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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Known from widely disjunct populations. The current distribution is thought to reflect remnant populations of a more widespread Pleistocene or post-Pleistocene distribution.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Locally frequent along the Nanticoke River (Del. and Maryland), and known from a few other rivers and creeks nearby on the Delmarva Peninsula. Also known from two highly disjunct areas: two nearby perennial streams in the cross-timbers region of southern Oklahoma, and one population in Georgia. Counties: Pontotoc and Johnston Cos., Oklahoma; Sussex Co., Delaware and adjacent Cecil, Dorchester, Wicomico, and Worcester Cos., Maryland. County not indicated on the recent (1997) Georgia report.

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Del., Md., Okla.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs or trees , to 10 m; crowns narrow. Bark light gray, smooth; lenticels small, inconspicuous. Winter buds stipitate, ovoid to ellipsoid, 2.5--5 mm, apex rounded; stalks 1--3 mm; scales 2--3, subequal, often poorly developed, heavily resin-coated. Leaf blade narrowly elliptic, oblong, or narrowly obovate, 4.5--9 × 2--5 cm, leathery, base acute to cuneate, margins flat, teeth low, single, relatively distant, apex acute, obtuse, or rounded; surfaces abaxially mostly glabrous, resin-coated when young. Inflorescences: catkins formed during same season as flowering; staminate catkins in 1 terminal cluster of 2--4, 2--6 cm; pistillate catkins solitary in leaf axils proximal to staminate catkins. Flowering in late summer or early fall. Infructescences ovoid, 1.2--2.8 × 1.2--2.2 cm; peduncles 5--10 mm. Samaras elliptic, wings reduced to narrow, leathery ridges. 2 n = 28.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Betula-alnus maritima Marshall, Arbust. Amer., 20. 1785
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Type Information

Isotype for Alnus maritima subsp. oklahomensis J.A. Schrad. & Graves
Catalog Number: US 3405714
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Status verified from secondary sources
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. A. Schrader
Year Collected: 2000
Locality: 7.5 miles (12.07 km) northeast of Tishomingo, OK, in Johnston Co. Center of Blue River Campground. On the west bank of Blue River just north of cement bridge., Johnston, Oklahoma, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 223
  • Isotype: Schrader, J. A. & Graves, W. R. 2003. Castanea. 67: 398.
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Isotype for Alnus maritima subsp. georgiensis J.A. Schrad. & Graves
Catalog Number: US 3405715
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Status verified from secondary sources
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. A. Schrader
Year Collected: 2000
Locality: 0.5 miles (0.81 km) SW of Euharlee GA, in Bartow Co. South side of creek that drains Drummond Swamp, at the east end of the swamp. 25 meters east of Harden Bridge Rd., Bartow, Georgia, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 207
  • Isotype: Schrader, J. A. & Graves, W. R. 2003. Castanea. 67: 399.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A shrub or tree occurring at the edges of ponds, small streams or standing water.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Streambanks; edges of ponds and small streams, often standing in water.

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Along edges of ponds and small streams, often in standing water; 0--100m.
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Comments: Approx. 50, but difficulty in defining and counting; most are on one river (Nanticoke, in Delaware and Maryland).

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering late summer--early fall.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Alnus maritima

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Alnus maritima

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LR/nt
Lower Risk/near threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1998
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
World Conservation Monitoring Centre

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s

History
  • 1997
    Rare
    (Walter and Gillett 1998)
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T1 - Critically Imperiled

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Scattered range (small areas of Oklahoma, southwestern Delaware and adjacent eastern Maryland, and one area in Georgia), with few sites overall, most of these along one river (the Nanticoke, in Delaware and Maryland).

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Threats

Comments: Vulnerable to impact from channelization; draining of marshy areas; damming; development.

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Wikipedia

Alnus maritima

Alnus maritima (also called Seaside Alder) is a species of plant in the Betulaceae family. Alnus maritima is endemic to the United States, and is found naturally in three disjunct populations in Oklahoma, Georgia, and in Maryland and Delaware on the Delmarva Peninsula. In 2002, the three populations were recognized as subspecies and given the names Alnus maritima subsp. oklahomensis, Alnus maritima subsp. georgiensis, and Alnus maritima subsp. maritima, respectively.[1] While some believe that subspecies maritima is the oldest of the three subspecies and that the other two disjunct populations resulted from some form of long distance dispersal, evidence from morphometric and phylogeographic studies indicates that the Oklahoma population (subsp. oklahomensis) is in fact the most ancestral and that the species probably had a wide, continuous distribution across the United States in the past.[1][2]

Alnus maritima is considered a large shrub or small tree and is the only autumn-blooming member of its genus native to North America. All other North American alders bloom in the spring. The autumn-blooming phenology is a characteristic that Alnus maritima shares with two old-world Alnus species, Alnus nitida and Alnus nepalensis, which are endemic to southeast Asia. This profound similarity in their timing of anthesis has led to their classification as the only three members in the subgenus Clethropsis.[1]

Source[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Schrader, J.A. and W.R. Graves. 2002. Infraspecific systematics of Alnus maritima (Betulaceae) from three widely disjunct provenances. Castanea 67: 380–401.
  2. ^ Schrader, J.A. and W.R. Graves. 2004. Systematics of Alnus maritima (seaside alder) resolved by ISSR polymorphisms and morphological characters. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 129: 231–236.
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Notes

Comments

Alnus maritima consists of widely disjunct populations in Delaware, Maryland, and southern Oklahoma. The populations probably represent remnants of Pleistocene and post-Pleistocene distributions and migrations. It is our only member of the predominantly Asian fall-blooming Alnus subg. Clethropsis.
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