger, and Glen  A. Cooper. 1975. Growth, yield, and utilization of  European black alder interplanted in mixture with black  walnut. In Proceedings, Third Hardwood Symposium. p.  102-111. Hardwood Research Council, Asheville, NC.


      73. Pirdgs, D. 1961. (Pollen viability of various  species of Alnus in Latvia.) Latvijas PSR Zinatnu  Akademijas Vestis, Riga 11:127-132. (In Latvian.  English summary.)


      74. Pizelle, G. 1984. Seasonal variations of the sexual  reproductive growth and nitrogenase activity W2112) in  mature Alnus glutinosa. Plant and Soil78:181-188.


      75. Plass, William T. 1977. Growth and survival of  hardwoods and pine interplanted with European alder.  USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-376.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA.  10 p.


      76. Purnell, Robert C. 1981. Personal correspondence.  North Carolina State University, Raleigh.


      77. Quispel, A. 1958. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in  nonleguminous plants. IV. The influence of some  environmental conditions on different phases of the  nodulation process in Alnus glutinosa. Acta Botanica  Neerlandica 7:191-204.


      78. Ranwell, D. S. 1974. The salt marsh to tidal  woodland transition. Hydrobiological Bulletin  8(1/2):139-151.


      79. Resa, F. 1877. Ueber die Periode der Wurzelbildung.  Inaugural Dissertation. Bonn. 37 p. (Cited in:  Grossenbacher, J. G. 1915. The periodicity and  distribution of radial growth in trees and their  relation to the development of "annual"  rings. Transactions Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts,  and Letters 18:1-77.)


      80. Rietveld, W. J., Richard C. Schlesinger, and Kenneth  J. Kessler. 1983. Allelopathic effects of black walnut  on European black alder coplanted as a nurse species.  Journal of Chemical Ecology 9(8):1119-1133.


      81. Robinson, Terry Lean. 1980. Controlled pollination,  grafting and vegetative propagation of Alnus  glutinosa. Thesis (M.S.), Iowa State University,  Ames.


      82. Robinson, T. L., C. A. Maynard, J. Thomas, and R. B.  Hall. 1979. A germplasm collection and evaluation  program for Alnus glutinosa. In Proceedings,  Twenty-sixth Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement  Conference. p. 73-85.


      83. Robinson, Terry L., and Carl W. Mize. 1987. Specific  gravity and fiber length variation in a European black  alder provenance study. Wood and Fiber Science  19(3):225-232.


      84. Sato, Seizaemon. 1963. (Air-layering of Alnus  species.) Journal of Japanese Forestry Society  45(8):263-268. (In Japanese. English summary.)


      85. Schalin, Ilmari. 1968. Germination analysis of grey  alder (Alnus incana) and black alder (Alnus  glutinosa) seeds. In Biology of alder. p.  107-113. J. M. Trappe, J. F. Franklin, R. F. Tarrant,  and G. M. Hansen, eds. USDA Forest Service, Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Portland, OR. 292 p.


      86.Schmidt-Vogt, H. 1971. Wachstum und Wurzelentwicklung  von Schwarzerlen verschiedener Herkunft. Allgemeine  Forst- und Jagdzeitung 142(6):149-156. (In German.  English and French summaries.)


      87. Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. 1974. Alnus B.  Ehrh. Alder. In Seeds of woody plants in the  United States. p. 205-211. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.


      88. Schwappach. 1916. Unsere Erlen. Mitteilungen der  96.Deutschen Dendrologischen Gesellschaft 25:30-37. (In  German.)


      89. Seiler, John R., and L. H. McCormick. 1982. Effects  of soil acidity and phosphorus on the growth and nodule  development of black alder. Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 12:576-581.


      90. Tremblay, Francine M., and Maurice Lalonde. 1984.  Requirements for in vitro propagation of seven  nitrogen-fixing Alnus species. Plant Soil Tissue Organ  Culture 3:189-199.


      91. Stewart, W. D. P. 1962. A quantitative study of  fixation and transfer of nitrogen in Alnus. Journal of  Experimental Botany 13:250-256.


      92.Ulrich. 1962. 15-Jahrige Erfahrungen mit Pappel und  Roterle in Forstamt Danndorf. (15-year results with  poplar and black alder in Danndorf forest district.)  Forst- und Holzwirt 17(2):30-33. (In German.)


      93.U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1985.  Insects of eastern forests. Miscellaneous Publication  1426. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 608 p.


      94. Umbach, D. M., and D. D. Davis. 1984. Severity and  frequency Of S02-induced leaf necrosis on seedlings of  57 102. tree species. Forest Science 30(3):587-596.


      95.Vaclav, E. 1970. Height increment of birch and alder  hybrids. In Proceedings, Second World Consultation on  Forest Tree Breeding. vol. 1, p. 153-164. Food and  Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.  103.


      96.Verweij, J. A. 1977. Onderzoek an herkomsten en  nakomelingschappen van els (Alnus glutinosa, Alnus  incana en Alnus cordata.) (Research on provenances and  progenies of alder.) Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoekinde  Bos-en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp,"  Wageningen 15(l):1-23. (In Dutch. English summary.)


      97.Vimmerstedt, John P., and James H. Finney. 1973.  Impact of earthworm introduction on litter burial and  nutrient distribution in Ohio strip-mine spoil banks.  Soil Science Society of America Proceedings  37(3):388-391.


      98.Virtanen, Artturi 1. 1957. Investigations on nitrogen  fixation by the alder. II. Associated culture of spruce  and inoculated alder without combined nitrogen.  Physiologia Plantarum. 10:164-169.


      99.Virtanen, Artturi I., and Jorma K. Miettiner. 1952.  Free amino acids in the leaves, roots and root nodules  of the alder (Alnus). Nature 170:283-284.


      100.Vurdu, Hasan, and Dwight W. Bensend. 1979. Specific  gravity and fiber length in European black alder roots,  branches, and stems. Wood Science 12(2):103-105.


      101. Wareing, P. F. 1948. Photoperiodisin in woody  species. Forestry 22:211-221.


      102. Weisgerber, H. 1974. First results of progeny tests  with Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. after controlled  pollination. In Proceedings, Joint Meeting of Working  Parties S. 02.04. Stockholm. p. 423-438. International  Union of Forestry Research Organizations, Vienna.


      103. White, Gordon. 1981. Personal correspondence.  Champion International Corporation, Courtland, AL.


      104.Wittwer, Robert F., and Mark J. Immel. 1980.  Chemical composition of five deciduous tree species in  four-year-old, closely spaced plantation. Plant and  Soil 54:461-467.



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