Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs , spreading to compact, to 10 m. Bark smooth; lenticels scattered, conspicuous to inconspicuous, small, mostly unenlarged. Winter buds nearly sessile, ovoid, apex acuminate; stalks usually not over 1 mm; scales 4--6, unequal, imbricate. Leaf blade broadly to narrowly ovate or elliptic, 3--11 × 3--8 cm, base rounded, obtuse, or cuneate, sometimes nearly cordate, margins serrulate to coarsely doubly serrate, apex acute to rounded; surfaces abaxially glabrous to tomentose, lightly to heavily resin-coated. Inflorescences: staminate catkins in 1 cluster of 2--4, formed late in growing season before flowering and exposed during winter; pistillate catkins in 1 or more clusters of 2--10, formed season before blooming, enclosed in buds during winter, exposed with new growth in spring. Flowering with new growth in spring. Infructescences ovoid to ellipsoid or nearly cylindric; peduncles relatively long, thin. Samaras elliptic to obovate, wings wider than body, membranaceous.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Betula viridis Chaix, Pl. Vapinc. 70. 1785; Alnus alnobetula (Ehrhart) K. Koch; A. ovata (Schrank) Loddiges
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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / spot causer
hypophyllous, subepidermal, scattered or in groups uredium of Melampsoridium hiratsukanum causes spots on live leaf of Alnus viridis

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Typhula lutescens is saprobic on dead, decayed leaf of litter of Alnus viridis

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Alnus viridis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 18
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Alnus viridis

Alnus viridis (Green Alder) is an alder distributed widely across the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere.

Description[edit]

It is a large shrub or small tree 3–12 m tall with smooth grey bark even in old age. The leaves are shiny green with light green undersurfaces, ovoid, 3–8 cm long and 2–6 cm broad.[1] The flowers are catkins, appearing late in spring after the leaves emerge (unlike other alders which flower before leafing out); the male catkins are pendulous, 4–8 cm long, the female catkins 1 cm long and 0.7 cm broad when mature in late autumn, in clusters of 3–10 on a branched stem.[2] The seeds are small, 1–2 mm long, light brown with a narrow encircling wing.

Distribution[edit]

There are four to six subspecies, some treated as separate species by some authors:[3]

A. viridis is classed as an environmental weed in New Zealand.[4]

Ecology[edit]

A. viridis has a shallow root system, and is marked not only by vigorous production of stump suckers, but also by root suckers.

A. viridis is a light-demanding, fast-growing shrub that grows well on poorer soils. In many areas, it is a highly characteristic colonist of avalanche chutes in mountains, where potentially competing larger trees are killed by regular avalanche damage. A. viridis survives the avalanches through its ability to re-grow from the roots and broken stumps. Unlike some other alders, it does require moist soil, and is a colonist of screes and shallow stony slopes. It also commonly grows on subarctic river gravels, particularly in northern Siberia, Alaska and Canada, occupying areas similarly disrupted by ice floes during spring river ice breakup; in this habitat it commonly occurs mixed with shrubby willows.

Uses[edit]

It is sometimes used for afforestation on infertile soils which it enriches by means of its nitrogen-fixing nodules, while not growing large enough to compete with the intended timber crop. A. sinuata can add 55 lbs of nitrogen per acre per year to the soil. [5] Alnus viridis leaves have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine externally or internally as tea for treatment of infections and fever.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://dictionaryonline.cc/what-does-green_alder-mean/
  2. ^ Flora of North America: Alnus viridis
  3. ^ Flora Europaea: Alnus viridis
  4. ^ Clayson, Howell (May 2008). Consolidated list of environmental weeds in New Zealand. Wellington: Department of Conservation. ISBN 978-0-478-14412-3. 
  5. ^ Ewing, Susan. The Great Alaska Nature Factbook. Portland: Alaska Northwest Books, 1996.
  6. ^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH,Wawrosch C, Reznicek G, Dirsch VM, Saukel J, Kopp B. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studieson Austria'sfolk medicine - An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs. J Ethnopharmacol.2013 Jun13. doi:pii: S0378-8741(13)00410-8. 10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. [Epubahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23770053. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770053
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Notes

Comments

Alnus viridis is distinctive among the alders in its essentially sessile buds with several imbricate scales and in its relatively long, thin, infructescence peduncles. Like the birches, only the staminate catkins are exposed during the winter prior to blooming.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Alnus viridis is recognized by most North American floras as Alnus crispa (e.g., Gleason and Cronquist 1990). Scoggan (1978) recognizes ssp. sinuata and ssp. crispa, but A. sinuata has been treated as a distinct species (Hitchcock and Cronquist 1973).

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